Expression of ccaR, encoding the positive activator of cephamycin C and clavulanic acid production in Streptomyces clavuligerus, is dependent on bldG.
ABSTRACT: In Streptomyces coelicolor, bldG encodes a putative anti-anti-sigma factor that regulates both aerial hypha formation and antibiotic production, and a downstream transcriptionally linked open reading frame (orf3) encodes a putative anti-sigma factor protein. A cloned DNA fragment from Streptomyces clavuligerus contained an open reading frame that encoded a protein showing 92% identity to the S. coelicolor BldG protein and 91% identity to the BldG ortholog in Streptomyces avermitilis. Sequencing of the region downstream of bldG in S. clavuligerus revealed the presence of an open reading frame encoding a protein showing 72 and 69% identity to the ORF3 proteins in S. coelicolor and S. avermitilis, respectively. Northern analysis indicated that, as in S. coelicolor, the S. clavuligerus bldG gene is expressed as both a monocistronic and a polycistronic transcript, the latter including the downstream orf3 gene. High-resolution S1 nuclease mapping of S. clavuligerus bldG transcripts revealed the presence of three bldG-specific promoters, and analysis of expression of a bldGp-egfp reporter indicated that the bldG promoter is active at various stages of development and in both substrate and aerial hyphae. A bldG null mutant was defective in both morphological differentiation and in the production of secondary metabolites, such as cephamycin C, clavulanic acid, and the 5S clavams. This inability to produce cephamycin C and clavulanic acid was due to the absence of the CcaR transcriptional regulator, which controls the expression of biosynthetic genes for both secondary metabolites as well as the expression of a second regulator of clavulanic acid biosynthesis, ClaR. This makes bldG the first regulatory protein identified in S. clavuligerus that functions upstream of CcaR and ClaR in a regulatory cascade to control secondary metabolite production.
Project description:The putative regulatory CcaR protein, which is encoded in the beta-lactam supercluster of Streptomyces clavuligerus, has been partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and heparin affinity chromatography. In addition, it was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified as a His-tagged recombinant protein (rCcaR), and used to raise anti-rCcaR antibodies. The partially purified CcaR protein from S. clavuligerus was able to bind DNA fragments containing the promoter regions of the ccaR gene itself and the bidirectional cefD-cmcI promoter region. In contrast, CcaR did not bind to DNA fragments with the promoter regions of other genes of the cephamycin-clavulanic acid supercluster including lat, blp, claR, car-cyp, and the unlinked argR gene. The DNA shifts obtained with CcaR were prevented by anti-rCcaR immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies but not by anti-rabbit IgG antibodies. ccaR and the bidirectional cefD-cmcI promoter region were fused to the xylE reporter gene and expressed in Streptomyces lividans and S. clavuligerus. These constructs produced low catechol dioxygenase activity in the absence of CcaR; activity was increased 1.7- to 4.6-fold in cultures expressing CcaR. Amplification of the ccaR promoter region lacking its coding sequence in a high-copy-number plasmid in S. clavuligerus ATCC 27064 resulted in a reduced production of cephamycin C and clavulanic acid, by 12 to 20% and 40 to 60%, respectively, due to titration of the CcaR regulator. These findings confirm that CcaR is a positively acting autoregulatory protein able to bind to its own promoter as well as to the cefD-cmcI bidirectional promoter region.
Project description:A regulatory gene (ccaR), located within the cephamycin gene cluster of Streptomyces clavuligerus, is linked to a gene (blp) encoding a protein similar to a beta-lactamase-inhibitory protein. Expression of ccaR is required for cephamycin and clavulanic acid biosynthesis in S. clavuligerus. The ccaR-encoded protein resembles the ActII-ORF4, RedD, AfsR, and DnrI regulatory proteins of other Streptomyces species, all of which share several motifs. Disruption of ccaR by targeted double recombination resulted in the loss of the ability to synthesize cephamycin and clavulanic acid. Complementation of the disrupted mutant with ccaR restored production of both secondary metabolites. ccaR was expressed as a monocistronic transcript at 24 and 48 h in S. clavuligerus cultures (preceding the phase of antibiotic accumulation), but no transcript hybridization signals were observed at 72 or 96 h. This expression pattern is consistent with those of regulatory proteins required for antibiotic biosynthesis. Amplification of ccaR in S. clavuligerus resulted in a two- to threefold increase in the production of cephamycin and clavulanic acid.
Project description:Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064 and S.?clavuligerus ?ccaR::tsr cultures were grown in asparagine-starch medium, and samples were taken in the exponential and stationary growth phases. Transcriptomic analysis showed that the expression of 186 genes was altered in the ccaR-deleted mutant. These genes belong to the cephamycin C gene cluster, clavulanic acid gene cluster, clavams, holomycin, differentiation, carbon, nitrogen, amino acids or phosphate metabolism and energy production. All the clavulanic acid biosynthesis genes showed Mc values in the order of -4.23. The blip gene-encoding a ?-lactamase inhibitory protein was also controlled by the cephamycin C-clavulanic acid cluster regulator (Mc -2.54). The expression of the cephamycin C biosynthesis genes was greatly reduced in the mutant (Mc values up to -7.1), while the genes involved in putative ?-lactam resistance were less affected (Mc average -0.88). Genes for holomycin biosynthesis were upregulated. In addition, the lack of clavulanic acid and cephamycin production negatively affected the expression of genes for the clavulanic acid precursor arginine and of miscellaneous genes involved in nitrogen metabolism (amtB, glnB, glnA3, glnA2, glnA1). The transcriptomic results were validated by quantative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and luciferase assay of luxAB-coupled promoters. Transcriptomic analysis of the homologous genes of S.?coelicolor validated the results obtained for S.?clavuligerus primary metabolism genes.
Project description:As part of a search for transcriptional regulatory genes, sequence analysis of several previously unsequenced gaps in the cephamycin biosynthetic cluster has revealed the presence in Streptomyces clavuligerus of seven genes not previously described. These include genes encoding an apparent penicillin binding protein and a transport or efflux protein, as well as the CmcI and CmcJ proteins, which catalyze late reactions in the cephamycin biosynthetic pathway. In addition, we discovered a gene, designated pcd, which displays significant homology to genes encoding semialdehyde dehydrogenases and may represent the gene encoding the long-sought-after dehydrogenase involved in the conversion of lysine to alpha-aminoadipate. Finally, two genes, sclU and rhsA, with no obvious function in cephamycin biosynthesis may define the end of the cluster. The previously described CcaR protein displays homology to a number of Streptomyces pathway-specific transcriptional activators. The ccaR gene was shown to be essential for the biosynthesis of cephamycin, clavulanic acid, and non-clavulanic acid clavams. Complementation of a deletion mutant lacking ccaR and the adjacent orf11 and blp genes showed that only ccaR was essential for the biosynthesis of cephamycin, clavulanic acid, and clavams and that mutations in orf11 or blp had no discernible effects. The lack of cephamycin production in ccaR mutants was directly attributable to the absence of biosynthetic enzymes responsible for the early and middle steps of the cephamycin biosynthetic pathway. Complementation of the ccaR deletion mutant resulted in the return of these biosynthetic enzymes and the restoration of cephamycin production.
Project description:During industrial fermentation, Streptomyces clavuligerus F613-1 simultaneously produces primary product clavulanic acid (CA) and cephamycin C. The cephamycin C biosynthetic gene cluster and pathway have been basically elucidated and the CcaR positive regulator was found to control the cephamycin genes expression. However, additional mechanisms of regulation cannot be excluded. The BB341_RS13780/13785 gene pair in S. clavuligerus F613-1 (annotated as SCLAV_2960/2959 in S. clavuligerus ATCC27064) encodes a bacterial two-component system (TCS) and were designated as CepRS (for cephamycin regulator/sensor). CepRS significantly affects cephamycin C production but only slightly affects CA production. To further understand the regulation of cephamycin C biosynthesis, the cepRS genes were deleted from S. clavuligerus F613-1. The deletion mutant resulted in decreased cephamycin C production but had no phenotypic effects. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that CepRS regulates the expression of most genes involved in cephamycin C biosynthesis, with electrophoretic mobility shift assays showing that CepR interacts with the cefD-cmcI intergenic region. These results demonstrate that the CepR response regulator serves as a transcriptional activator of cephamycin C biosynthesis, which may provide an approach for metabolic engineering methods for CA production by S. clavuligerus F613-1 in future.
Project description:Streptomyces clavuligerus claR::aph is a claR-defective mutant, but in addition to its claR defect it also carries fewer copies of the resident linear plasmids pSCL2 and pSCL4 (on the order of 4 × 10(5)-fold lower than the wild-type strain), as shown by qPCR. To determine the function of ClaR without potential interference due to plasmid copy number, a new strain, S. clavuligerus ?claR::aac, with claR deleted and carrying the wild-type level of plasmids, was constructed. Transcriptomic analyses were performed in S. clavuligerus ?claR::aac and S. clavuligerus ATCC 27064 as the control strain. The new ?claR mutant did not produce clavulanic acid (CA) and showed a partial expression of genes for the early steps of the CA biosynthesis pathway and a very poor expression (1 to 8%) of the genes for the late steps of the CA pathway. Genes for cephamycin C biosynthesis were weakly upregulated (1.7-fold at 22.5 h of culture) in the ?claR mutant, but genes for holomycin biosynthesis were expressed at levels from 3- to 572-fold higher than in the wild-type strain, supporting the observed overproduction of holomycin by S. clavuligerus ?claR::aac. Interestingly, three secondary metabolites produced by gene clusters SMCp20, SMCp22, and SMCp24, encoding still-cryptic compounds, had partially or totally downregulated their genes in the mutant, suggesting a regulatory role for ClaR wider than previously reported. In addition, the amfR gene was downregulated, and consequently, the mutant did not produce aerial mycelium. Expression levels of about 100 genes in the genome were partially up- or downregulated in the ?claR mutant, many of them related to the upregulation of the sigma factor-encoding rpoE gene.
Project description:Clavulanic acid is a bacterial specialized metabolite, which inhibits certain serine ?-lactamases, enzymes that inactivate ?-lactam antibiotics to confer resistance. Due to this activity, clavulanic acid is widely used in combination with penicillin and cephalosporin (?-lactam) antibiotics to treat infections caused by ?-lactamase-producing bacteria. Clavulanic acid is industrially produced by fermenting Streptomyces clavuligerus, as large-scale chemical synthesis is not commercially feasible. Other than S. clavuligerus, Streptomyces jumonjinensis and Streptomyces katsurahamanus also produce clavulanic acid along with cephamycin C, but information regarding their genome sequences is not available. In addition, the Streptomyces contain many biosynthetic gene clusters thought to be "cryptic," as the specialized metabolites produced by them are not known. Therefore, we sequenced the genomes of S. jumonjinensis and S. katsurahamanus, and examined their metabolomes using untargeted mass spectrometry along with S. clavuligerus for comparison. We analyzed the biosynthetic gene cluster content of the three species to correlate their biosynthetic capacities, by matching them with the specialized metabolites detected in the current study. It was recently reported that S. clavuligerus can produce the plant-associated metabolite naringenin, and we describe more examples of such specialized metabolites in extracts from the three Streptomyces species. Detailed comparisons of the biosynthetic gene clusters involved in clavulanic acid (and cephamycin C) production were also performed, and based on our analyses, we propose the core set of genes responsible for producing this medicinally important metabolite.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The clavulanic acid regulatory gene (claR) is in the clavulanic acid biosynthetic gene cluster that encodes ClaR. This protein is a putative regulator of the late steps of clavulanic acid biosynthesis. The aim of this research is the molecular cloning of claR, isolated from the Iranian strain of Streptomyces clavuligerus (S. clavuligerus). MATERIALS AND METHODS:In this experimental study, two different strains of S. clavuligerus were used (PTCC 1705 and DSM 738), of which there is no claR sequence record for strain PTCC 1705 in all three main gene banks. The specific designed primers were subjected to a few base modifications for introduction of the recognition sites of BamHI and ClaI. The claR gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using DNA isolated from S. clavuligerus PTCC 1705. Nested-PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and sequencing were used for molecular analysis of the claR gene. The confirmed claR was subjected to double digestion with BamHI and ClaI. The cut claR was ligated into a pBluescript (pBs) vector and transformed into E. coli. RESULTS:The entire sequence of the isolated claR (Iranian strain) was identified. The presence of the recombinant vector in the transformed colonies was confirmed by the colony-PCR procedure. The correct structure of the recombinant vector, isolated from the transformed E. coli, was confirmed using gel electrophoresis, PCR, and double digestion with restriction enzymes. CONCLUSION:The constructed recombinant cassette, named pZSclaR, can be regarded as an appropriate tool for site directed mutagenesis and sub-cloning. At this time, claR has been cloned accompanied with its precisely selected promoter so it could be used in expression vectors. Hence the ClaR is known as a putative regulatory protein. The overproduced protein could also be used for other related investigations, such as a mobility shift assay.
Project description:Portions of the Streptomyces clavuligerus chromosome flanking cas1, which encodes the clavaminate synthase 1 isoenzyme (CAS1), have been cloned and sequenced. Mutants of S. clavuligerus disrupted in cvm1, the open reading frame located immediately upstream of cas1, were constructed by a gene replacement procedure. Similar techniques were used to generate S. clavuligerus mutants carrying a deletion that encompassed portions of the two open reading frames, cvm4 and cvm5, located directly downstream of cas1. Both classes of mutants still produced clavulanic acid and cephamycin C but lost the ability to synthesize the antipodal clavam metabolites clavam-2-carboxylate, 2-hydroxymethyl-clavam, and 2-alanylclavam. These results suggested that cas1 is clustered with genes essential and specific for clavam metabolite biosynthesis. When a cas1 mutant of S. clavuligerus was constructed by gene replacement, it produced lower levels of both clavulanic acid and most of the antipodal clavams except for 2-alanylclavam. However, a double mutant of S. clavuligerus disrupted in both cas1 and cas2 produced neither clavulanic acid nor any of the antipodal clavams, including 2-alanylclavam. This outcome was consistent with the contribution of both CAS1 and CAS2 to a common pool of clavaminic acid that is shunted toward clavulanic acid and clavam metabolite biosynthesis.
Project description:Streptomyces clavuligerus is an important industrial strain that produces a number of antibiotics, including clavulanic acid and cephamycin C. A high-quality draft genome sequence of the S. clavuligerus NRRL 3585 strain was produced by employing a hybrid approach that involved Sanger sequencing, Roche/454 pyrosequencing, optical mapping, and partial finishing. Its genome, comprising four linear replicons, one chromosome, and four plasmids, carries numerous sets of genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, including a variety of antibiotics.