Identification of the loci of the collagen-associated Ehrlich chromogen in type I collagen confirms its role as a trivalent cross-link.
ABSTRACT: Collagenous peptides containing the Ehrlich chromogen (EC) were selectively isolated from a tryptic digest of bovine tendon by coupling to a diazotized polyacrylamide support. The isolated p-phenol-azo-EC peptides were purified and characterized by amino acid and sequence analyses. EC occurred in stoichiometric amounts in trimeric cross-linked chains originating from the known cross-link regions of type-I collagen. The major locus of the EC was alpha 2(I)Hyl-933 x alpha 1(I)Lys(Hyl)-9N x alpha 2(I)Lys(Hyl)-5N but it was also shown to occur at the loci alpha 1(I)Hyl-87 x alpha 1(I)Lys(Hyl)-16C x alpha 1(I)Lys(Hyl)-16C and alpha 1(I)Hyl-930 x alpha 1(I)Lys(Hyl)-9N x alpha 2(I)Lys(Hyl)-5N. After sequence analyses of the C-terminal helical cross-link region alpha 2(I)928-963, corrections are presented for residues 927, 930, 932 and 933 of the bovine alpha 2(I) chain. The collagen-associated EC is postulated to be a trisubstituted pyrrole formed by the reaction of the aldehyde form of a telopeptidyl lysine residue with a bifunctional keto amino cross-link. It is also proposed that when the telopeptidyl lysine residue is hydroxylated the above reaction will result in pyridinoline formation.
Project description:High concentrations of fulvic acid and selenium deficiency are the main causative factors of Kashin-Beck disease, an endemic, chronic and degenerative osteoarticular disorder found in China. In the search for an animal model of this disease, mice were exposed to these pathogenetic conditions for two generations and the collagen types from skin, bone and cartilage were analysed. The growth of the treated mice was slightly retarded, and the rate of reproduction was lower in animals maintained on a fulvic acid-supplemented and/or selenium-deficient diet. Irregular bone formation was seen by radiography and morphometry. Biochemical analysis indicated that lysine residues in collagen I from bone and in collagen II from cartilage were overmodified. The values of Hyl/(Hyl+Lys) in bone collagen alpha 1(I) chains from treated mice were about 0.434-0.484, i.e. substantially higher than that of the control (0.277). The values of this parameter for collagen II were 0.482 for control and 0.546-0.566 for treated mice. The melting temperature of collagen I from bones of treated mice was 1 degrees C lower than that of control collagen, indicating decreased thermal stability. The breakage point of the tibiae of treated mice occurred at a lower preload force than for controls, suggesting that the overmodified and thermally less stable collagen molecules are causally related to a lower mechanical strength of bones.
Project description:The activity of highly purified lysyl hydroxylase towards lysyl residues within both the helical and the N-terminal non-helical telopeptide regions of chick type I collagen has been examined. The peptides alpha 1(I)-CB1 and alpha 2(I)-CB1, isolated from protocollagen following CNBr digestion and containing the N-terminal telopeptidyl lysyl residues, failed themselves to act as substrates. With protocollagen as substrate, analysis of products obtained following bacterial collagenase digestion of the reaction mixture showed that overall 37% hydroxylation of lysyl residues within the helical region of collagen had been obtained, which may be maximal. No hydroxylation, however, of the single lysyl residue in either alpha 1(I)-CB1 or alpha 2(I)-CB1, isolated following CNBr digestion of the reaction mixture, was observed, despite the known susceptibility of these residues to hydroxylation. These findings provide strong circumstantial evidence for the suggestion that a lysyl hydroxylase specific for the telopeptidyl residues and distinct from that active towards lysyl residues in the helical portion of the molecule may exist [Barnes, Constable, Morton & Royce (1974) Biochem. J. 139, 461-468].
Project description:Covalent intermolecular cross-linking of collagen is essential for tissue stability. Recent studies have demonstrated that cyclophilin B (CypB), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase, modulates lysine (Lys) hydroxylation of type I collagen impacting cross-linking chemistry. However, the extent of modulation, the molecular mechanism and the functional outcome in tissues are not well understood. Here, we report that, in CypB null (KO) mouse skin, two unusual collagen cross-links lacking Lys hydroxylation are formed while neither was detected in wild type (WT) or heterozygous (Het) mice. Mass spectrometric analysis of type I collagen showed that none of the telopeptidyl Lys was hydroxylated in KO or WT/Het mice. Hydroxylation of the helical cross-linking Lys residues was almost complete in WT/Het but was markedly diminished in KO. Lys hydroxylation at other sites was also lower in KO but to a lesser extent. A key glycosylation site, ?1(I) Lys-87, was underglycosylated while other sites were mostly overglycosylated in KO. Despite these findings, lysyl hydroxylases and glycosyltransferase 25 domain 1 levels were significantly higher in KO than WT/Het. However, the components of ER chaperone complex that positively or negatively regulates lysyl hydroxylase activities were severely reduced or slightly increased, respectively, in KO. The atomic force microscopy-based nanoindentation modulus were significantly lower in KO skin than WT. These data demonstrate that CypB deficiency profoundly affects Lys post-translational modifications of collagen likely by modulating LH chaperone complexes. Together, our study underscores the critical role of CypB in Lys modifications of collagen, cross-linking and mechanical properties of skin.
Project description:Streptococcus agalactiae is the causative agent of septicemia and meningitis in fish. Previous studies have shown that hyaluronidase (Hyl) is an important virulence factor in many Gram-positive bacteria. To investigate the role of S. agalactiae Hyl during interaction with macrophages, we inactivated the gene encoding extracellular hyaluronidase, hylB, in a clinical Hyl(+) isolate. The isogenic hylb mutant (?hylb) displayed reduced survival in macrophages compared to the wild type and stimulated a significantly higher release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), than the wild type in macrophages as well as in mice. Furthermore, only Hyl(+) strains could grow utilizing hyaluronic acid (HA) as the sole carbon source, suggesting that Hyl permits the organism to utilize host HA as an energy source. Fifty percent lethal dose (LD50) determinations in zebrafish demonstrated that the hylb mutant was highly attenuated relative to the wild-type strain. Experimental infection of BALB/c mice revealed that bacterial loads in the blood, spleen, and brain at 16 h postinfection were significantly reduced in the ?hylB mutant compared to those in wild-type-infected mice. In conclusion, hyaluronidase has a strong influence on the intracellular survival of S. agalactiae and proinflammatory cytokine expression, suggesting that it plays a key role in S. agalactiae pathogenicity.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Kinins have an important role in inflammatory cystitis and in animal pathophysiological models, by acting on epithelium, fibroblasts, sensory innervation and smooth muscle. The aim of this study was to characterize the receptors responsible for direct motor responses induced by kinins on human detrusor. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Human detrusor cells from biopsies were isolated and maintained in culture. B(1) and B(2) kinin receptors were characterized by means of radioligand and functional experiments (PI accumulation and PGE(2) release). KEY RESULTS: [(3)H]-[desArg(9)]-Lys-BK and [(3)H]-BK saturation studies indicated receptor density (B(max)) and K (d) values of 19 or 113 fmol mg(-1), and 0.16 or 0.11 nM for the B(1) or B(2) receptors, respectively. Inhibition binding studies indicated the selectivity of the B(1) receptor antagonist [desArg(9)Leu(8)]-Lys-BK and of the B(2) receptor antagonists Icatibant and MEN16132. [DesArg(9)]-Lys-BK and BK induced PI accumulation with an EC(50) of 1.6 and 1.4 nM and different maximal responses (E(max) of [desArg(9)]-Lys-BK was 10% of BK). BK also induced prostaglandin E(2) release (EC(50) 2.3 nM), whereas no response was detected with the B(1) receptor agonist. The incubation of detrusor smooth muscle cells with interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) or tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (10 ng ml(-1)) induced a time-dependent increase in radioligand-specific binding, which was greater for the B(1) than for the B(2) receptor. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Human detrusor smooth muscle cells in culture retain kinin receptors, and represent a suitable model to investigate the mechanisms and changes that occur under chronic inflammatory conditions.
Project description:This letter describes the construction of conformationally constrained quinazoline analogues. Structure-activity relationship studies led to the identification of the lead compound 9n . Compound 9n exhibits effective in vitro activity against A431(WT,overexpression) and H1975([L858R/T790M]) cancer cell lines but is significantly less effective against EGFR negative cancer cell lines (SW620, A549, and K562). Compound 9n was also assessed for potency in enzymatic assays and in vivo antitumor studies. The results indicated that 9n is a potent kinase inhibitor against both wild-type and T790M mutant EGFR kinase. Meanwhile, an oral administration of 9n at a dose of 200 mg/kg produced a considerable antitumor effect in a A431 xenograft model, as compared to gefitinib. A preliminary pharmacokinetic study of 9n also indicates it has good pharmacokinetic properties, and therefore, it is a good starting point for further development.
Project description:Ceramide and its metabolites constitute a diverse group of lipids, which play important roles as structural entities of biological membranes as well as regulators of cellular growth, differentiation, and development. The C. elegans genome comprises three ceramide synthase genes; hyl-1, hyl-2, and lagr-1. HYL-1 function is required for synthesis of ceramides and sphingolipids containing very long acyl-chains (?C24), while HYL-2 is required for synthesis of ceramides and sphingolipids containing shorter acyl-chains (?C22). Here we show that functional loss of HYL-2 decreases lifespan, while loss of HYL-1 or LAGR-1 does not affect lifespan. We show that loss of HYL-1 and LAGR-1 functions extend lifespan in an autophagy-dependent manner, as knock down of the autophagy-associated gene ATG-12 abolishes hyl-1;lagr-1 longevity. The transcription factors PHA-4/FOXA, DAF-16/FOXO, and SKN-1 are also required for the observed lifespan extension, as well as the increased number of autophagosomes in hyl-1;lagr-1 animals. Both autophagic events and the transcription factors PHA-4/FOXA, DAF-16, and SKN-1 have previously been associated with dietary restriction-induced longevity. Accordingly, we find that hyl-1;lagr-1 animals display reduced feeding, increased resistance to heat, and reduced reproduction. Collectively, our data suggest that specific sphingolipids produced by different ceramide synthases have opposing roles in determination of C. elegans lifespan. We propose that loss of HYL-1 and LAGR-1 result in dietary restriction-induced autophagy and consequently prolonged longevity.
Project description:A novel 2-thiopyrimidine/chalcone hybrid was designed, synthesised, and evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against three different cell lines, K-562, MCF-7, and HT-29. The most active cytotoxic derivatives were 9d, 9f, 9n, and 9p (IC50=0.77-1.74 µM, against K-562 cell line), 9a and 9r (IC50=1.37-3.56 µM against MCF-7 cell line), and 9a, 9l, and 9n (IC50=2.10 and 2.37 µM against HT-29 cell line). Compounds 9a, 9d, 9f, 9n, and 9r were further evaluated for their cytotoxicity against normal fibroblast cell line WI38. Moreover, STAT3 and STAT5a inhibitory activities were determined for the most active derivatives 9a, 9d, 9f, 9n, and 9r. Dual inhibitory activity was observed in compound 9n (IC50=113.31 and 50.75 µM, against STAT3 and STAT5a, respectively). Prediction of physicochemical properties, drug likeness score, pharmacokinetic and toxic properties was detected.
Project description:Hyaluronic acid (HA) and other glycosaminoglycans are extracellular matrix components in the human epidermis and dermis. One of the most prevalent skin microorganisms, Propionibacterium acnes, possesses HA-degrading activity, possibly conferred by the enzyme hyaluronate lyase (HYL). In this study, we identified the HYL of P. acnes and investigated the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Investigations include the generation of a P. acneshyl knockout mutant and HYL activity assays to determine the substrate range and formed products. We found that P. acnes employs two distinct variants of HYL. One variant, HYL-IB/II, is highly active, resulting in complete HA degradation; it is present in strains of the phylotypes IB and II. The other variant, HYL-IA, has low activity, resulting in incomplete HA degradation; it is present in type IA strains. Our findings could explain some of the observed differences between P. acnes phylotype IA and IB/II strains. Whereas type IA strains are primarily found on the skin surface and associated with acne vulgaris, type IB/II strains are more often associated with soft and deep tissue infections, which would require elaborate tissue invasion strategies, possibly accomplished by a highly active HYL-IB/II.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Δ6-Desaturase (Fads2) is widely regarded as rate-limiting in the conversion of dietary α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3; ALA) to the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA). However, increasing dietary ALA or the direct Fads2 product, stearidonic acid (18:4n-3; SDA), increases tissue levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3; DPA), but not DHA. These observations suggest that one or more control points must exist beyond ALA metabolism by Fads2. One possible control point is a second reaction involving Fads2 itself, since this enzyme catalyses desaturation of 24:5n-3 to 24:6n-3, as well as ALA to SDA. However, metabolism of EPA and DPA both require elongation reactions. This study examined the activities of two elongase enzymes as well as the second reaction of Fads2 in order to concentrate on the metabolism of EPA to DHA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The substrate selectivities, competitive substrate interactions and dose response curves of the rat elongases, Elovl2 and Elovl5 were determined after expression of the enzymes in yeast. The competitive substrate interactions for rat Fads2 were also examined. Rat Elovl2 was active with C(20) and C(22) polyunsaturated fatty acids and this single enzyme catalysed the sequential elongation reactions of EPA→DPA→24:5n-3. The second reaction DPA→24:5n-3 appeared to be saturated at substrate concentrations not saturating for the first reaction EPA→DPA. ALA dose-dependently inhibited Fads2 conversion of 24:5n-3 to 24:6n-3. CONCLUSIONS: The competition between ALA and 24:5n-3 for Fads2 may explain the decrease in DHA levels observed after certain intakes of dietary ALA have been exceeded. In addition, the apparent saturation of the second Elovl2 reaction, DPA→24:5n-3, provides further explanations for the accumulation of DPA when ALA, SDA or EPA is provided in the diet. This study suggests that Elovl2 will be critical in understanding if DHA synthesis can be increased by dietary means.