1H-n.m.r. investigation of naturally occurring and chemically oversulphated dermatan sulphates. Identification of minor monosaccharide residues.
ABSTRACT: The 1H-n.m.r. spectra of various dermatan sulphate preparations present, besides the major signals of the basic disaccharide unit, several other minor signals. We have assigned most of them by n.m.r., using two-dimensional proton-proton double-quantum-correlation and nuclear-Overhauser-effect spectroscopy experiments. This allowed us to identify 2-O-sulphated L-iduronic acid and D-glucuronic acid residues as well as 6-sulphated N-acetylgalactosamine (presumably 4-O-sulphated as well). 2-O-Sulphated iduronic acid was present to similar extents (6-10% of total uronic acids) in pig skin dermatan sulphate and pig intestine dermatan sulphate, whereas glucuronic acid represented 17% of the uronic acid of pig skin dermatan sulphate and was virtually absent (1%) from the other preparation. 6-O-Sulphated N-acetylgalactosamine was present in minor amounts in pig intestine dermatan sulphate only. The influence of sulphation of iduronic acid units on their conformation was assessed by using chemically oversulphated pig intestine dermatan sulphate. Introduction of sulphate groups in this unit in dermatan sulphate tends to shift the conformational equilibrium towards the 1C4 conformer.
Project description:Dermatan sulphate was degraded by testicular hyaluronidase and an oversulphated fraction was isolated by ion-exchange chromatography. This preparation, which contained fairly long segments derived from the non-reducing terminal portion of the molecule, was subjected to periodate oxidation under acidic conditions. The oxidized iduronic acid residues were cleaved by reduction-hydrolysis (Smith-degradation) (Fransson & Carlstedt, 1974) or by alkaline elimination. The oligosaccharides so obtained contained both GlcUA (glucuronic acid) and IdUA-SO(4) (sulphated iduronic acid) residues. Copolymeric oligosaccharides obtained after alkaline elimination were cleaved by chondroitinase-AC into disaccharide and higher oligosaccharides. Since the corresponding oligosaccharides obtained by Smith-degradation were unaffected by this enzyme, it was concluded that the carbohydrate sequences were GalNAc-(IdUA-GalNAc)(n)-GlcUA-GalNAc. The iduronic acid-containing sequences were resistant to digestion with chondroitinase-ABC. It was demonstrated that the presence of unsulphated N-acetylgalactosamine residues in these sequences could be responsible for the observed effect. This information was obtained in an indirect way. Chemically desulphated dermatan sulphate was found to be a poor substrate for the chondroitinase-ABC enzyme. Moreover, digestion with chondroitinase-ABC of chondroitinase-AC-degraded dermatan sulphate released periodate-resistant iduronic acid-containing oligosaccharides. It is concluded that copolymeric sequences of the following structure are present in pig skin dermatan sulphate: [Formula: see text] N-acetylgalactosamine moieties surrounding IdUA-SO(4) residues are unsulphated to a large extent.
Project description:1. Pig skin dermatan sulphate was degraded by periodate oxidation followed by alkaline elimination or by chondroitinase-ABC to quantify irregular repeating units, i.e. those containing D-GlcUA (D-glucuronic acid) and L-IdUA-SO4 (sulphated iduronic acid). 2. Previous results of periodate oxidation (Fransson, 1974) indicated repeating sequences in pig skin dermatan sulphate containing, on average, 3D-GlcUA, 9 L-IdUA-SO4 or 28 L-IdUA units in addition to N-acetylgalactosamine sulphate. However, complete digestion with chondroitinase-ABC yielded, at the most, 3-4 disulphated disaccharides/chain. Consequently, more than one-half of the L-IdUA-SO4 residues were present in monosulphated periods, i.e. IdUA-(SO4)-GalNAc. 3. To determine the location of L-IdUA-SO4 residues along the copolymeric chain dermatan sulphate was digested with testicular hyaluronidase. (This enzyme cleaves GalNAc-GlcUA bonds within block regions containing D-GlcUA.) By NaB3H4 reduction GalNAc residues located in the reducing end of the fragments were converted into [3H]GalNAcOH (N-acetylgalactosaminitol). Finally, the radioactive product was fragmented by periodate oxidation followed by alkaline elimination. The bulk of the radioactivity was associated with periodate-resistant oligosaccharides indicating that clusters of GlcUA-GalNAc-SO4 periods are often adjacent to a varying number of (n = 1-4) of L-IdUA-SO4-containing periods. 4. To study the distribution of L-IdUA-SO4-containing periods in relation to blocks of IdUA-GalNAc-SO4 periods different fractions of hyaluronidase-degraded dermatan sulphate were degraded separately. In all types of fragments (mol. wts. 1,500-10,000) L-IdUA-SO4-containing periods were demonstrated. In short fragments reducing terminal GalNAc-6-SO4 (6-sulphated N-acetylgalactosamine) was found confirming that these sequences were joined to relatively long D-GlcUA-containing block sequences via GalNAc-6-SO4. Moreover, low-molecular-weight oligosaccharides composed of alternating sequences were encountered. An octasaccharide derived from the carbohydrate sequence -GalNAc---GlcUA-GalNAc-IdUA-GalNAc-GlcUA-GalNAc-IdUA-GalNAc---GlcUA-GalNAc (--- indicates the position of cleavage by hyaluronidase) was identified.
Project description:1. A method was developed for determination of the uronic acid composition of heparin-like glycosaminoglycans. Polymers or oligosaccharides are degraded to monosaccharides by a combination of acid hydrolysis and deamination with HNO(2). The resulting uronic acid monosaccharides (accounting for about 70% of the uronic acid contents of the starting materials) are isolated and converted into the corresponding aldono-1,4-lactones, which are separated by g.l.c. The calculated ratios of glucuronic acid/iduronic acid are reproducible within 5%. 2. Samples of heparin from pig intestinal mucosa (molar ratio of sulphate/disaccharide unit, 2.40) and heparan sulphate from human aorta (sulphate/disaccharide ratio, 0.46) were subjected to uronic acid analysis. l-Iduronic acid constituted 77% and 19% respectively of the total uronic acid contents. 3. The correlation between the contents of sulphate and iduronic acid indicated by this finding also applied to the fractionated deamination products of the two polymers. The sulphated fragments varied in size from disaccharide to octasaccharide (or larger) and showed sulphate/disaccharide molar ratios in the range of 0.05-2.0. The proportion of iduronic acid increased with increasing ester sulphate contents of the oligosaccharides. 4. Previous studies on the biosynthesis of heparin in a cell-free system have shown that l-iduronic acid residues are formed by C-5 epimerization of d-glucuronic acid units at the polymer level; the process requires concomitant sulphation of the polymer. The results obtained in the present structural study conform to these findings, and suggest further that similar mechanisms may operate in the biosynthesis of heparan sulphate. The epimerization reaction appears to be linked to the sulphation of hydroxyl groups but does not seem to require sulphation of the target uronic acid residues. The significance of sulphamino groups in relation to the formation of iduronic acid is unknown.
Project description:1. Preparations of heparin and heparan sulphate were degraded with HNO2. The resulting disaccharides were isolated by gel chromatography, reduced with either NaBH4 or NaB3H4 and were then fractionated into non-sulphated, monosulphated and disulphated species by ion-exchange chromatography or by paper electrophoresis. The non-sulphated disaccharides were separated into two, and the monosulphated disaccharides into three, components by paper chromatography. 2. The uronic acid moieties of the various non- and mono-sulphated disaccharides were identified by means of radioactive labels selectively introduced into uronic acid residues (3H and 14C in D-glucuronic acid, 14C only in L-iduronic acid units) during biosynthesis of the polysaccharide starting material. Labelled uronic acids were also identified by paper chromatography, after liberation from disaccharides by acid hydrolysis or by glucuronidase digestion. Similar procedures, applied to disaccharides treated with NaB3H4, indicated 2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol as reducing terminal unit. On the basis of these results, and the known positions and configurations of the glycosidic linkages in heparin, the two non-sulphated disaccharides were identified as 4-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyluronic acid)-2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol and 4-O-(alpha-L-idopyranosyluronic acid)-2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol. 3. The three monosulphated [1-3H]anhydromannitol-labelled disaccharides were subjected to Smith degradation or to digestion with homogenates of human skin fibroblasts, and the products were analysed by paper electrophoresis. The results, along with the 1H n.m.r. spectra of the corresponding unlabelled disaccharides, permitted the allocation of O-sulphate groups to various positions in the disaccharides. These were thus identified as 4-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl-uronic acid)-2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol 6-sulphate, 4-O-(alpha-L-idopyranosyluronic acid)-2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol 6-sulphate and 4-O-(alpha-L-idopyranosyluronic acid 2-sulphate)-2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol. The last-mentioned disaccharide was found to be a poor substrate for the iduronate sulphatase of human skin fibroblasts, as compared with the disulphated species, 4-O-(alpha-L-idopyranosyluronic acid 2-sulphate)-2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol 6-sulphate. 4. The identified [1-3H]anhydromannitol-labelled disaccharides were used as reference standards in a study of the disaccharide composition of heparins and heparan sulphates. Low N-sulphate contents, most pronounced in the heparin sulphates, were associated with high ratios of mono-O-sulphated/di-O-sulphated (N-sulphated) disaccharide units, and in addition, with relatively large amounts of 2-sulphated L-iduronic acid residues bound to C-4 of N-sulpho-D-glucosamine units lacking O-sulphate substituents.
Project description:Selective periodate oxidation of unsubstituted l-iduronic acid residues in copolymeric dermatan sulphate chains was followed by reduction-hydrolysis or alkaline elimination. By this procedure the glucuronic acid-containing periods were isolated in oligosaccharide form; general formula: [Formula: see text] Further degradation of these oligosaccharides with chondroitinase-AC yielded three types of products: (a) sulphated trisaccharide containing an unsaturated uronosyl moiety in the non-reducing terminal and a C(4) fragment in the reducing terminal, DeltaUA-GalNAc-(-SO(4))-R; (b) monosulphated, unsaturated disaccharide, DeltaUA-GalNAc-SO(4) when n is greater than or equal to 2; and (c) N-acetylgalactosamine with or without sulphate. Oligosaccharides containing a single glucuronic acid residue (n=1) comprised more than half of the glucuronic acid-containing oligosaccharides. The terminal N-acetylgalactosamine moiety of the shortest oligosaccharide was largely 4-sulphated, whereas higher oligosaccharides primarily contained 6-sulphated or unsulphated hexosamine moieties in the same position. Moreover, IdUA-SO(4)-containing oligosaccharides were encountered. These oligosaccharides were resistant to the action of chondroitinase-ABC.
Project description:Heparin, carboxy-group-reduced heparin, several sulphated monosaccharides and disaccharides formed from heparin, and a tetrasaccharide prepared from chondroitin sulphate were treated at 100 degrees C with hydrazine containing 1% hydrazine sulphate for periods sufficient to cause complete N-deacetylation of the N-acetylhexosamine residues. Under these hydrazinolysis conditions both the N-sulphate and the O-sulphate substituents on these compounds were completely stable. However, the uronic acid residues were converted into their hydrazide derivatives at rates that depended on the uronic acid structures. Unsubstituted L-iduronic acid residues reacted much more slowly than did unsubstituted D-glucuronic acid or 2-O-sulphated L-iduronic acid residues. The chemical modification of the carboxy groups resulted in a low rate of C-5 epimerization of the uronic acid residues. The hydrazinolysis reaction also caused a partial depolymerization of heparin but not of carboxy-group-reduced heparin. Treatment of the hydrazinolysis products with HNO2 at either pH 4 or pH 1.5 or with HIO3 converted the uronic acid hydrazides back into uronic acid residues. The use of the hydrazinolysis reaction in studies of the structures of uronic acid-containing polymers and the implications of the uronic acid hydrazide formation are discussed.
Project description:Oligosaccharides obtained from heparan sulphate by nitrous acid degradation were shown to be degraded sequentially by beta-D-glucuronidase or alpha-L-iduronidase followed by alpha D-N-acetylglucosaminidase. Structural analysis of the tetrasaccharide fraction showed the following. (1) N-Acetylglucosamine is preceded by a non-sulphated uronic acid residue that can be either D-glucuronic of L-iduronic acid, but followed by a glucuronic acid residue. (2) The N-acetylglucosamine in the major fraction is sulphated. (3) Very few if any of the uronic acid residues are sulphated (4). The results indicate that the area of the heparan sulphate chain where disaccharides containing N-acetylglucosamine and N-sulphated glucosamine residues alternate is higher in sulphate content than expected and that the sulphate groups are mainly located on the hexosamine units.
Project description:Foetal human lung fibroblasts, grown in monolayer, were allowed to incorporate (35)SO(4) (2-) for various periods of time. (35)S-labelled macromolecular anionic products were isolated from the medium, a trypsin digest of the cells in monolayer and the cell residue. The various radioactive polysaccharides were identified as heparan sulphate and a galactosaminoglycan population (chondroitin sulphate and dermatan sulphate) by ion-exchange chromatography and by differential degradations with HNO(2) and chondroitinase ABC. Most of the heparan sulphate was found in the trypsin digest, whereas the galactosaminoglycan components were largely confined to the medium. Electrophoretic studies on the various (35)S-labelled galactosaminoglycans suggested the presence of a separate chondroitin sulphate component (i.e. a glucuronic acid-rich galactosaminoglycan). The (35)S-labelled galactosaminoglycans were subjected to periodate oxidation of l-iduronic acid residues followed by scission in alkali. A periodate-resistant polymer fraction was obtained, which could be degraded to disaccharides by chondroitinase AC. However, most of the (35)S-labelled galactosaminoglycans were extensively degraded by periodate oxidation-alkaline elimination. The oligosaccharides obtained were essentially resistant to chondroitinase AC, indicating that the iduronic acid-rich galactosaminoglycans (i.e. dermatan sulphate) were composed largely of repeating units containing sulphated or non-sulphated l-iduronic acid residues. The l-iduronic acid residues present in dermatan sulphate derived from the medium and the trypsin digest contained twice as much ester sulphate as did material associated with the cells. The content of d-glucuronic acid was low and similar in all three fractions. The relative distribution of glycosaminoglycans among the various fractions obtained from cultured lung fibroblasts was distinctly different from that of skin fibroblasts [Malmström, Carlstedt, Aberg & Fransson (1975) Biochem. J.151, 477-489]. Moreover, subtle differences in co-polymeric structure of dermatan sulphate isolated from the two cell types could be detected.
Project description:1. (3)H- and (35)S-labelled heparan sulphate was isolated from monolayers of human lung fibroblasts and subjected to degradations by (a) deaminative cleavage and (b) periodate oxidation/alkaline elimination. Fragments were resolved by gel- and ion-exchange-chromatography. 2. Deaminative cleavage of the radioactive glycan afforded mainly disaccharides with a low content of ester-sulphate and free sulphate, indicating that a large part (approx. 80%) of the repeating units consisted of uronosyl-glucosamine-N-sulphate. Blocks of non-sulphated [glucuronosyl-N-acetyl glucosamine] repeats (3-4 consecutive units) accounted for the remainder of the chains. 3. By selective oxidation of glucuronic acid residues associated with N-acetylglucosamine, followed by scission in alkali, the radioactive glycan was degraded into a series of fragments. The glucuronosyl-N-acetylglucosamine-containing block regions yielded a compound N-acetylglucosamine-R, where R is the remnant of an oxidized and degraded glucuronic acid. Periodate-insensitive uronic acid residues were recovered in saccharides of the general structure glucosamine-(uronic acid-glucosamine)(n)-R. 4. Further degradations of these saccharides via deaminative cleavage and re-oxidations with periodate revealed that iduronic acid may be located in sequences such as glucosamine-N-sulphate-->iduronic acid-->N-acetylglucosamine. Occasionally the iduronic acid was sulphated. Blocks of iduronic acid-containing repeats may contain up to five consecutive units. Alternating arrangements of iduronic acid- and glucuronic acid-containing repeats were also observed. 5. (3)H- and (35)S-labelled heparan sulphates from sequential extracts of fibroblasts (medium, EDTA, trypsin digest, dithiothreitol extract, cell-soluble and cell-insoluble material) afforded similar profiles after both periodate oxidation/alkaline elimination and deaminative cleavage.
Project description:The structure of dermatan [35S]sulphate-chondroitin [35S]sulphate copolymers synthesized and secreted by fibroblasts in culture was studied. 35S-labelled glycosaminoglycans were isolated from the medium, a trypsin digest of the cells and the cell residue after 72h of 35SO42-incorporation. The galactosaminoglycan component (dermatan sulphatechondroitin sulphate copolymers) was isolated and subjected to various degradation procedures including digestion with testicular hyaluronidase, chondroitinase-AC and-ABC and periodate oxidation followed by alkaline elimination. The galactosaminoglycans from the various sources displayed significant structural differences with regard to the distribution of various repeating units, i.e. IdUA-GalNAc-SO4 (L-iduronic acid-N-acetyl-galactosamine sulphate), GlcUA-GalNAc-SO4 (D-glucuronic acid-N-acetylgalactosamine-sulphate) and IdUA(-SO4)-GalNAc (L-iduronosulphate-N-acetylgalactosamine). The galactosaminoglycans of the cell residue contained larger amounts of IdUA-GalNAc-SO4 than did those isolated from the medium or those released by trypsin. In contrast, the glycans from the latter 2 sources contained large proportions of periodate-resistant repeat periods [GlcUA-GalNAc-SO4 and IdUA(-SO4)-GalNAc]. Periods containing L-iduronic acid sulphate were particularly prominent in copolymers found in the medium. Kinetic studies indicated that the 35S-labelled glycosaminoglycan of the cell residue accumulated radioactivity more slowly than did the glycans of other fractions, indicating that the material remaining with the cells was not exclusively a precursor of the secreted polymers. The presence of copolymers rich in glucuronic acid or iduronic acid sulphate residues in the soluble fractions may be the result of selective secretion from the cells. Alternatively, extracellular, polymer-level modifications such as C-5 inversion of L-iduronic acid to D-glucuronic acid, or sulphate rearrangements, would yield similar results.