Anti-(insulin receptor) monoclonal antibody-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation in cells transfected with human insulin receptor cDNA.
ABSTRACT: The effects of insulin and anti-(insulin receptor) monoclonal antibodies on tyrosine phosphorylation were investigated in fibroblasts transfected with human insulin receptor cDNA (NIH 3T3HIR3.5 cells) using anti-phosphotyrosine immunoblotting. Insulin increased levels of tyrosine phosphorylation in two major proteins of molecular mass 97 kDa (pp97, assumed to be the insulin receptor beta-subunit) and 185 kDa (pp185). Insulin-mimetic anti-receptor antibodies also stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of both pp97 and pp185. The observation of antibody-stimulated pp97 phosphorylation, as detected by immunoblotting, is in contrast with previous data which failed to show receptor autophosphorylation in NIH 3T3HIR3.5 cells labelled with [32P]P1. The effect of insulin on pp97 was maximal within 1 min, but the response to antibody was apparent only after a lag of 1-2 min and rose steadily over 20 min. The absolute level of antibody-stimulated phosphorylation of both pp97 and pp185 after 20 min was only about 20% of the maximum level induced by equivalent concentrations of insulin, even at concentrations of antibody sufficient for full occupancy of receptors. Another insulin-mimetic agent, wheat-germ agglutinin, stimulated receptor autophosphorylation with kinetics similar to those produced by the antibody. It is suggested that the relatively slow responses to both agents may be a function of the dependence on receptor cross-linking. These data are consistent with a role for the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity in the mechanism of action of insulin-mimetic anti-receptor antibodies.
Project description:Concanavalin A (ConA) stimulated the phosphorylation of the beta-subunit of the insulin receptor and an Mr-185,000 protein on serine and tyrosine residues in intact H-35 rat hepatoma cells. This Mr-185,000 protein whose phosphorylation was stimulated by ConA was identical to pp185, a protein reported previously to be a putative endogenous substrate for the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase in rat hepatoma cells. In Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with cDNA of the human insulin receptor, tyrosine-phosphorylation of pp185 was strongly enhanced by ConA compared with the controls, suggesting that the induction of tyrosine-phosphorylation of pp185 was due to stimulation of the insulin receptor kinase by ConA. Moreover, monovalent ConA only slightly induced the tyrosine-phosphorylation of pp185, which was enhanced by the addition of anti-ConA IgG, suggesting that ConA stimulated the insulin receptor kinase mainly by the receptor cross-linking or aggregation in intact cells. These data suggest that the insulin-mimetic action of ConA is related to the autophosphorylation and activation of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase, as well as the subsequent phosphorylation of pp185 in intact cells.
Project description:Previous studies, by ourselves and others, have shown that tyrosine residues 1158, 1162 and 1163 are very rapidly autophosphorylated on the human insulin receptor after insulin binding and that this is followed by the autophosphorylation of tyrosine residues 1328 and 1334. The autophosphorylation of these tyrosine residues, and their role in transmembrane signalling, were examined by using Chinese-hamster ovary cells transfected with either normal intact insulin receptors or receptors in which tyrosine residues 1162 or 1162/1163 were substituted with phenylalanine. These studies show the following. (1) Tyrosine-1158 could still be autophosphorylated when tyrosine-1162 and -1163 were substituted with phenylalanine. (2) Insulin-stimulated insulin-receptor tyrosine phosphorylation in intact cells was complete within 30 s and was accompanied, after a lag of 2-5 min, by a rise in serine and threonine phosphorylation the beta-subunit. (3) Replacement of tyrosine-1162 with phenylalanine blocked insulin-stimulated threonine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor in intact cells. (4) Insulin-stimulated serine phosphorylation of the beta-subunit was found in both intact cells and partially purified receptor preparations incubated with [gamma-32P]ATP and was still apparent after the replacement of tyrosine-1162 with phenylalanine. (5) Our data strongly suggest that insulin-stimulated insulin-receptor serine and threonine phosphorylations are initiated through two distinct pathways, with only the latter showing a strict dependence on autophosphorylation of tyrosine-1162.
Project description:Anti-peptide antibodies directed against a highly-conserved sequence of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase domain have been used to study the relationship between this specific region and kinase activation. Antibodies have been prepared by the injection into a rabbit of a synthetic peptide (P2) corresponding to residues 1110-1125 of the proreceptor. The peptide exhibits 88-95% sequence similarity with the corresponding sequence in the v-ros protein and in receptors for epidermal growth factor and for insulin-like growth factor 1. Two antibodies with different specificities could be separated from total antiserum obtained after immunization with P2. One antibody [anti-(P-Tyr)] cross-reacted with phosphotyrosine and immunoprecipitated solely autophosphorylated receptors. This antibody was shown to increase or decrease the receptor tyrosine kinase activity depending on its concentration. In all circumstances receptor autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation were modulated in a parallel fashion. The second antibody (anti-P2) failed to immunoprecipitate the insulin receptor, but was found to interact with both the peptide and the receptor by e.l.i.s.a. assay. Using a tyrosine co-polymer we found that anti-P2 activated the insulin receptor kinase leading to substrate phosphorylation at a level similar to that observed with insulin. This effect was additive to the hormonal effect. In contrast, receptor autophosphorylation was not modified by the anti-peptide. The differential effect of this anti-peptide further supports the idea that receptor autophosphorylation and kinase activity towards exogenous substrates might be independently regulated. Finally, our data suggest that conformational changes in the receptor tyrosine kinase domain may be sufficient for activation of its enzymic activity.
Project description:Exposure of cells to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) has been reported to result in resistance to the acute biological effects of insulin and an associated reduction in insulin-receptor tyrosine kinase activity. To investigate the relationship of insulin receptor autophosphorylation with a longer-term action of insulin the effect of PMA on insulin-stimulated receptor down-regulation was examined in cultured human lymphocytes (IM-9). Lymphocytes bound [3H]phorbol dibutyrate specifically with characteristics typical of binding to protein kinase C (PKC). Acute exposure (30 min) to PMA resulted in a transient decrease of insulin binding which is consistent with a decrease in receptor number. Chronic (18 h) exposure to PMA (5 nM) resulted in inhibition of insulin-induced down-regulation of its cognate receptor. Sphingosine, an inhibitor of PKC, or chronic pre-exposure to a high concentration of PMA (1 microM), which is known to inactivate PKC, blocked the effect of PMA. PMA inhibited insulin-stimulated receptor internalization by 26% and receptor degradation by 82%. Exposure of intact cells to PMA followed by insulin treatment inhibited insulin-receptor autophosphorylation subsequently assayed in vitro, as well as beta-subunit tyrosine phosphorylation in situ. In summary, PMA inhibited insulin-stimulated receptor down-regulation via activation of PKC. This was associated with an inhibition of both receptor internalization and receptor degradation. There was a concomitant inhibition of receptor tyrosine autophosphorylation consistent with a requirement of receptor kinase activation for both short-term and long-term biological effects of insulin.
Project description:A set of synthetic phosphoinositolglycan (PIG) compounds has been demonstrated to exert insulin-mimetic activity on glucose and lipid metabolism in rat adipocytes differing considerably in potency [compound 41>37>45>>7>1; W. Frick, A. Bauer, J. Bauer, S. Wied and G. Müller, G. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 13421-13436]. In the present study we examine whether these differences are based on the capability of the PIG compounds to stimulate signalling components which are thought to mediate metabolic insulin action. Studies using a tyrosine kinase inhibitor and introduction into adipocytes of anti-phosphotyrosine or inhibitory anti-insulin receptor beta-subunit antibodies demonstrated dependence on tyrosine phosphorylation but independence of insulin receptor kinase activation of the insulin-mimetic signalling and metabolic activity of the PIG compounds. The five compounds elicited in rat adipocytes a significant increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of both insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and IRS-3 and, to a minor degree, IRS-2, in IRS-1/3-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K) protein as well as activity, and in protein kinase B (PKB) activity as well as phosphorylation. This was most pronounced for compound 41, approaching 65-95% of the maximal insulin response (MIR) at 20 microM, and declined in the order of compounds 37, 45, 7 and 1. The same ranking was true for the maximal inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 activity (GSK-3) (41, 75% of MIR; compound 37, 65%; compound 7, 25%; compound 1, 10%) and GSK-3 autophosphorylation. The half-maximal concentrations effective for signalling (compound 41, 2-5 microM; compound 37, 10-20 microM) corresponded well to those stimulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Interestingly, compounds 37 and 41 stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein synthesis in rat adipocytes to only about 20-30% (at 50 microM) of MIR. We conclude that in rat adipocytes: (i) the potency of PIG compounds to regulate glucose/lipid metabolism depends on the activation of PI 3-K and PKB and inhibition of GSK-3; (ii) initiation of tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1/3 is sufficient and activation of the PI 3-K cascade is required for insulin-mimetic metabolic signalling; and (iii) PIG compounds are quite selective for the PI 3-K compared to the MAPK cascade, (iv) PIG compounds seem to use the same signalling components downstream of PI 3-K (including Rab4) for stimulation of glucose transport as does insulin. Thus the early signalling step(s) used by PIG, but not by insulin, may represent a target for the treatment of insulin-resistant states.
Project description:The beta-subunit of the insulin receptor contains a tyrosine-specific protein kinase. Insulin binding activates this kinase and causes phosphorylation of the beta-subunit of the insulin receptor. It is believed that phosphorylation of other proteins might transmit the insulin signal from the receptor to the cell. In the present study we used a polyclonal anti-phosphotyrosine antibody to detect other proteins that become tyrosine phosphorylated upon insulin stimulation. Glycoproteins from human placenta membranes were enriched by wheat germ agglutinin chromatography and phosphorylation was studied with [gamma-32P]ATP and insulin in vitro. Phosphorylated proteins were immunoprecipitated by antibodies against the insulin receptor and by serum containing the anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. Beside the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the 95 kDa beta-subunit of the insulin receptor, an insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of a 180 kDa protein was found. The phosphorylation of both proteins occurred only on tyrosine residues. Insulin increased 32P incorporation into the 180 kDa band 2.7-fold (S.E.M. +/- 0.3, n = 5). The 180 kDa protein was not precipitated by antibodies against the insulin receptor. H.p.l.c. chromatograms of tryptic fragments of the phosphorylated 180 kDa protein and of the beta-subunit of the insulin receptor revealed different patterns for both proteins. Insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the 180 kDa protein was also detectable in unfractionated detergent-solubilized membranes. The phosphorylation of the 180 kDa protein was stimulated by insulin with the same dose-response curve as the phosphorylation of the beta-subunit, suggesting that this protein might be another endogenous substrate of the insulin receptor kinase.
Project description:A model of insulin-receptor down-regulation and desensitization has been developed and described. In this model, both insulin-receptor down-regulation and functional desensitization are induced in the human HepG2 cell line by a 16 h exposure of the cells to 0.1 microM-insulin. Insulin-receptor affinity is unchanged, but receptor number is decreased by 50%, as determined both by 125I-insulin binding and by protein immunoblotting with an antibody to the beta-subunit of the receptor. This down-regulation is accompanied by a disproportionate loss of insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis, yielding a population of cell-surface insulin receptors which bind insulin normally but which are unable to mediate insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis within the cell. Upon binding of insulin, the desensitized receptors are internalized rapidly, with characteristics indistinguishable from those of control cells. In contrast, this desensitization is accompanied by a loss of the insulin-sensitive tyrosine kinase activity of insulin receptors isolated from these cells. Receptors isolated from control cells show a 5-25-fold enhancement of autophosphorylation of the beta-subunit by insulin; this insulin-responsive autophosphorylation is severely attenuated after desensitization to a maximum of 0-2-fold stimulation by insulin. Likewise, the receptor-mediated phosphorylation of exogenous angiotensin II, which is stimulated 2-10-fold by insulin in receptors from control cells, is completely unresponsive to insulin in desensitized cells. These data provide evidence that the insulin-receptor tyrosine kinase activity correlates with insulin stimulation of an intracellular metabolic event. The data suggest that receptor endocytosis is not sufficient to mediate insulin's effects, and thereby argue for a role of the receptor tyrosine kinase activity in the mediation of insulin action.
Project description:A mouse monoclonal antibody (CT-1) was prepared against the C-terminal peptide sequence of the human insulin receptor beta-subunit (KKNGRILTLPRSNPS). The antibody reacted with native human and rat insulin receptors in solution, whether or not insulin was bound and whether or not the receptor had undergone prior tyrosine autophosphorylation. The antibody also reacted specifically with the receptor beta-subunit on blots of SDS/polyacrylamide gels. Preincubation of soluble receptors with antibody increased the binding of 125I-insulin approx. 2-fold. The antibody did not affect insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation, but increased the basal autophosphorylation rate approx. 2-fold. The amino acid residues contributing to the epitope for CT-1 were defined by construction and screening of an epitope library. Oligonucleotides containing 23 random bases were synthesized and ligated into the vector pCL627, and the corresponding peptide sequences expressed as fusion proteins in Escherichia coli were screened by colony blotting. Reactive peptides were identified by sequencing the oligonucleotide inserts in plasmids purified from positive colonies. Six different positive sequences were found after 900,000 colonies had been screened, and the consensus epitope was identified as GRVLTLPRS. Phosphorylation of the threonine residue within this sequence (corresponding to the known phosphorylation site Thr-1348 in the insulin receptor) decreased the affinity of antibody binding approx. 100-fold, as measured by competition in an e.l.i.s.a. Antibody CT-1 was used for immunoaffinity isolation of insulin receptor from detergent-solubilized human placental or rat liver microsomal membranes. Highly purified receptor was obtained in 60% yield by binding to CT-1-Sepharose immunoadsorbent and specific elution with a solution of peptide corresponding to the known epitope. This approach to purification under very mild conditions may in principle be used with any protein for which an antibody is available and for which a peptide epitope or 'mimotope' can be identified.
Project description:Insulin and IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor 1) rapidly stimulate the phosphorylation on tyrosine of a 160 kDa cytosolic protein (pp160) in intact 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Half-maximal phosphorylation of pp160 is attained with either 4 nM-insulin or 20 nM-IGF-1. A semi-quantitative immunoblotting procedure using anti-phosphotyrosine antibody revealed that the insulin-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocyte possesses approx. 3 x 10(5) and 0.6 x 10(5) phosphotyrosyl sites, respectively, in pp160 and insulin receptor beta-subunit. Removal of insulin from stimulated cells results in the rapid (within 15 min) loss of phosphate groups from tyrosyl residues in both pp160 and receptor beta-subunit. Whereas pp160 remains maximally phosphorylated on tyrosine for up to 60 min in the presence of 100 nM-insulin, IGF-1 at the same concentration induces only a transient response that is maximally 50% of that observed with insulin. pp160 is not phosphorylated on tyrosine in response to platelet-derived growth factor or epidermal growth factor. Although pp160 appears to be a soluble cytoplasmic protein, in the presence of 1 mM-ZnCl2 it becomes membrane-associated. In view of its apparent cytoplasmic localization and its inability to bind to either wheat-germ agglutinin or concanavalin A, pp160 does not appear to be a typical glycoprotein growth-factor receptor. Our results suggest that pp160 may be a physiologically important cellular substrate of the insulin-receptor tyrosine kinase in the intact 3T3-L1 adipocyte.
Project description:We have investigated whether angiotensin II (AII) is able to induce insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation and its association with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) in the rat heart in vivo. The phosphorylation state of IRS-1 following infusion of insulin or AII via the vena cava was assessed after immunoprecipitation with an anti-peptide antibody to IRS-1 followed by immunoblotting with an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody and an anti-PI 3-kinase antibody. Densitometry indicated a 5.6 +/- 1.3-fold increase in IRS-1 phosphorylation after stimulation with AII and a 12.8 +/- 3.1-fold increase after insulin. The effect was maximal at an AII concentration of 10(-8) M and occurred 1 min after infusion. There was also a 6.1 +/- 1.2-fold increase in IRS-1-associated PI 3-kinase in response to AII. In the isolated perfused heart the result was similar, showing a direct effect of AII on this pathway. When the animals were pretreated for 1 h with DuP 753, a non-peptide AII-receptor 1 (AT1 receptor) antagonist, there was a marked reduction in the AII-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1, suggesting that phosphorylation is initially mediated by the AT1 receptor. We conclude that AII stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and its association with PI 3-kinase. This pathway thus represents an additional signalling mechanism stimulated by AII in the rat heart in vivo.