The existence of multiple tetrameric conformers of chicken liver pyruvate carboxylase and their roles in dilution inactivation.
ABSTRACT: The time-dependent loss of enzymic activity and tetrameric structure of chicken liver pyruvate carboxylase (EC 184.108.40.206) after dilution below 2 units/ml was apparently monophasic and first-order. When examined over a range of initial enzyme concentrations, both activity and tetrameric structure decayed to equilibrium levels which were dependent on the initial concentration. The observed rate constants for the loss of enzymic activity (i) showed no apparent dependence on the initial enzyme concentration, and (ii) were of similar magnitude to the corresponding rate constants of dissociation. Computer simulations of the most likely kinetic model suggest that the predominant form of the dissociated enzyme is the monomer. Dilution of pyruvate carboxylase in the presence of the allosteric activator acetyl-CoA largely prevented the subsequent dissociation of the tetrameric molecule. In addition, acetyl-CoA was able to cause a degree of activation and reassociation when added after dilution inactivation had been allowed to occur. Electron-microscopic observation showed the treatment with avidin before dilution markedly decreased the degree of dissociation of the enzyme tetramer. This structure-stabilizing effect of avidin was dependent on preincubation of the concentrated enzyme solution with acetyl-CoA. We propose that, over a range of protein concentrations, the tetrameric enzyme exists in two forms that are in equilibrium, and that acetyl-CoA alters the equilibrium to favour the more compact form.
Project description:The activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (measured in a crude supernatant fraction) caused by insulin treatment of adipocytes was completely unaffected by the addition of a large amount of highly purified protein phosphatase to the supernatant fraction. Under the same conditions the inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by adrenaline was totally reversed. Experiments with 32P-labelled adipocytes showed that insulin increased the total phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase from 2.7 to 3.5 molecules of phosphate/240 kDa subunit, and confirmed that this increase was partially accounted for by phosphorylation within a specific peptide (the 'I-site' peptide). Protein phosphatase treatment of the crude supernatant fractions removed over 80% of the 32P radioactivity from the enzyme and removed all detectable radioactivity from the I-site peptide. The effect of insulin on acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity, but not the effect on phosphorylation, was lost on purification of the enzyme on avidin-Sepharose. The effect on enzyme activity was also lost if crude supernatant fractions were subjected to rapid gel filtration after treatment under conditions of high ionic strength, similar to those used in the avidin-Sepharose procedure. These results show that, although insulin does increase the phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase at a specific site, this does not cause enzyme activation. They suggest instead that activation of the enzyme by insulin is mediated by a tightly bound low-Mr effector which dissociates from the enzyme at high ionic strength.
Project description:Rat epididymal fat-pads were incubated for 30min with glucose (2mg/ml) in the presence or absence of insulin. A twofold or greater increase in acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity was observed in extracts from insulin-treated tissue provided that assays were performed rapidly after extraction. This effect of insulin was evident whether or not extracts were prepared with albumin, and was not noticeably diminished by the presence of citrate or albumin or both in the assay. Incubation of extracts before assay led to activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and a marked diminution in the insulin effect. The enzyme in extracts was very sensitive to reversible inhibition by palmitoyl-CoA even in the presence of albumin (10mg/ml); inhibition persisted on dilution of enzyme and inhibitor. It is suggested that the observed activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by insulin may reflect changes in enzyme activity in the fat-cell resulting from the reduction of long-chain fatty-acyl-CoA that occurs in the presence of insulin. Activation of the enzyme with loss of the insulin effect on incubation of the extracts may be due to the slow dissociation of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA from the enzyme.
Project description:1. A regulator of acetyl-CoA carboxylase has been identified in high-speed supernatant fractions from rat liver. The regulator was found to activate highly purified acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2-3-fold at physiological citrate concentrations (0.1-0.5 mM). The effects of the regulator on acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity were dose-dependent, and half-maximal activation occurred in 7-8 min at 30 degrees C. 2. The acetyl-CoA carboxylase regulator was non-dialysable and was inactivated by heating or by exposure to carboxypeptidase. The regulator was enriched from rat liver cytosol by first removing the endogenous acetyl-CoA carboxylase and then using a combination of purification steps, including (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography. The regulator activity appeared to be a protein with a molecular mass of approx. 75 kDa, which could be eluted from mono-Q with approx. 0.35 M KCl as a single peak of activity. 3. Studies of the effects of the regulator on phosphorylation or subunit size of acetyl-CoA carboxylase indicated that the changes in enzyme activity are most unlikely to be explained by dephosphorylation or by proteolytic cleavage. 4. The regulator co-migrates with acetyl-CoA carboxylase through several purification steps, including ion-exchange chromatography and precipitation with (NH4)2SO4; however, the proteins may be separated by Sepharose-avidin chromatography, and the association between the proteins is also disrupted by addition of avidin in solution. Furthermore, the binding of the regulator itself to DEAE-cellulose is altered by the presence of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Taken together, these observations suggest that the effects of the regulator on acetyl-CoA carboxylase may be explained by direct protein-protein interaction in vitro.
Project description:1. The reaction pathway for the decarboxylation of oxaloacetate, catalysed by pig liver pyruvate carboxylase, was studied in the presence of saturating concentrations of K(+) and acetyl-CoA. 2. Free Mg(2+) binds to the enzyme in an equilibrium fashion and remains bound during all further catalytic cycles. MgADP(-) and P(i) bind randomly, at equilibrium, followed by the binding of oxaloacetate. Pyruvate is released before the ordered steay-state release of HCO(3) (-) and MgATP(2-). 3. These results are entirely consistent with studies on the carboxylation of pyruvate presented in the preceding paper (Warren & Tipton, 1974b) and together they allow a quantitative description of the reaction mechanism of pig liver pyruvate carboxylase. 4. In the absence of other substrates of the back reaction pig liver pyruvate carboxylase will decarboxylate oxaloacetate in a manner that is not inhibited by avidin. 5. Reciprocal plots involving oxaloacetate are non-linear curves, which suggest a negatively co-operative interaction between this substrate and the enzyme.
Project description:Preparations of pyruvate carboxylase catalyse the cleavage of MgATP in the absence of pyruvate and acetyl-CoA. The rate of this cleavage is higher in the presence of HCO3- than in its absence. Incubation of the enzyme preparations with an excess of the pyruvate carboxylase inhibitor, avidin, completely abolishes the pyruvate carboxylating activity of the enzyme preparations but only abolishes the HCO3(-)-dependent MgATP cleaving activity, with no effect on the HCO3(-)-independent ATPase activity. The HCO3(-)-dependent MgATP cleavage is also sensitive to inhibition by a pyruvate carboxylase inhibitor, oxamate, and the dependence of the reaction on the free Mg2+ concentration is similar to that of the pyruvate-carboxylation reaction, whereas the HCO3(-)-independent MgATP cleavage is not dependent on the concentration of free Mg2+ in the range tested. This indicates that MgATP cleavage by pyruvate carboxylase is entirely dependent on the presence of HCO3- and that there may be a low level of ATPase contamination in the enzyme preparations. In addition, inhibition of the HCO3(-)-dependent MgATP cleavage by both avidin and oxamate indicate that although biotin does not directly participate in the reaction, its presence is required in that part of the active site of the enzyme. The rate of HCO3(-)-dependent MgATP cleavage is about 0.07% of that of the full pyruvate carboxylation reaction under similar conditions with saturating substrates. The reaction mechanism is sequential with respect to MgATP and HCO3- addition and Mg2+ adds at equilibrium before MgATP. Acetyl-CoA stimulates the HCO3(-)-dependent MgATP cleavage at low MgATP concentrations, with the stimulation being greater at low Mg2+ concentrations. At high levels of MgATP in the presence of acetyl-CoA, substrate inhibition is evident and is more pronounced at increasing concentrations of Mg2+. This inhibition appears to be, at least in part, caused by inhibition of decarboxylation of the enzyme-carboxybiotin complex by the binding to this complex of Mg2+ and MgATP, which probably act to reduce the rate of movement of carboxybiotin from the site of the MgATP cleavage reaction to that of the pyruvate carboxylation reaction where it is unstable and decarboxylates.
Project description:During the formation of rape-seeds, lipid accumulated in the cotyledons from 16 days after pollination, rising to a plateau after 28 days. The accumulation of lipid was preceded by a marked rise in acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity, which declined rapidly, correlating with the decline in rate of lipid formation. Incubation of rape-seed extracts with avidin-agarose resulted in a decrease in acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity in the extract. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of polypeptides bound to avidin-agarose showed the presence of a polypeptide of Mr 225 000. The intensity of this band increased during the period of increase of acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity in the seeds.
Project description:The kinetic parameters and phosphorylation state of acetyl-CoA carboxylase were analysed after purification of the enzyme by avidin--Sepharose chromatography from extracts of isolated adipocytes treated with glucagon or adrenaline. The results provide evidence that the mechanism of inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in adipocytes treated with glucagon [Zammit & Corstorphine (1982) Biochem. J. 208, 783-788] involves increased phosphorylation of the enzyme. Hormone treatment had effects on the kinetic parameters of the enzyme similar to those of phosphorylation of the enzyme in vitro by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Glucagon treatment of adipocytes led to increased phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in the same chymotryptic peptide as that containing the major site phosphorylated on the enzyme by purified cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in vitro [Munday & Hardie (1984) Eur. J. Biochem. 141, 617-627]. The dose--response curves for inhibition of enzyme activity and increased phosphorylation of the enzyme were very similar, with half-maximal effects occurring at concentrations of glucagon (0.5-1 nM) which are close to the physiological range. In general, the patterns of increased 32P-labelling of chymotryptic peptides induced by glucagon or adrenaline were similar, although there were quantitative differences between the effects of the two hormones on individual peptides. The results are discussed in terms of the possible roles of cyclic AMP-dependent and -independent protein kinases in the regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity and of lipogenesis in white adipose tissue.
Project description:Activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase during incubation of crude extracts of lactating rat mammary gland with Mg2+ and citrate can be blocked by NaF, suggesting that it represents a dephosphorylation of the enzyme. The greater extent of activation in extracts from 24 h-starved rats (200%) compared with fed controls (70%) implies that the decrease in acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity in response to 24 h starvation may involve increased phosphorylation of the enzyme. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase was purified from the mammary glands of lactating rats in the presence of protein phosphatase inhibitors by avidin-Sepharose chromatography. Starvation of the rats for 24 h increased the concentration of citrate giving half-maximal activation by 75%, and decreased the Vmax. of the purified enzyme by 73%. This was associated with an increase in the alkali-labile phosphate content from 3.3 +/- 0.2 to 4.5 +/- 0.4 mol/mol of enzyme subunit. Starvation of lactating rats for 6 h, or short-term insulin deficiency induced by streptozotocin injection, did not effect the kinetic parameters or the phosphate content of acetyl-CoA carboxylase purified from mammary glands. The effects of 24 h starvation on the kinetic parameters and phosphate content of the purified enzyme were completely reversed by re-feeding for only 2.5 h. This effect was blocked if the animals were injected with streptozotocin before re-feeding, suggesting that the increase in plasma insulin that occurs on re-feeding was responsible for the activation of the enzyme. The effects of re-feeding 24 h-starved rats on the kinetic parameters and phosphate content of acetyl-CoA carboxylase could be mimicked by treating enzyme purified from 24 h-starved rats with protein phosphatase-2A in vitro. Our results suggest that, in mammary glands of 24 h-starved lactating rats, insulin brings about a dephosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in vivo, which may be at least partly responsible for the reactivation of mammary lipogenesis in response to re-feeding.
Project description:The pathway of autotrophic CO2 fixation was studied in the phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus and in the aerobic thermoacidophilic archaeon Metallosphaera sedula. In both organisms, none of the key enzymes of the reductive pentose phosphate cycle, the reductive citric acid cycle, and the reductive acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) pathway were detectable. However, cells contained the biotin-dependent acetyl-CoA carboxylase and propionyl-CoA carboxylase as well as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. The specific enzyme activities of the carboxylases were high enough to explain the autotrophic growth rate via the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle. Extracts catalyzed the CO2-, MgATP-, and NADPH-dependent conversion of acetyl-CoA to 3-hydroxypropionate via malonyl-CoA and the conversion of this intermediate to succinate via propionyl-CoA. The labelled intermediates were detected in vitro with either 14CO2 or [14C]acetyl-CoA as precursor. These reactions are part of the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle, the autotrophic pathway proposed for C. aurantiacus. The investigation was extended to the autotrophic archaea Sulfolobus metallicus and Acidianus infernus, which showed acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA carboxylase activities in extracts of autotrophically grown cells. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity is unexpected in archaea since they do not contain fatty acids in their membranes. These aerobic archaea, as well as C. aurantiacus, were screened for biotin-containing proteins by the avidin-peroxidase test. They contained large amounts of a small biotin-carrying protein, which is most likely part of the acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA carboxylases. Other archaea reported to use one of the other known autotrophic pathways lacked such small biotin-containing proteins. These findings suggest that the aerobic autotrophic archaea M. sedula, S. metallicus, and A. infernus use a yet-to-be-defined 3-hydroxypropionate cycle for their autotrophic growth. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase and propionyl-CoA carboxylase are proposed to be the main CO2 fixation enzymes, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase may have an anaplerotic function. The results also provide further support for the occurrence of the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle in C. aurantiacus.
Project description:The mechanism of the enzymic reaction responsible for chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria was examined by steady-state kinetic methods. The forward reaction catalysed by chloramphenicol acetyltransferase leads to inactivation of the antibiotic. Use of alternative acyl donors and acceptors, as well as the natural substrates, has yielded data that favour the view that the reaction proceeds to the formation of a ternary complex by a rapid-equilibrium mechanism wherein the addition of substrates may be random but a preference for acetyl-CoA as the leading substrate can be detected. Chloramphenicol and acetyl-CoA bind independently, but the correlation between directly determined and kinetically derived dissociation constants is imperfect because of an unreliable slope term in the rate equation. The reverse reaction, yielding acetyl-CoA and chloramphenicol, was studied in a coupled assay involving citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase, and is best described by a rapid-equilibrium mechanism with random addition of substrates. The directly determined dissociation constant for CoA is in agreement with that derived from kinetic measurements under the assumption of an independent-sites model.