Apolipoprotein CI overexpression is not a relevant strategy to block cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity in CETP transgenic mice.
ABSTRACT: ApoCI (apolipoprotein CI) is a potent inhibitor of plasma CETP [CE (cholesteryl ester) transfer protein]. The relevance of apoCI overexpression as a method for CETP blockade in vivo was addressed in the present study in CETPTg/apoCITg mice (mice expressing both human CETP and apoCI). Despite a significant reduction in specific CETP activity in CETPTg/apoCITg mice compared with CETPTg mice [transgenic mouse to human CETP; 46.8+/-11.1 versus 101.8+/-25.7 pmol x h(-1).(mug of plasma CETP)(-1) respectively; P<0.05], apoCI overexpression increased both the CETP mass concentration (3-fold increase; P<0.05) and the hepatic CETP mRNA level (4-fold increase, P<0.005), leading to an increase in total plasma CE transfer activity (by 39%, P<0.05). The ratio of apoB-containing lipoprotein to HDL (high-density lipoprotein) CE was 10-fold higher in CETPTg/apoCITg mice than in apoCITg mice (P<0.0005). It is proposed that the increased CETP expression in CETPTg/apoCITg mice is a direct consequence of liver X receptor activation in response to the accumulation of cholesterol-rich apoB-containing lipoproteins. In support of the latter view, hepatic mRNA levels of other liver X receptor-responsive genes [ABCG5 (ATP-binding cassette transporter GS) and SREBP-1c (sterol-regulatory-binding protein-1c)] were higher in CETPTg/apoCITg mice compared with CETPTg mice. In conclusion, overexpression of apoCI, while producing a significant inhibitory effect on specific CETP activity, does not represent a suitable method for decreasing total CE transfer activity in CETPTg/apoCITg mice, owing to an hyperlipidaemia-mediated effect on CETP gene expression.
Project description:Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) facilitates the transfer of HDL cholesteryl ester to triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL). This study aimed to determine the effects of CETP inhibition with torcetrapib on TRL composition and apoB-48 metabolism. Study subjects with low HDL cholesterol (<40 mg/dl), either untreated (n = 9) or receiving atorvastatin 20 mg daily (n = 9), received placebo for 4 weeks, followed by torcetrapib 120 mg once daily for the next 4 weeks. A subset of the subjects not treated with atorvastatin participated in a third phase (n = 6), in which they received torcetrapib 120 mg twice daily for an additional 4 weeks. At the end of each phase, all subjects received a primed-constant infusion of [5,5,5-(2)H(3)]L-leucine, while in the constantly fed state, to determine the kinetics of TRL apoB-48 and TRL composition. Relative to placebo, torcetrapib markedly reduced TRL CE levels in all groups (?-69%; P < 0.005). ApoB-48 pool size (PS) and production rate (PR) decreased in the nonatorvastatin once daily (PS: -49%, P = 0.007; PR: -49%, P = 0.005) and twice daily (PS: -30%, P = 0.01; PR: -27%, P = 0.13) cohorts. In the atorvastatin cohort, apoB-48 PS and PR, which were already lowered by atorvastatin, did not change with torcetrapib. Our findings indicate that CETP inhibition reduced plasma apoB-48 concentrations by reducing apoB-48 production but did not have this effect in subjects already treated with atorvastatin.
Project description:Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity is high in rabbits, intermediate in humans, and nondetectable in rodents. Human apolipoprotein CI (apoCI) was found to be a potent inhibitor of CETP. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of rabbit and human apoCI to modulate the interaction of CETP with HDLs and to evaluate to which extent apoCI contributes to plasma cholesteryl ester transfer rate in normolipidemic humans and rabbits. Rabbit apoCI gene was cloned and sequenced, rabbit and human apoCI were purified to homogeneity, and their ability to modify the surface charge properties and the CETP inhibitory potential of HDL were compared. It is demonstrated that unlike human apoCI, rabbit apoCI does not modulate cholesteryl ester transfer rate in total plasma. Whereas both human and rabbit apoCI readily associate with HDL, only human apoCI was found to modify the electrostatic charge of HDL. In humans, both CETP and apoCI at normal, physiological levels contribute significantly to the plasma cholesteryl ester transfer rate. In contrast, CETP is the sole major determinant of cholesteryl ester transfer in normolipidemic rabbit plasma as a result of the inability of rabbit apoCI to change HDL electronegativity.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Xanthohumol is expected to be a potent anti-atherosclerotic agent due to its inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). In this study, we hypothesized that xanthohumol prevents atherosclerosis in vivo and used CETP-transgenic mice (CETP-Tg mice) to evaluate xanthohumol as a functional agent.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Two strains of mice, CETP-Tg and C57BL/6N (wild-type), were fed a high cholesterol diet with or without 0.05% (w/w) xanthohumol ad libitum for 18 weeks. In CETP-Tg mice, xanthohumol significantly decreased accumulated cholesterol in the aortic arch and increased HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) when compared to the control group (without xanthohumol). Xanthohumol had no significant effect in wild-type mice. CETP activity was significantly decreased after xanthohumol addition in CETP-Tg mice compared with the control group and it inversely correlated with HDL-C (%) (P<0.05). Furthermore, apolipoprotein E (apoE) was enriched in serum and the HDL-fraction in CETP-Tg mice after xanthohumol addition, suggesting that xanthohumol ameliorates reverse cholesterol transport via apoE-rich HDL resulting from CETP inhibition.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results suggest xanthohumol prevents cholesterol accumulation in atherogenic regions by HDL-C metabolism via CETP inhibition leading to apoE enhancement.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Determine the impact of CETP (cholesteryl ester transfer protein) on the route of cholesterol elimination in mice. Approach and Results: We adapted our protocol for biliary cholesterol secretion with published methods for measuring transintestinal cholesterol elimination. Bile was diverted and biliary lipid secretion maintained by infusion of bile acid. The proximal small bowel was perfused with bile acid micelles. In high-fat, high-cholesterol-fed mice, the presence of a CETP transgene increased biliary cholesterol secretion at the expense of transintestinal cholesterol elimination. The increase in biliary cholesterol secretion was not associated with increases in hepatic SR-BI (scavenger receptor BI) or ABCG5 (ATP-binding cassette G5) ABCG8. The decline in intestinal cholesterol secretion was associated with an increase in intestinal Niemann-Pick disease, type C1, gene-like 1 mRNA. Finally, we followed the delivery of HDL (high-density lipoprotein) or LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesteryl esters (CE) from plasma to bile and intestinal perfusates. HDL-CE favored the biliary pathway. Following high-fat feeding, the presence of CETP directed HDL-CE away from the bile and towards the intestine. The presence of CETP increased LDL-CE delivery to bile, whereas the appearance of LDL-CE in intestinal perfusate was near the lower limit of detection. CONCLUSIONS:Biliary and intestinal cholesterol secretion can be simultaneously measured in mice and used as a model to examine factors that alter cholesterol elimination. Plasma factors, such as CETP, alter the route of cholesterol elimination from the body. Intestinal and biliary cholesterol secretion rates are independent of transhepatic or transintestinal delivery of HDL-CE, whereas LDL-CE was eliminated almost exclusively in the hepatobiliary pathway.
Project description:In almost 30 years since the introduction of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), no other class of lipid modulators has entered the market. Elevation of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) via inhibiting cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is an attractive strategy for reducing the risk of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. Transfer of triglyceride and cholesteryl ester (CE) between lipoproteins is mediated by CETP; thus inhibition of this pathway can increase the concentration of HDL-C. Torcetrapib was the first CETP inhibitor evaluated in phase III clinical trials. Because of off-target effects, torcetrapib raised blood pressure and increased the concentration of serum aldosterone, leading to higher cardiovascular events and mortality. Torcetrapib showed positive effects on cardiovascular risk especially in patients with a greater increase in HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1) levels. The phase III clinical trial of dalcetrapib, the second CETP inhibitor that has entered clinical development, was terminated because of ineffectiveness. Dalcetrapib is a CETP modulator that elevated HDL-C levels but did not reduce the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Both heterotypic and homotypic CE transfer between lipoproteins are mediated by some CETP inhibitors, including torcetrapib, anacetrapib, and evacetrapib, while dalcetrapib only affects the heterotypic CE transfer. Dalcetrapib has a chemical structure that is distinct from other CETP inhibitors, with a smaller molecular weight and a lack of trifluoride moieties. Moreover, dalcetrapib is a pro-drug that must be hydrolyzed to a pharmacologically active thiol form. Two other CETP inhibitors, anacetrapib and evacetrapib, are currently undergoing evaluation in phase III clinical trials. Both molecules have shown beneficial effects by increasing HDL-C and decreasing LDL-C concentration. The success of anacetrapib and evacetrapib remains to be confirmed upon the completion of phase III clinical trials in 2017 and 2015, respectively. Generally, the concentration of HDL-C has been considered a biomarker for the activity of CETP inhibitors. However, it is not clear whether a fundamental relationship exists between HDL-C levels and the risk of coronary artery diseases. The most crucial role for HDL is cholesterol efflux capacity in which HDL can reverse transport cholesterol from foam cells in atherosclerotic plaques. In view of the heterogeneity in HDL particle size, charge, and composition, the mere concentration of HDL-C may not be a good surrogate marker for HDL functionality. Recent clinical studies have reported that increased HDL functionality inversely correlates with the development of atherosclerotic plaque. Future development of CETP inhibitors may therefore benefit from the use of biomarkers of HDL functionality.
Project description:Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mediates the transfer of cholesterol esters (CE) from atheroprotective high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to atherogenic low-density lipoproteins (LDL). CETP inhibition has been regarded as a promising strategy for increasing HDL levels and subsequently reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Although the crystal structure of CETP is known, little is known regarding how CETP binds to HDL. Here, we investigated how various HDL-like particles interact with CETP by electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. Results showed that CETP binds to HDL via hydrophobic interactions rather than protein-protein interactions. The HDL surface lipid curvature generates a hydrophobic environment, leading to CETP hydrophobic distal end interaction. This interaction is independent of other HDL components, such as apolipoproteins, cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Thus, disrupting these hydrophobic interactions could be a new therapeutic strategy for attenuating the interaction of CETP with HDL.
Project description:Some cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels without reducing cardiovascular events, suggesting that the clinical benefit of lowering LDL-C may depend on how LDL-C is lowered.To estimate the association between changes in levels of LDL-C (and other lipoproteins) and the risk of cardiovascular events related to variants in the CETP gene, both alone and in combination with variants in the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) gene.Mendelian randomization analyses evaluating the association between CETP and HMGCR scores, changes in lipid and lipoprotein levels, and the risk of cardiovascular events involving 102?837 participants from 14 cohort or case-control studies conducted in North America or the United Kingdom between 1948 and 2012. The associations with cardiovascular events were externally validated in 189?539 participants from 48 studies conducted between 2011 and 2015.Differences in mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, and apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels in participants with CETP scores at or above vs below the median.Odds ratio (OR) for major cardiovascular events.The primary analysis included 102?837 participants (mean age, 59.9 years; 58% women) who experienced 13?821 major cardiovascular events. The validation analyses included 189?539 participants (mean age, 58.5 years; 39% women) with 62?240 cases of coronary heart disease (CHD). Considered alone, the CETP score was associated with higher levels of HDL-C, lower LDL-C, concordantly lower apoB, and a corresponding lower risk of major vascular events (OR, 0.946 [95% CI, 0.921-0.972]) that was similar in magnitude to the association between the HMGCR score and risk of major cardiovascular events per unit change in levels of LDL-C (and apoB). When combined with the HMGCR score, the CETP score was associated with the same reduction in LDL-C levels but an attenuated reduction in apoB levels and a corresponding attenuated nonsignificant risk of major cardiovascular events (OR, 0.985 [95% CI, 0.955-1.015]). In external validation analyses, a genetic score consisting of variants with naturally occurring discordance between levels of LDL-C and apoB was associated with a similar risk of CHD per unit change in apoB level (OR, 0.782 [95% CI, 0.720-0.845] vs 0.793 [95% CI, 0.774-0.812]; P?=?.79 for difference), but a significantly attenuated risk of CHD per unit change in LDL-C level (OR, 0.916 [95% CI, 0.890-0.943] vs 0.831 [95% CI, 0.816-0.847]; P?<?.001) compared with a genetic score associated with concordant changes in levels of LDL-C and apoB.Combined exposure to variants in the genes that encode the targets of CETP inhibitors and statins was associated with discordant reductions in LDL-C and apoB levels and a corresponding risk of cardiovascular events that was proportional to the attenuated reduction in apoB but significantly less than expected per unit change in LDL-C. The clinical benefit of lowering LDL-C levels may therefore depend on the corresponding reduction in apoB-containing lipoprotein particles.
Project description:Impaired scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI)-mediated uptake of HDL-cholesterol esters (HDL-CE) induces adrenal insufficiency in mice. Humans contain an alternative route of HDL-CE clearance, namely through the transfer by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) to apolipoprotein B lipoproteins for subsequent uptake via the LDL receptor. In this study, we determined whether CETP can compensate for loss of adrenal SR-BI. Transgenic expression of human CETP (CETP Tg) in SR-BI knockout (KO) mice increased adrenal HDL-CE clearance from 33-58% of the control value. SR-BI KO/CETP Tg and SR-BI KO mice displayed adrenal hypertrophy due to equally high plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone levels. Adrenal cholesterol levels and plasma corticosterone levels were 38-52% decreased in SR-BI KO mice with and without CETP expression. SR-BI KO/CETP Tg mice also failed to increase their corticosterone level after lipopolysaccharide challenge, leading to an identical >4-fold increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha response compared with controls. These data indicate that uptake of CE via other routes than SR-BI is not sufficient to generate the cholesterol pool needed for optimal adrenal steroidogenesis. In conclusion, we have shown that CETP-mediated transfer of HDL-CE is not able to reverse adrenal insufficiency in SR-BI knockout mice. Thus, SR-BI-mediated uptake of serum cholesterol is essential for optimal adrenal function.
Project description:Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) promotes the cholesterol enrichment of apoB-containing lipoproteins (VLDL and LDL) at the expense of HDL. Recent studies demonstrated that apoC1 is a potent CETP inhibitor in plasma of healthy, normolipidemic subjects. Our goal was to establish whether the modulation of CETP activity by apoC1 is influenced by dyslipidemia in patients with documented coronary artery disease (CAD). In the total CAD population studied (n = 240), apoC1 levels correlated negatively with CETP activity, independently of apoE-epsilon, CETP-Taq1B, and apoC1-Hpa1 genotypes. In multivariate analysis, the negative relationship was observed only in normolipidemic patients, not in those with hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, or combined hyperlipidemia. In the normolipidemic subjects, apoC1 levels were positively associated with higher HDL- to LDL-cholesterol ratio (r = 0.359, P < 0.001). It is concluded that apoC1 as a CETP inhibitor no longer operates on cholesterol redistribution in high-risk patients with dyslipidemia, probably due to increasing amounts of VLDL-bound apoC1, which is inactive as a CETP inhibitor. Patients with dyslipidemia could experience major benefits from treatment with pharmacological CETP inhibitors, which might compensate for blunted endogenous inhibition.
Project description:Lipid and cholesterol metabolism in the postprandial phase is associated with both quantitative and qualitative remodeling of HDL particle subspecies that may influence their anti-atherogenic functions in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. We evaluated the capacity of whole plasma or isolated HDL particles to mediate cellular free cholesterol (FC) efflux, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-mediated cholesteryl ester (CE) transfer, and selective hepatic CE uptake during the postprandial phase in subjects displaying type IIB hyperlipidemia (n = 16). Postprandial, large HDL2 displayed an enhanced capacity to mediate FC efflux via both scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI)-dependent (+12%; P < 0.02) and ATP binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1)-dependent (+31%; P < 0.008) pathways in in vitro cell systems. In addition, the capacity of whole postprandial plasma (4 h and 8 h postprandially) to mediate cellular FC efflux via the ABCA1-dependent pathway was significantly increased (+19%; P < 0.0003). Concomitantly, postprandial lipemia was associated with elevated endogenous CE transfer rates from HDL2 to apoB lipoproteins and with attenuated capacity (-17%; P < 0.02) of total HDL to deliver CE to hepatic cells. Postprandial lipemia enhanced SR-BI and ABCG1-dependent efflux to large HDL2 particles. However, postprandial lipemia is equally associated with deleterious features by enhancing formation of CE-enriched, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles through the action of CETP and by reducing the direct return of HDL-CE to the liver.