Structure-function analysis of water-soluble inhibitors of the catalytic domain of exotoxin A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
ABSTRACT: The mono-ADPRT (mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ETA (exotoxin A), catalyses the transfer of ADP-ribose from NAD+ to its protein substrate. A series of water-soluble compounds that structurally mimic the nicotinamide moiety of NAD+ was investigated for their inhibition of the catalytic domain of ETA. The importance of an amide locked into a hetero-ring structure and a core hetero-ring system that is planar was a trend evident by the IC50 values. Also, the weaker inhibitors have core ring structures that are less planar and thus more flexible. One of the most potent inhibitors, PJ34, was further characterized and shown to exhibit competitive inhibition with an inhibition constant K(i) of 140 nM. We also report the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of ETA in complex with PJ34, the first example of a mono-ADPRT in complex with an inhibitor. The 2.1 A (1 A=0.1 nm) resolution structure revealed that PJ34 is bound within the nicotinamide-binding pocket and forms stabilizing hydrogen bonds with the main chain of Gly-441 and to the side-chain oxygen of Gln-485, a member of a proposed catalytic loop. Structural comparison of this inhibitor complex with diphtheria toxin (a mono-ADPRT) and with PARPs [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases] shows similarity of the catalytic residues; however, a loop similar to that found in ETA is present in diphtheria toxin but not in PARP. The present study provides insight into the important features required for inhibitors that mimic NAD+ and their binding to the mono-ADPRT family of toxins.
Project description:Various bacterial pathogens secrete toxins, which are not only responsible for fatal pathogenesis of disease, but also facilitate evasion of host defences. One of the best-known bacterial toxin groups is the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase family. In the present study, we demonstrate that human neutrophil alpha-defensins are potent inhibitors of the bacterial enzymes, particularly against DT (diphtheria toxin) and ETA (Pseudomonas exotoxin A). HNP1 (human neutrophil protein 1) inhibited DT- or ETA-mediated ADP-ribosylation of eEF2 (eukaryotic elongation factor 2) and protected HeLa cells against DT- or ETA-induced cell death. Kinetic analysis revealed that inhibition of DT and ETA by HNP1 was competitive with respect to eEF2 and uncompetitive against NAD+ substrates. Our results reveal that toxin neutralization represents a novel biological function of HNPs in host defence.
Project description:A bioinformatics strategy was used to identify Scabin, a novel DNA-targeting enzyme from the plant pathogen 87.22 strain of Streptomyces scabies Scabin shares nearly 40% sequence identity with the Pierisin family of mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase toxins. Scabin was purified to homogeneity as a 22-kDa single-domain enzyme and was shown to possess high NAD(+)-glycohydrolase (Km (NAD) = 68 ± 3 ?m; kcat = 94 ± 2 min(-1)) activity with an RSQXE motif; it was also shown to target deoxyguanosine and showed sigmoidal enzyme kinetics (K0.5(deoxyguanosine) = 302 ± 12 ?m; kcat = 14 min(-1)). Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that Scabin labels the exocyclic amino group on guanine bases in either single-stranded or double-stranded DNA. Several small molecule inhibitors were identified, and the most potent compounds were found to inhibit the enzyme activity with Ki values ranging from 3 to 24 ?m PJ34, a well known inhibitor of poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases, was shown to be the most potent inhibitor of Scabin. Scabin was crystallized, representing the first structure of a DNA-targeting mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase enzyme; the structures of the apo-form (1.45 Å) and with two inhibitors (P6-E, 1.4 Å; PJ34, 1.6 Å) were solved. These x-ray structures are also the first high resolution structures of the Pierisin subgroup of the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin family. A model of Scabin with its DNA substrate is also proposed.
Project description:NarE is a 16 kDa protein identified from Neisseria meningitidis, one of the bacterial pathogens responsible for meningitis. NarE belongs to the family of ADP-ribosyltransferases (ADPRT) and catalyzes the transfer of ADP-ribose moieties to arginine residues in target protein acceptors. Many pathogenic bacteria utilize ADP-ribosylating toxins to modify and alter essential functions of eukaryotic cells. NarE is further the first ADPRT which could be shown to bind iron through a Fe-S center, which is crucial for the catalytic activity. Here we present the NMR solution structure of NarE, which shows structural homology to other ADPRTs. Using NMR titration experiments we could identify from Chemical Shift Perturbation data both the NAD binding site, which is in perfect agreement with a consensus sequence analysis between different ADPRTs, as well as the iron coordination site, which consists of 2 cysteines and 2 histidines. This atypical iron coordination is also capable to bind zinc. These results could be fortified by site-directed mutagenesis of the catalytic region, which identified two functionally crucial residues. We could further identify a main interaction region of NarE with antibodies using two complementary methods based on antibody immobilization, proteolytic digestion, and mass spectrometry. This study combines structural and functional features of NarE providing for the first time a characterization of an iron-dependent ADPRT.
Project description:ADP-ribosyl transferases with diphtheria toxin homology (ARTDs) catalyse the covalent addition of ADP-ribose onto different acceptors forming mono- or poly(ADP-ribos)ylated proteins. Out of the 18 members identified, only four are known to synthesise the complex poly(ADP-ribose) biopolymer. The investigation of this posttranslational modification is important due to its involvement in cancer and other diseases. Lately, metabolic labelling approaches comprising different reporter-modified NAD<sup>+</sup> building blocks have stimulated and enriched proteomic studies and imaging applications of ADP-ribosylation processes. Herein, we compare the substrate scope and applicability of different NAD<sup>+</sup> analogues for the investigation of the polymer-synthesising enzymes ARTD1, ARTD2, ARTD5 and ARTD6. By varying the site and size of the NAD<sup>+</sup> modification, suitable probes were identified for each enzyme. This report provides guidelines for choosing analogues for studying poly(ADP-ribose)-synthesising enzymes.
Project description:ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTD1-16) have emerged as major downstream effectors of NAD(+) signaling in the cell. Most ARTDs (ARTD7 and 8, 10-12, and 14-17) catalyze the transfer of a single unit of ADP-ribose from NAD(+) to target proteins, a process known as mono-ADP-ribosylation (MARylation). Progress in understanding the cellular functions of MARylation has been limited by the inability to identify the direct targets for individual mono-ARTDs. Here, we engineered mono-ARTDs to use an NAD(+) analog that is orthogonal to wild-type ARTDs. We profiled the MARylomes of ARTD10 and ARTD11 in vitro, identifying isoform-specific targets and revealing a potential role for ARTD11 in nuclear pore complex biology. We found that ARTD11 targeting is dependent on both its regulatory and catalytic domains, which has important implications for how ARTDs recognize their targets. We anticipate that our chemical genetic strategy will be generalizable to all mono-ARTD family members based on the similarity of the mono-ARTD catalytic domains.
Project description:The conformation of NAD bound to diphtheria toxin (DT), an ADP-ribosylating enzyme, has been compared to the conformations of NAD(P) bound to 23 distinct NAD(P)-binding oxidoreductase enzymes, whose structures are available in the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank. For the oxidoreductase enzymes, NAD(P) functions as a cofactor in electron transfer, whereas for DT, NAD is a labile substrate in which the N-glycosidic bond between the nicotinamide ring and the N-ribose is cleaved. All NAD(P) conformations were compared by (1) visual inspection of superimposed molecules, (2) RMSD of atomic positions, (3) principal component analysis, and (4) analysis of torsion angles and other conformational parameters. Whereas the majority of oxidoreductase-bound NAD(P) conformations are found to be similar, the conformation of NAD bound to DT is found to be unusual. Distinctive features of the conformation of NAD bound to DT that may be relevant to DT's function as an ADP-ribosylating enzyme include (1) an unusually short distance between the PN and N1N atoms, reflecting a highly folded conformation for the nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) portion of NAD, and (2) a torsion angle chi N approximately 0 degree about the scissile N-glycosidic bond, placing the nicotinamide ring outside of the preferred anti and syn orientations. In NAD bound to DT, the highly folded NMN conformation and torsion angle chi N approximately 0 degree could contribute to catalysis, possibly by orienting the C1'N atom of NAD for nucleophilic attack, or by placing strain on the N-glycosidic bond, which is cleaved by DT. The unusual overall conformation of NAD bound to DT is likely to reflect the structure of DT, which is unusual among NAD(P)-binding enzymes. In DT, the NAD binding site is formed at the junction of two antiparallel beta-sheets. In contrast, although the 24 oxidoreductase enzymes belong to at least six different structural classes, almost all of them bind NAD(P) at the C-terminal end of a parallel beta-sheet. The structural alignments and principal component analysis show that enzymes of the same structural class bind to particularly similar conformations of NAD(P), with few exceptions. The conformation of NAD bound to DT superimposes closely with that of an NAD analogue bound to Pseudomonas exotoxin A, an ADP-ribosylating toxin that is structurally homologous to DT. This suggests that all of the ADP-ribosylating enzymes that are structurally homologous to DT and ETA will bind a highly similar conformation of NAD.
Project description:Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is a critical molecule involved in various biological functions. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) affect cellular NAD+ levels and play essential roles in regulating metabolism. However, there has been little research on the effects of PARP1 and SIRT1 crosstalk during senescence.We isolated endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from human umbilical cord blood and treated them with a PARP1 inhibitor (PJ34).Using a stress-induced premature aging model built by H2O2, transfection with adenoviral vectors, and Western blot analysis, we observed that PJ34 treatment preserved intracellular NAD+ levels, increased SIRT1 activity, decreased p53 acetylation, and improved the function of stress-induced premature aging EPCs.Our results suggest that PJ34 improves the function of aging-induced EPCs and may contribute to cellular therapies for atherosclerosis.
Project description:Mono ADP-ribosyltransferases (mADP-RTs) are a family of enzymes that cleave NAD(+) and covalently attach the ADP-ribosyl moiety to target proteins. mADP-RTs are well established as important virulence factors of bacteria that infect mammals. Cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, and diphtheria toxin are three of the best-known examples of mADP-RTs. They modify host target proteins in order to promote infection and/or killing of the host cell. Despite low sequence similarity at the primary amino acid level, mADP-RTs share a conserved core catalytic fold and structural biology has made important contributions to elucidating how mADP-RTs modify mammalian host targets. Recently, mADP-RTs were shown to be present in plant pathogenic bacteria, suggesting that mADP-RTs are also important virulence factors of plant pathogens. Crystal structures of plant pathogenic bacterial mADP-RTs are also now available. Here we review the structure/function of mADP-RTs from pathogens of mammals and plants, highlighting both commonalities and differences.
Project description:The cholix toxin gene (chxA) was first identified in V. cholerae strains in 2007, and the protein was identified by bioinformatics analysis in 2008. It was identified as the third member of the diphtheria toxin group of mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase toxins along with P. aeruginosa exotoxin A and C. diphtheriae diphtheria toxin. Our group determined the structure of the full-length, three-domain cholix toxin at 2.1 Å and its C-terminal catalytic domain (cholixc) at 1.25 Å resolution. We showed that cholix toxin is specific for elongation factor 2 (diphthamide residue), similar to exotoxin A and diphtheria toxin. Cholix toxin possesses molecular features required for infection of eukaryotes by receptor-mediated endocytosis, translocation to the host cytoplasm and inhibition of protein synthesis. More recently, we also solved the structure of full-length cholix toxin in complex with NAD+ and proposed a new kinetic model for cholix enzyme activity. In addition, we have taken a computational approach that revealed some important properties of the NAD+-binding pocket at the residue level, including the role of crystallographic water molecules in the NAD+ substrate interaction. We developed a pharmacophore model of cholix toxin, which revealed a cationic feature in the side chain of cholix toxin active-site inhibitors that may determine the active pose. Notably, several recent reports have been published on the role of cholix toxin as a major virulence factor in V. cholerae (non-O1/O139 strains). Additionally, FitzGerald and coworkers prepared an immunotoxin constructed from domains II and III as a cancer treatment strategy to complement successful immunotoxins derived from P. aeruginosa exotoxin A.
Project description:The mammalian poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family includes ADP-ribosyltransferases with diphtheria toxin homology (ARTD). Most members have mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. PARP13/ARTD13, also called zinc finger antiviral protein, has roles in viral immunity and microRNA-mediated stress responses. PARP13 features a divergent PARP homology domain missing a PARP consensus sequence motif; the domain has enigmatic functions and apparently lacks catalytic activity. We used x-ray crystallography, molecular dynamics simulations, and biochemical analyses to investigate the structural requirements for ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in human PARP13 and two of its functional partners in stress granules: PARP12/ARTD12, and PARP15/BAL3/ARTD7. The crystal structure of the PARP homology domain of PARP13 shows obstruction of the canonical active site, precluding NAD(+) binding. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this closed cleft conformation is maintained in solution. Introducing consensus side chains in PARP13 did not result in 3-aminobenzamide binding, but in further closure of the site. Three-dimensional alignment of the PARP homology domains of PARP13, PARP12, and PARP15 illustrates placement of PARP13 residues that deviate from the PARP family consensus. Introducing either one of two of these side chains into the corresponding positions in PARP15 abolished PARP15 ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Taken together, our results show that PARP13 lacks the structural requirements for ADP-ribosyltransferase activity.