Evidence for an ethanolamine cycle: differential recycling of the ethanolamine moiety of phosphatidylethanolamine derived from phosphatidylserine and ethanolamine.
ABSTRACT: Evidence is presented for the operation of an ethanolamine-phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) cycle in Chinese hamster ovary cells. PtdEtn was labelled with [3H]ethanolamine and radioactivity was chased by incubation with 1 mM unlabelled ethanolamine. Radioactivity in [3H]PtdEtn gradually declined over a 23 h time period. In contrast, when the cells were incubated in medium lacking unlabelled ethanolamine, radioactivity in PtdEtn remained constant for at least 23 h. These observations suggest that the ethanolamine moiety is continuously released from PtdEtn and recycled back into PtdEtn. In cells incubated without unlabelled ethanolamine, labelled ethanolamine released from PtdEtn is re-incorporated into PtdEtn without significant dilution. In contrast, in cells incubated with unlabelled ethanolamine the specific radioactivity of the intracellular ethanolamine pool decreases as a result of dilution by the exogenous ethanolamine, hence radioactivity in PtdEtn gradually declines. Similar results were obtained for confluent and non-confluent cells. Our data also demonstrate that when PtdEtn is derived from phosphatidylserine decarboxylation, the ethanolamine cycle operates only in actively dividing, and not in confluent, cells, implying that PtdEtn derived from different biosynthetic origins [i.e. from decarboxylation of phosphatidylserine or from ethanolamine (most likely via the CDP-ethanolamine pathway)] is metabolized differently.
Project description:Studies with mammalian cell lines have led to suggestions that mammalian tissues may derive all of their phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) from the decarboxylation of phosphatidylserine (PS), and also that the physiological significance of the CDP-ethanolamine pathway was the synthesis of ethanolamine plasmalogen. We have therefore investigated the biosynthesis of PE and ethanolamine plasmalogen via the CDP-ethanolamine and decarboxylation pathways in vivo in three rat tissues (heart, kidney and liver), which differ in ethanolamine plasmalogen content. In all three tissues [14C]ethanolamine was incorporated into both PE and ethanolamine plasmalogen, whereas [3H]serine was incorporated into only PS and PE fractions. When [14C]ethanolamine was introduced into the animals, the specific radioactivity of ethanolamine plasmalogen in the kidney was always greater than that of the PE fraction; in the heart the specific radioactivity of the ethanolamine plasmalogen fraction was similar to that of the PE fraction, whereas in the liver the specific radioactivity of the PE fraction was always greater than that of the ethanolamine plasmalogen fraction. The results obtained in this study indicate that: (1) the CDP-ethanolamine pathway is utilized for the synthesis of both PE and ethanolamine plasmalogen in all three tissues; (2) the decarboxylation pathway is utilized solely for the synthesis of PE; (3) serine plasmalogens are not formed by base-exchange reactions; (4) the relative utilization of the CDP-ethanolamine pathway for the synthesis of PE and ethanolamine plasmalogen varies among tissues. Our studies also revealed that the hypolipidaemic drug MDL 29350 is a potent inhibitor of PE N-methyltransferase activity in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:We have investigated whether the growth requirement of keratinocytes for ethanolamine is due to defective synthesis of ethanolamine phosphoacylglycerols (EPG) via decarboxylation of serine phosphoacylglycerols. Proliferating keratinocytes readily incorporated [3H]ethanolamine into phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and [3H]serine into phosphatidylserine (PS) and PE. Non-proliferating keratinocytes in ethanolamine-free medium incorporated [3H]glycerol into phosphatidylcholine (PC), PS and PE in decreasing order of label incorporated. The order of decreasing incorporation of glycerol after addition of ethanolamine to the medium was PC > PE > PS. Incubation of non-proliferating keratinocytes with [3H]serine resulted in incorporation of label into PS and PE. The extent of incorporation of [3H]serine into PS in non-proliferating keratinocytes was not less than that in proliferating cells. Addition of ethanolamine to the medium of non-proliferating keratinocytes did not change the quantity of label incorporated into PS, but resulted in a decrease of label incorporated into PE. When cells were prelabelled overnight with [3H]serine and subsequently incubated in medium containing ethanolamine, the loss of label from PS was inhibited relative to that of control cells incubated in medium without ethanolamine. The activity of PS decarboxylase activity in keratinocyte mitochondria was inhibited by phosphoethanolamine and PE, but not by ethanolamine or CDP-ethanolamine. Both proliferating and non-proliferating keratinocytes incorporated [3H]serine into ether-linked ethanolamine phospholipids. Taken together, the above results suggest that (1) both proliferating and non-proliferating keratinocytes are able to synthesize PE and ether-linked ethanolamine phospholipids from serine, and therefore the ethanolamine-requirement of the cells is not due to a defective decarboxylase pathway; (2) any inability of the decarboxylase pathway to meet cellular EPG requirement is not due to decreased synthesis of serine phospholipids; (3) synthesis of PE via decarboxylation, the major route in nonproliferating keratinocytes, appears to decrease when ethanolamine is made available and the CDP-ethanolamine pathway is functioning; (4) phosphoethanolamine and increased PE produced from the CDP-ethanolamine pathway may inhibit PS decarboxylase activity in the cells and provide a means of coordinating the synthesis of PE by the two pathways to prevent excess production.
Project description:Toxoplasma gondii is a highly prevalent obligate intracellular parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa, which also includes other parasites of clinical and/or veterinary importance, such as Plasmodium, Cryptosporidium, and Eimeria. Acute infection by Toxoplasma is hallmarked by rapid proliferation in its host cells and requires a significant synthesis of parasite membranes. Phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) is the second major phospholipid class in T. gondii. Here, we reveal that PtdEtn is produced in the parasite mitochondrion and parasitophorous vacuole by decarboxylation of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and in the endoplasmic reticulum by fusion of CDP-ethanolamine and diacylglycerol. PtdEtn in the mitochondrion is synthesized by a phosphatidylserine decarboxylase (TgPSD1mt) of the type I class. TgPSD1mt harbors a targeting peptide at its N terminus that is required for the mitochondrial localization but not for the catalytic activity. Ablation of TgPSD1mt expression caused up to 45% growth impairment in the parasite mutant. The PtdEtn content of the mutant was unaffected, however, suggesting the presence of compensatory mechanisms. Indeed, metabolic labeling revealed an increased usage of ethanolamine for PtdEtn synthesis by the mutant. Likewise, depletion of nutrients exacerbated the growth defect (?56%), which was partially restored by ethanolamine. Besides, the survival and residual growth of the TgPSD1mt mutant in the nutrient-depleted medium also indicated additional routes of PtdEtn biogenesis, such as acquisition of host-derived lipid. Collectively, the work demonstrates a metabolic cooperativity between the parasite organelles, which ensures a sustained lipid synthesis, survival and growth of T. gondii in varying nutritional milieus.
Project description:Erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium knowlesi efficiently incorporated radioactive serine into phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho). Serine was also metabolized into ethanolamine (Etn) and phosphorylethanolamine (P-Etn) via direct serine decarboxylation; this is a major phenomenon since together these metabolites represent 60% of total radioactive water-soluble metabolites. They were identified by reverse-phase HPLC and two TLC-type analyses and confirmed by alkaline phosphatase treatment, which depleted the radioactive P-Etn peak completely with a concomitant increase in that of Etn. In the presence of 5 microM labelled serine, radioactivity appeared in Etn and P-Etn after a 25 min lag period, and isotopic equilibrium was reached at 40 and 95 min respectively. There was a similar lag period for PtdEtn formation, which accumulated steadily for at least 180 min. Incorporation of serine into phospholipids and water-soluble metabolites increased in the presence of up to 500 microM external serine. An apparent plateau was then reached for all metabolites except intracellular serine and Etn. Exogenous Etn (at 20 microM) induced a concomitant dramatic decrease in serine incorporation into P-Etn and all phospholipids, but not into Etn. Increasing exogenous serine to 100 microM decreased the incorporation of radioactive Etn into PtdEtn by only 30%, and the PtdCho level was not affected. 2-Hydroxyethylhydrazine significantly decreased serine incorporation into P-Etn and PtdEtn, whereas Etn was accumulated. No concomitant inhibition of PtdSer or PtdCho labelling from serine occurred, even when PtdEtn formation was decreased by 95%. This indicates that the PtdEtn pool derived from direct serine decarboxylation differed from that derived from PtdSer decarboxylation, and the latter appeared to be preferentially used for PtdCho biosynthesis. Hydroxylamine also inhibited phosphorylation of serine-derived Etn but not that of exogenous Etn. The rate of PtdSer synthesis from 10 microM L-serine was 3.1+/-0.5 and 2.95+/-1.3 nmol/5 h per 10(10) infected cells, whereas L-serine decarboxylation accounted for 7.1+/-1.5 and 9.9+/-3 nmol/5 h per 10(10) infected cells for P. falciparum and P. knowlesi respectively (means+/-S.E.M.). The serine decarboxylating reaction was not detected in other higher eukaryotic cells such as mouse fibroblasts and human lymphocytes. Finally, these results also indicate compartmentalization of phospholipid metabolism in Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes.
Project description:Ethanolamine phospholipid head groups in Paramecium were synthesized directly from ethanolamine. As in other cell types, radioactivity from ethanolamine failed to incorporate significantly into head groups of ethanolamine phosphonolipids, indicating that the phosphonolipids are not derived from their phospholipid analogues. Unlike other systems previously examined, radioactivity from serine is incorporated into both ethanolamine phospholipid and phosphonolipid head groups of glycerolipids and sphingolipids in this ciliate. These observations suggest that synthesis of ethanolamine phosphonolipids involves synthesis de novo of free phosphonoserine, which is then incorporated into lipids, and then lipid-bound phosphonoserine intermediates (glycerolipids or sphingolipids) undergo decarboxylation, forming lipidbound phosphonoethanolamine compounds.
Project description:In this work, we determined the effects of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) on phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn), and evaluated the effects of the water-soluble product ethanolamine on S1P-induced DNA synthesis in NIH 3T3 cells. In [14C]ethanolamine-labelled cells, S1P (0.5-5 microM) stimulated PLD-mediated hydrolysis of PtdEtn 1.5-2.1-fold. Down-regulation of protein kinase C by chronic (24 h) treatment of cells with 300 nM PMA, or pretreatments (10 min) with the cell-permeant calcium chelator 1,2-bis-(O-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N, N',N'-tetra-acetic acid tetra-acetoxymethyl ester led to the inhibition of S1P-induced PtdEtn hydrolysis. S1P alone was a weak inducer of DNA synthesis, but its effects were enhanced by phosphocholine (PCho), insulin, ATP or PMA. Ethanolamine (5-100 microM) did not modify the mitogenic effect of S1P alone, whereas at 50-100 microM concentrations it actually enhanced the mitogenic effect of PCho via a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-independent mechanism. In contrast, 5-20 microM concentrations of ethanolamine, which correspond to normal blood ethanolamine levels in humans, strongly inhibited DNA synthesis induced by S1P plus PCho via a MAP kinase-dependent mechanism; importantly, less or no inhibition was observed with 50-100 microM concentrations of ethanolamine. At 5-50 microM concentrations, ethanolamine also inhibited the synergistic mitogenic effects of both S1P plus insulin (22-27% inhibition) and PCho plus ATP (45-73% inhibition) but not those of S1P plus PMA or S1P plus ATP. The results indicate that S1P stimulates PLD-mediated hydrolysis of PtdEtn by a mechanism that may involve a regulatory protein kinase C isoform. Increased formation of ethanolamine by PLD-mediated PtdEtn hydrolysis or by other means may be required for maximal stimulation of DNA synthesis by S1P in the presence of insulin, and particularly PCho.
Project description:Phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (ECT) catalyzes the rate-controlling step in a major pathway for the synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn). Hepatocyte-specific deletion of the ECT gene in mice resulted in normal appearing animals without overt signs of liver injury or inflammation. The molecular species of PtdEtn in the ECT-deficient livers were significantly altered compared with controls and matched the composition of the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) pool, illustrating the complete reliance on the PtdSer decarboxylase pathway for PtdEtn synthesis. PtdSer structure was controlled by the substrate specificity of PtdSer synthase that selectively converted phosphatidylcholine molecular species containing stearate paired with a polyunsaturated fatty acid to PtdSer. There was no evidence for fatty acid remodeling of PtdEtn. The elimination of diacylglycerol utilization by the CDP-ethanolamine pathway led to a 10-fold increase in triacylglycerols in the ECT-deficient hepatocytes that became engorged with lipid droplets. Triacylglycerol accumulation was associated with a significant elevation in the expression of the transcription factors and target genes that drive de novo lipogenesis. The absence of the ECT pathway for diacylglycerol utilization at the endoplasmic reticulum triggers increased fatty acid synthesis to support the formation of triacylglycerols leading to liver steatosis.
Project description:1. Ten bacteria utilizing [2-14C]ethanol-2-amine as the sole or major source of nitrogen for growth on glycerol + salts medium incorporated radioactivity into a variety of bacterial substances. A high proportion was commonly found in lipid fractions, particularly in the case of Erwinia carotovora. 2. Detailed studies of [14C]ethanolamine incorporation into lipids by five bacteria, including E. carotovora, showed that all detectable lipids were labelled. Even where phosphatidylethanolamine was the major lipid labelled, radioactivity was predominantly in the fatty acid rather than the base moiety. The labelled fatty acids were identified in each case. 3. The addition of acetate to growth media decreased the incorporation of radioactivity from ethanolamine into both fatty acid and phosphatidyl-base fragments of lipids from all the bacteria except Mycobacterium smegmatis. Experiments with [3H]ethanolamine and [14C]acetate confirmed that unlabelled acetate decreased the incorporation of both radioactive isotopes into lipids, except in the case of M. smegmatis. 4. Enzyme studies suggested one of two metabolic routes between ethanolamine and acetyl-CoA for each of four bacteria. A role for ethanolamine O-phosphate was not obligatory for the incorporation of [14C]ethanolamine into phospholipids, but correlated with CoA-independent aldehyde dehydrogenase activity.
Project description:Phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) is synthesized in mammalian cells by two base-exchange enzymes: PtdSer synthase (PSS)-1 primarily uses phosphatidylcholine as a substrate for exchange with serine, whereas PSS2 uses phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn). We previously expressed murine PSS1 in McArdle hepatoma cells. The activity of PSS1 in vitro and the synthesis of PtdSer and PtdSer-derived PtdEtn were increased, whereas PtdEtn synthesis from the CDP-ethanolamine pathway was inhibited [Stone, Cui and Vance (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 7293-7302]. We have now cloned and stably expressed a murine PSS2 cDNA in McArdle cells and M.9.1.1 cells [which are ethanolamine-requiring mutant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells defective in PSS1]. Expression of the PSS2 in M.9.1.1 cells reversed the ethanolamine auxotrophy. However, the PtdEtn content was not normalized unless the culture medium was supplemented with ethanolamine. In both M.9.1.1 and hepatoma cells transfected with PSS2 cDNA the rate of synthesis of PtdSer and PtdSer-derived PtdEtn did not exceed that in parental CHO cells or control McArdle cells respectively, in contrast to cells expressing similar levels of murine PSS1. These observations suggest that PtdSer synthesis via murine PSS2, but not PSS1, is regulated by end-product inhibition. Moreover, expression of murine PSS2 in McArdle cells did not inhibit PtdEtn synthesis via the CDP-ethanolamine pathway, whereas expression of similar levels of PSS1 activity inhibited this pathway by approx. 50%. We conclude that murine PSS1 and PSS2, which are apparently derived from different genes, independently modulate phospholipid metabolism. In addition, mRNAs encoding the two synthases are differentially expressed in several murine tissues, supporting the idea that PSS1 and PSS2 might perform unique functions.
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>Ethanolamine is used as an energy source by phylogenetically diverse bacteria including pathogens, by the concerted action of proteins from the eut-operon. Previous studies have revealed the presence of eutBC genes encoding ethanolamine-ammonia lyase, a key enzyme that breaks ethanolamine into acetaldehyde and ammonia, in about 100 bacterial genomes including members of gamma-proteobacteria. However, ethanolamine utilization has not been reported for any member of the Vibrio genus. Our comparative genomics study reveals the presence of genes that are involved in ethanolamine utilization in several Vibrio species. Using Vibrio alginolyticus as a model system we demonstrate that ethanolamine is better utilized as a nitrogen source than as a carbon source.<h4>Reviewers</h4>This article was reviewed by Dr. Lakshminarayan Iyer and Dr. Vivek Anantharaman (nominated by Dr. L Aravind).