Modulatory role of platelet-derived growth factor on cytokine-induced nerve growth factor synthesis in rat glomerular mesangial cells.
ABSTRACT: Recent evidence indicates that cytokines are potent inducers of nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in peripheral tissues and in brain. Cultured rat glomerular mesangial cells respond to interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by increased NGF synthesis. We found that co-stimulation of rat glomerular mesangial cells with platelet-derived growth factor (PGDF-BB) and IL-1 beta/TNF-alpha significantly augments the IL-1 beta/TNF-alpha-induced NGF mRNA levels and NGF synthesis. In contrast, preincubation with PDGF-BB drastically reduces NGF gene expression and NGF protein synthesis in response to IL-1 beta/TNF-alpha stimulation. Thus our results indicate that PDGF-BB is a potent modulator of cytokine-induced NGF expression; its precise action is critically depending on the time at which the PDGF receptor is activated.
Project description:Treatment of rat glomerular mesangial cells with transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF beta 2) stimulates prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis. Actinomycin D, cycloheximide and diclofenac attenuate the TGF beta 2-induced PGE2 formation. As shown previously, two proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), are potent stimuli for PGE2 and phospholipase A2 secretion from mesangial cells. We report here that, whereas TGF beta 2 potentiates the IL-1 beta- and TNF alpha-evoked PGE2 production, it strongly inhibits the phospholipase A2 secretion induced by both cytokines. In addition, the inhibitory effect of TGF beta 2 on phospholipase A2 secretion is not due to the augmented PGE2 formation.
Project description:The phenotype of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) plays an important role in vascular function in health and disease. We investigated the mechanism of modulation of SMC phenotype (from contractile to synthetic) induced by the synergistic action of a growth factor (platelet-derived growth factor, PDGF-BB) and a cytokine (interleukin, IL-1beta). Human aortic SMCs grown on polymerized collagen showed high expression levels of contractile markers (smooth muscle alpha-actin, myosin heavy chain, and calponin). These levels were not significantly affected by PDGF-BB and IL-1beta individually, but decreased markedly after the combined usage of PDGF-BB and IL-1beta. PDGF/IL-1beta costimulation also induced a sustained phosphorylation of Akt and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K). The effects of PDGF/IL-1beta costimulation on contractile marker expression and Akt and p70S6K phosphorylation were blocked by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 and by adenovirus expressing a dominant-negative Akt, and they were mimicked by constitutively active Akt. PDGF-BB/IL-1beta induced a sustained phosphorylation of PDGF receptor (PDGFR)-beta and its association with IL-1 receptor (IL-1R1). Such activation and association of receptors were blocked by a PDGFR-beta neutralizing antibody (AF385), an IL-1R1 antagonist (IL-1ra), as well as a specific inhibitor of PDGFR-beta phosphorylation (AG1295); these agents also eliminated the PDGF-BB/IL-1beta-induced signaling and phenotypic modulation. PDGF-BB/IL-1beta inhibited the polymerized collagen-induced serum response factor DNA binding activity in the nucleus, and this effect was mediated by the PDGFR-beta/IL-1R1 association and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/p70S6K pathway. Our findings provide insights into the mechanism of SMC phenotypic modulation from contractile to synthetic, e.g., in atherosclerosis.
Project description:So far, there is only limited information about the regulation of the endogenous synthesis of hydrogen sulfide (H(2) S), an important gaseous signalling molecule. This study was done to evaluate the redox-dependent signalling events that regulate the expression of the H(2) S synthesising enzyme cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE) in rat mesangial cells.The effects of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB and antioxidants on CSE expression and activity in cultured rat renal mesangial cells were assessed. Activity of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) was measured as the binding capacity to a radiolabelled consensus element by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Furthermore, CSE and Nrf2 expression was analysed in a rat model of anti-Thy-1-induced glomerulonephritis by immunohistochemistry.Treatment of mesangial cells with PDGF-BB resulted in a marked time- and dose-dependent up-regulation of CSE mRNA and protein levels, as well as CSE activity accompanied with increased formation of reactive oxygen species. Remarkably, co-administration of antioxidants, such as N-acetylcysteine, ebselen or diphenylene iodonium chloride, drastically reduced PDGF-BB-induced CSE expression. PDGF-BB induced binding of Nrf2 to a corresponding consensus antioxidant element in a redox-dependent manner. Furthermore, PDGF-BB-induced CSE expression in mouse mesangial cells was completely abolished in Nrf2 knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. In a rat model of anti-Thy-1-induced proliferative glomerulonephritis, we observed a marked up-regulation of CSE protein paralleled by a stabilization of Nrf2 protein.PDGF-BB regulated CSE via a redox-mediated activation of Nrf2. Such action would aid the resolution of glomerular inflammatory diseases.This article is commented on by Gallyas, pp. 2228-2230 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01976.x.
Project description:Glomerular mesangial cells (MC) play a central role in the synthesis and turnover of the glomerular extracellular matrix. Prior studies [Davies, Thomas, Martin and Lovett (1988) Biochem. J. 251, 419-425; Martin, Davies, Thomas and Lovett (1989) Kidney Int. 36, 790-801] have characterized at the protein level a 72 kDa type IV collagenase that is secreted by cultured human and rat MC. While exposure of most cell types to interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or phorbol ester has little or even an inhibitory effect on 72 kDa type IV collagenase secretion, these factors significantly increased the synthesis of this enzyme by rat MC. Given this divergent pattern of expression, a homology-based PCR cloning strategy using rat MC cDNA templates was employed to define at the molecular level the structure of the mesangial 72 kDa type IV collagenase. The nucleotide sequence within the open reading frame of the rat mesangial 72 kDa type IV collagenase cDNA diverges from the sequence of the human homologue by approx. 9%. The divergence in the 3' untranslated region was much more extensive. Steady-state levels of the 3.1 kb transcript of the 72 kDa type IV collagenase were low or undetectable in resting MC, but were greatly stimulated following incubation with IL-beta, TNF-alpha or phorbol ester. None of these factors induced synthesis by MC of the closely related 92 kDa type IV collagenase. Synthesis by MC of the 72 kDa type IV collagenase was also induced by second-messenger analogues, including 8-bromo-cyclic AMP and forskolin. It is concluded that MC regulate the expression of this enzyme in an unusual, tissue-specific fashion. Cytokine and second-messenger inducibility may contribute to the enhanced expression of the enzyme during glomerular inflammatory disorders.
Project description:alpha 2-Macroglobulin (alpha 2M) undergoes a major conformational change when reacting with proteinases or primary amines. This conformational change has been referred to as the 'slow' to 'fast' transformation based on the increase in alpha 2M mobility shown by non-denaturing PAGE. Previous studies demonstrated that many cytokines, including transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and interleukin-1 beta, bind preferentially or exclusively to alpha 2M which has undergone conformational change. In this study, we demonstrate that platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) also binds preferentially to conformationally transformed alpha 2M (alpha 2M-methylamine, alpha 2M-trypsin) in vitro. Purified 125I-PDGF-BB-alpha 2M-methylamine complex cleared rapidly from the circulation of mice via the alpha 2M receptor/low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related protein (alpha 2M-R/LRP). In order to determine whether PDGF-BB or TGF-beta 1 binds to native alpha 2M, we defined the native conformation by lack of interaction with alpha 2M-R/LRP instead of electrophoretic mobility. 125I-PDGF-BB was incubated with 4.3 microM native alpha 2M and 0.47 microM alpha 2M-methylamine. The 125I-PDGF-BB distributed evenly between slow-form and fast-form alpha 2M without shifting the electrophoretic mobility of either species. When the mixed preparation was injected intravenously in mice, 125I-PDGF-BB-fast-form-alpha 2M cleared rapidly and selectively from the circulation; 125I-PDGF-BB which was bound to slow-form alpha 2M was stable in the blood (apparently not recognized by alpha 2M-R/LRP). Therefore, while conformationally transformed alpha 2M binds PDGF-BB preferentially in vitro, non-alpha 2M-R/LRP-recognized alpha 2M binds PDGF-BB as well. Binding of 125I-PDGF-BB and 125I-TGF-beta 1 to alpha 2M was demonstrated in vivo by injecting the free growth factors intravenously into mice. Plasma samples which were subjected to non-denaturing PAGE and autoradiography demonstrated binding of both growth factors exclusively to the slow-form of alpha 2M. Therefore, under normal physiological conditions, native alpha 2M (non-alpha 2M-R/LRP-recognized) is the primary form of the proteinase inhibitor functioning as a carrier of PDGF-BB and TGF-beta 1 in the blood.
Project description:The adult kidney is derived from the interaction between the metanephric blastema and the ureteric bud. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor ? is essential for the development of the mature glomerular tuft, as mice deficient for this receptor lack mesangial cells. This study investigated the role of Src tyrosine kinase in PDGF-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and migration of metanephric mesenchymal cells (MMCs). Cultured embryonic MMCs from wild-type and PDGF receptor-deficient embryos were established. Migration was determined via wound-healing assay. Unlike PDGF AA, PDGF BB-induced greater migration in MMCs with respect to control. This was abrogated by neutralizing an antibody to PDGF BB. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors suppressed PDGF BB-induced migration. Conversely, mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) inhibitors had no effect. Src inhibitors inhibited PDGF-induced cell migration, PI3K activity, and Akt phosphorylation. Adenoviral dominant negative Src (AD DN Src) abrogated PDGF BB-induced Akt phosphorylation. Hydrogen peroxide stimulated cell migration. PDGF BB-induced wound closure was inhibited by the antioxidants N-acetyl-l-cysteine, tiron, and the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium. These cells express the NADPH oxidase homolog Nox4. Inhibiting Nox4 with antisense oligonucleotides or small interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed PDGF-induced wound closure. Inhibition of Src with siRNA reduced PDGF BB-induced ROS generation as assessed by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate fluorescence. Furthermore, PDGF BB-stimulated ROS generation and migration were similarly suppressed by Ad DN Src. In MMCs, PDGF BB-induced migration is mediated by PI3K and Src in a redox-dependent manner involving Nox4. Src may be upstream to PI3K and Nox4.
Project description:Mesangial cells express platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) A- and B-chain mRNA and release PDGF. Several polypeptide growth factors, including PDGF itself, induce PDGF A- and B- chain mRNA abundance. To understand the molecular mechanisms associated with the changes in mRNA abundance, we measured the effects of PDGF BB homodimer on PDGF A- and B-chain gene transcription in cultured mesangial cells. The data demonstrate 2- and 4-fold increases in PDGF A-chain gene transcription in response to PDGF BB homodimer at 5 and 24 h time points respectively. PDGF B-chain gene transcription was also induced approximately 3-fold at 2, 5 and 24 h time points in response to treatment with PDGF BB homodimer. The effect of PDGF BB on the half-life of PDGF A- as well as PDGF B-chain mRNA was measured directly by the pulse-chase method. There was no effect on PDGF A-chain mRNA half-life whereas PDGF B-chain mRNA half-life was increased 1.5-fold. These studies indicate that, in human mesangial cells, the increase in the levels of PDGF A- and B-chain mRNA in response to PDGF- receptor(s) activation is mediated at the level of gene transcription. In addition, the regulation of PDGF B- but not PDGF A-chain gene involves increased mRNA stability. Mesangial cells are a useful model for studying molecular mechanisms of PDGF- gene regulation in non-transformed human cells.
Project description:Exposure of mesangial cells to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) BB caused a significant stimulation of cell proliferation and protein synthesis, as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation and [3H]leucine incorporation respectively. In contrast, cells treated with angiotensin II had no significant increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation, but demonstrated a marked increase in [3H]leucine incorporation. Furthermore, angiotensin II significantly increased total protein content per cell. These data show that, whereas PDGF-BB is a mitogen and stimulates mesangial-cell hyperplasia, angiotensin II causes hypertrophy of the cells without hyperplasia. Treatment of mesangial cells with PDGF and angiotensin II rapidly and dose-dependently stimulated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity, as shown by an assay for activity in vitro using myelin basic protein as a substrate, and by immunoprecipitation of 32P-labelled cells with specific antibodies against the 42 kDa and 44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinases p42mapk and p44mapk, respectively. Whereas stimulation with PDGF-BB caused a potent and sustained (for more than 30 min) phosphorylation and activation of p42mapk and p44mapk, as well as of the upstream activators MAP kinase kinase and c-Raf, the effect of angiotensin II was less potent, reaching a peak at 5-10 min and thereafter declining rapidly. In summary, these results suggest that PDGF-BB and angiotensin II differ in their potency and duration of activation of the MAP kinase cascade, which may explain why PDGF-BB is a potent mitogen for mesangial cells, whereas angiotensin II only triggers mesangial-cell hypertrophy.
Project description:Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is highly expressed in the renal tissues of patients with diabetic nephropathy, and it plays an important role in the initiation and progression of diabetic nephropathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of root of Polygonum cuspidatum extract (PCE) on early renal glomerular proliferation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.PCE (100, 350 mg/kg/day) was administered to diabetic rats for 16 weeks. Blood glucose and albuminuria were measured. Renal histology, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression levels were also examined.After 16 weeks of treatment with PCE, severe hyperglycemia and albuminuria were observed in the diabetic rats. The expressions levels of ?-SMA and PCNA proteins were significantly increased in the glomeruli of the diabetic rats. The expression levels of PDGF-BB and its receptor expressions were greatly increased in the glomeruli of the diabetic rats. However, PCE markedly reduced albuminuria in the diabetic rats. PCE inhibited ?-SMA and PCNA up-regulation and ameliorated PDGF-BB and PEGFR-ß protein expression in the diabetic rats. In addition, the binding of PDGF-BB/PDGFR-ß was inhibited by PCE as shown by an in vitro assay.These results suggest that PCE has an inhibitory effect on mesangial proliferation in diabetic renal tissues via the inhibition of the interaction of PDGF-BB with its receptor. PCE may have beneficial effects in preventing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.
Project description:Age-associated renal changes may be an important cause of renal failure. We recently found that aged female B6 mice developed progressive glomerular lesions. This was associated with macrophage infiltration, a frequent finding in glomerulosclerosis. We used these mice as a model for studying the mechanisms of glomerular aging. We compared the gene expression profile of intact glomeruli from late postmenopausal (28-month-old) mice to that of intact glomeruli from premenopausal (5-month-old) mice. We found that inflammation-related genes, especially those expressed by activated macrophages, were up-regulated in the glomeruli of 28-month-old mice, a result correlating with the histological observation of glomerular macrophage infiltration. The mechanism for macrophage recruitment could have been stable phenotypic changes in mesangial cells because we found that mesangial cells isolated from 28-month-old mice expressed higher levels of RANTES and VCAM-1 than cells from 5-month-old mice. The elevated serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha levels present in aged mice may contribute to increased RANTES and VCAM-1 expression in mesangial cells. Furthermore, cells from 28-month-old mice were more sensitive to TNF-alpha-induced RANTES and VCAM-1 up-regulation. The effect of TNF-alpha on RANTES expression was mediated by TNF receptor 1. Interestingly, mesangial cells isolated from 28-month-old mice had increased nuclear factor-kappaB transcriptional activity. Inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB activity decreased baseline as well as TNF-alpha-induced RANTES and VCAM-1 expression in mesangial cells isolated from 28-month-old mice. Thus, phenotypic changes in mesangial cells may predispose them to inflammatory stimuli, such as TNF-alpha, which would contribute to glomerular macrophage infiltration and inflammatory lesions in aging.