Molecular determinants of peptide binding to two common rhesus macaque major histocompatibility complex class II molecules.
ABSTRACT: Major histocompatibility complex class II molecules encoded by two common rhesus macaque alleles Mamu-DRB1*0406 and Mamu-DRB*w201 have been purified, and quantitative binding assays have been established. The structural requirements for peptide binding to each molecule were characterized by testing panels of single-substitution analogs of the two previously defined epitopes HIV Env242 (Mamu-DRB1*0406 restricted) and HIV Env482 (Mamu-DRB*w201 restricted). Anchor positions of both macaque DR molecules were spaced following a position 1 (P1), P4, P6, P7, and P9 pattern. The specific binding motif associated with each molecule was distinct, but largely overlapping, and was based on crucial roles of aromatic and/or hydrophobic residues at P1, P6, and P9. Based on these results, a tentative Mamu class II DR supermotif was defined. This pattern is remarkably similar to a previously defined human HLA-DR supermotif. Similarities in binding motifs between human HLA and macaque Mamu-DR molecules were further illustrated by testing a panel of more than 60 different single-substitution analogs of the HLA-DR-restricted HA 307-319 epitope for binding to Mamu-DRB*w201 and HLA-DRB1*0101. The Mamu-DRB1*0406 and -DRB*w201 binding capacity of a set of 311 overlapping peptides spanning the entire simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) genome was also evaluated. Ten peptides capable of binding both molecules were identified, together with 19 DRB1*0406 and 43 DRB*w201 selective binders. The Mamu-DR supermotif was found to be present in about 75% of the good binders and in 50% of peptides binding with intermediate affinity but only in approximately 25% of the peptides which did not bind either Mamu class II molecule. Finally, using flow cytometric detection of antigen-induced intracellular gamma interferon, we identify a new CD4(+) T-lymphocyte epitope encoded within the Rev protein of SIV.
Project description:The HLA-DRB1 locus is strongly associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility, whereupon citrullinated self-peptides bind to HLA-DR molecules bearing the shared epitope (SE) amino acid motif. However, the differing propensity for citrullinated/non-citrullinated self-peptides to bind given HLA-DR allomorphs remains unclear. Here, we used a fluorescence polarization assay to determine a hierarchy of binding affinities of 34 self-peptides implicated in RA against three HLA-DRB1 allomorphs (HLA-DRB1*04:01/*04:04/*04:05) each possessing the SE motif. For all three HLA-DRB1 allomorphs, we observed a strong correlation between binding affinity and citrullination at P4 of the bound peptide ligand. A differing hierarchy of peptide-binding affinities across the three HLA-DRB1 allomorphs was attributable to the ?-chain polymorphisms that resided outside the SE motif and were consistent with sequences of naturally presented peptide ligands. Structural determination of eight HLA-DR4-self-epitope complexes revealed strict conformational convergence of the P4-Cit and surrounding HLA ?-chain residues. Polymorphic residues that form part of the P1 and P9 pockets of the HLA-DR molecules provided a structural basis for the preferential binding of the citrullinated self-peptides to the HLA-DR4 allomorphs. Collectively, we provide a molecular basis for the interplay between citrullination of self-antigens and HLA polymorphisms that shape peptide-HLA-DR4 binding affinities in RA.
Project description:The role of CD4(+) T cells in the control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication is not well understood. Even though strong HIV- and SIV-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses have been detected in individuals that control viral replication, major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules have not been definitively linked with slow disease progression. In a cohort of 196 SIVmac239-infected Indian rhesus macaques, a group of macaques controlled viral replication to less than 1,000 viral RNA copies/ml. These elite controllers (ECs) mounted a broad SIV-specific CD4(+) T-cell response. Here, we describe five macaque MHC-II alleles (Mamu-DRB*w606, -DRB*w2104, -DRB1*0306, -DRB1*1003, and -DPB1*06) that restricted six SIV-specific CD4(+) T-cell epitopes in ECs and report the first association between specific MHC-II alleles and elite control. Interestingly, the macaque MHC-II alleles, Mamu-DRB1*1003 and -DRB1*0306, were enriched in this EC group (P values of 0.02 and 0.05, respectively). Additionally, Mamu-B*17-positive SIV-infected rhesus macaques that also expressed these two MHC-II alleles had significantly lower viral loads than Mamu-B*17-positive animals that did not express Mamu-DRB1*1003 and -DRB1*0306 (P value of <0.0001). The study of MHC-II alleles in macaques that control viral replication could improve our understanding of the role of CD4(+) T cells in suppressing HIV/SIV replication and further our understanding of HIV vaccine design.
Project description:Immune disorders may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, polymorphisms in the HLA-DR region have been found to be associated with sporadic PD in European ancestry populations. However, polymorphisms in the HLA complex are highly variable with ethnic and geographic origin. To explore the relationships between polymorphisms of the HLA-DR region and sporadic PD in Chinese Han population, we genotyped 567 sporadic PD patients and 746 healthy controls in two independent series for the HLA-DRB1 locus with Polymerase chain reaction-sequence based typing(PCR-SBT). The ?(2) test was used to evaluate the distribution of allele frequencies between the patients and healthy controls. The impact of HLA-DRB1 alleles on PD risk was estimated by unconditional logistic regression. We found a significant higher frequency of HLA-DRB1*0301 in sporadic PD patients than in healthy controls and a positive association, which was independent of onset age, between HLA-DRB1*0301 and PD risk. Conversely, a lower frequency of HLA-DRB1*0406 was found in sporadic PD patients than in healthy controls, with a negative association between HLA-DRB1*0406 and PD risk. Furthermore, a meta-analysis involving 195205 individuals was conducted to summarize the frequencies of these two alleles in populations from various ethnic regions, we found a higher frequency of HLA-DRB1*0301, but a lower frequency of HLA-DRB1*0406 in European ancestry populations than that in Asians, this was consistent with the higher prevalence of sporadic PD in European ancestry populations. Based on these results, we speculate that HLA-DRB1 alleles are associated with the susceptibility to sporadic PD in Chinese Han population, among them HLA-DRB1*0301 is a risk allele while the effect of HLA-DRB1*0406 deserves debate.
Project description:UNLABELLED:The strongest genetic risk factors for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are found in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex at chromosome 6p21. Genes in the HLA class II region encode molecules that present antigen to T lymphocytes. Polymorphisms in these genes are associated with most autoimmune diseases, most likely because they contribute to the specificity of immune responses. The aim of this study was to analyze the structure and electrostatic properties of the peptide-binding groove of HLA-DR in relation to PSC. Thus, four-digit resolution HLA-DRB1 genotyping was performed in 356 PSC patients and 366 healthy controls. Sequence information was used to assign which amino acids were encoded at all polymorphic positions. In stepwise logistic regressions, variations at residues 37 and 86 were independently associated with PSC (P = 1.2 × 10(-32) and P = 1.8 × 10(-22) in single-residue models, respectively). Three-dimensional modeling was performed to explore the effect of these key residues on the HLA-DR molecule. This analysis indicated that residue 37 was a major determinant of the electrostatic properties of pocket P9 of the peptide-binding groove. Asparagine at residue 37, which was associated with PSC, induced a positive charge in pocket P9. Tyrosine, which protected against PSC, induced a negative charge in this pocket. Consistent with the statistical observations, variation at residue 86 also indirectly influenced the electrostatic properties of this pocket. DRB1*13:01, which was PSC-associated, had a positive P9 pocket and DRB1*13:02, protective against PSC, had a negative P9 pocket. CONCLUSION:The results suggest that in patients with PSC, residues 37 and 86 of the HLA-DR? chain critically influence the electrostatic properties of pocket P9 and thereby the range of peptides presented.
Project description:Risk of the development of multiple sclerosis (MS) is known to be increased in individuals bearing distinct class II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) variants, whereas some of them may have a protective effect. Here we analyzed distribution of a highly polymorphous HLA-DRB1 locus in more than one thousand relapsing-remitting MS patients and healthy individuals of Russian ethnicity. Carriage of HLA-DRB1*15 and HLA-DRB1*03 alleles was associated with MS risk, whereas carriage of HLA-DRB1*01 and HLA-DRB1*11 was found to be protective. Analysis of genotypes revealed the compensatory effect of risk and resistance alleles in trans. We have identified previously unknown MBP153-161 peptide located at the C-terminus of MBP protein and MBP90-98 peptide that bound to recombinant HLA-DRB1*01:01 protein with affinity comparable to that of classical antigenic peptide 306-318 from the hemagglutinin (HA) of the influenza virus demonstrating the ability of HLA-DRB1*01:01 to present newly identified MBP153-161 and MBP90-98 peptides. Measurements of kinetic parameters of MBP and HA peptides binding to HLA-DRB1*01:01 catalyzed by HLA-DM revealed a significantly lower rate of CLIP exchange for MBP153-161 and MBP90-98 peptides as opposed to HA peptide. Analysis of the binding of chimeric MBP-HA peptides demonstrated that the observed difference between MBP153-161, MBP90-98, and HA peptide epitopes is caused by the lack of anchor residues in the C-terminal part of the MBP peptides resulting in a moderate occupation of P6/7 and P9 pockets of HLA-DRB1*01:01 by MBP153-161 and MBP90-98 peptides in contrast to HA308-316 peptide. This leads to the P1 and P4 docking failure and rapid peptide dissociation and release of empty HLA-DM-HLA-DR complex. We would like to propose that protective properties of the HLA-DRB1*01 allele could be directly linked to the ability of HLA-DRB1*01:01 to kinetically discriminate between antigenic exogenous peptides and endogenous MBP derived peptides.
Project description:The aims of this study were to summarize results on the association of HLA-DRB1 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Asians and to determine if the shared epitope (SE) hypothesis could explain the meta-analysis results. Among the papers published between January 1987 and July 2006 on RA susceptibility in Asian-Mongoloid populations (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Thai), 12 were selected for the metaanalysis. Mongoloid-Asian patients with RA had significantly higher frequencies of HLA-DRB1*0101, *0401, *0410, and *1001 than controls (OR 1.5-2.1, p<0.05 for association). When analyses were restricted to more ethnically homogeneous populations, HLA-DRB1*0405 showed a significant susceptibility to RA in Koreans (OR 5.65, 95% CI 4.32-7.39), whereas the HLA-DRB1*0301, *0403, *0406, *0701, *1301, and *1405 alleles showed protective association with RA (OR 0.32-0.70, p<0.05 for association). In conclusion, it was found that HLA-DRB1 *0101, *0401, *0405, *0410, and *1001 are susceptible, while HLA-DRB1* 0301, *0403, *0406, *0701, *1301, and *1405 are protective in Asian-Mongoloids. All the RA-associated alleles except DRB1*0301 could be explained by the structural model supporting the SE hypothesis that RA susceptibility is determined by the combination of amino acid residues at HLA-DR beta71 and beta74, not by beta71 alone.
Project description:HLA-B27- and -B57-positive HIV-infected humans have long been associated with control of HIV replication, implying that CD8(+) T cell responses contribute to control of viral replication. In a similar fashion, 50% of Mamu-B*08-positive Indian rhesus macaques control SIVmac239 replication and become elite controllers with chronic-phase viremia <1000 viral RNA copies/ml. Interestingly, Mamu-B*08-restricted SIV-derived epitopes appeared to match the peptide binding profile for HLA-B*2705 in humans. We therefore defined a detailed peptide-binding motif for Mamu-B*08 and investigated binding similarities between the macaque and human MHC class I molecules. Analysis of a panel of approximately 900 peptides revealed that despite substantial sequence differences between Mamu-B*08 and HLA-B*2705, the peptide-binding repertoires of these two MHC class I molecules share a remarkable degree of overlap. Detailed knowledge of the Mamu-B*08 peptide-binding motif enabled us to identify six additional novel Mamu-B*08-restricted SIV-specific CD8(+) T cell immune responses directed against epitopes in Gag, Vpr, and Env. All 13 Mamu-B*08-restricted epitopes contain an R at the position 2 primary anchor and 10 also possess either R or K at the N terminus. Such dibasic peptides are less prone to cellular degradation. This work highlights the relevance of the Mamu-B*08-positive SIV-infected Indian rhesus macaque as a model to examine elite control of immunodeficiency virus replication. The remarkable similarity of the peptide-binding motifs and repertoires for Mamu-B*08 and HLA-B*2705 suggests that the nature of the peptide bound by the MHC class I molecule may play an important role in control of immunodeficiency virus replication.
Project description:Variation in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes accounts for one-half of the genetic risk in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Amino acid changes in the HLA-DR and HLA-DQ molecules mediate most of the risk, but extensive linkage disequilibrium complicates the localization of independent effects. Using 18,832 case-control samples, we localized the signal to 3 amino acid positions in HLA-DQ and HLA-DR. HLA-DQ?1 position 57 (previously known; P = 1 × 10(-1,355)) by itself explained 15.2% of the total phenotypic variance. Independent effects at HLA-DR?1 positions 13 (P = 1 × 10(-721)) and 71 (P = 1 × 10(-95)) increased the proportion of variance explained to 26.9%. The three positions together explained 90% of the phenotypic variance in the HLA-DRB1-HLA-DQA1-HLA-DQB1 locus. Additionally, we observed significant interactions for 11 of 21 pairs of common HLA-DRB1-HLA-DQA1-HLA-DQB1 haplotypes (P = 1.6 × 10(-64)). HLA-DR?1 positions 13 and 71 implicate the P4 pocket in the antigen-binding groove, thus pointing to another critical protein structure for T1D risk, in addition to the HLA-DQ P9 pocket.
Project description:The genetic association of HLA-DRB1 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is well documented, but association with other HLA-DR beta genes (HLA-DRB3, HLA-DRB4 and HLA-DRB5) has not been thoroughly studied, despite their similar functions and chromosomal positions. We examined variants in all functional HLA-DR beta genes in RA and SLE patients and controls, down to the amino-acid level, to better understand disease association with the HLA-DR locus. To this end, we improved an existing HLA reference panel to impute variants in all protein-coding HLA-DR beta genes. Using the reference panel, HLA variants were inferred from high-density SNP data of 9,271 RA-control subjects and 5,342 SLE-control subjects. Disease association tests were performed by logistic regression and log-likelihood ratio tests. After imputation using the newly constructed HLA reference panel and statistical analysis, we observed that HLA-DRB1 variants better accounted for the association between MHC and susceptibility to RA and SLE than did the other three HLA-DRB variants. Moreover, there were no secondary effects in HLA-DRB3, HLA-DRB4, or HLA-DRB5 in RA or SLE. Of all the HLA-DR beta chain paralogs, those encoded by HLA-DRB1 solely or dominantly influence susceptibility to RA and SLE.
Project description:Monoclonal antibodies that bind to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) are useful tools for HLA-typing, tracking donor-recipient chimerisms after bone marrow transplants, and characterizing specific major histocompatibility complexes (MHC) on cell surfaces. Unfortunately, equivalent reagents are not available for rhesus macaques, which are commonly used animal as models in organ transplant and infectious disease research. To address this deficiency, we isolated an antibody that recognizes the common Indian rhesus macaque MHC class I molecule, Mamu-A1*001. We induced Mamu-A1*001-binding antibodies by alloimmunizing a female Mamu-A1*001-negative rhesus macaque with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from a male Mamu-A1*001-positive donor. A Fab phage display library was constructed with PBMC from the alloimmunized macaque and panned to isolate an antibody that binds to Mamu-A1*001 but not to other common rhesus macaque MHC class I molecules. The isolated antibody distinguishes PBMC from Mamu-A1*001-positive and -negative macaques. Additionally, the Mamu-A1*001-specific antibody binds the cynomolgus macaque MHC class I ortholog Mafa-A1*001:01 but not variants Mafa-A1*001:02/03, indicating a high degree of binding specificity. The Mamu-A1*001-specific antibody will be useful for identifying Mamu-A1*001-positive rhesus macaques, for detecting Mamu-A1*001-positive cells in populations of Mamu-A1*001-negative cells, and for examining disease processes that alter expression of Mamu-A1*001 on cell surfaces. Moreover, the alloimmunization process we describe will be useful for isolating additional MHC allomorph-specific monoclonal antibodies or antibodies against other polymorphic host proteins which are difficult to isolate with traditional technologies.