Purification and subunit structure of phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase from rabbit liver.
ABSTRACT: D-3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (EC 220.127.116.11) was purified from rabbit liver by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, DEAE-Sephacel chromatography, affinity chromatography on AMP-agarose and molecular-sieve h.p.l.c. The purified enzyme was homogeneous as judged by SDS/polyacrylamide-slab-gel electrophoresis. On the basis of molecular-sieve h.p.l.c. and SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, the enzyme is a tetramer composed of subunits of Mr 60,000.
Project description:Anhydrotetracycline oxygenase was purified to homogeneity from Streptomyces aureofaciens, a producer of tetracycline. The enzyme was purified 60-fold in a 40% yield by a two-step procedure using a combination of hydrophobic chromatography and ion-exchange h.p.l.c. Purified anhydrotetracycline oxygenase was homogeneous according to SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, ion-exchange h.p.l.c. on a Mono Q HR 5/5 column and size-exclusion h.p.l.c. on a TSK G 3000 SW column. The enzyme consists of two subunits of Mr 57,500, as determined by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis.
Project description:Beta-Adrenergic receptors from basal membranes of human placenta were purified from digitonin extracts by sequential rounds of affinity chromatography, hydrophobic chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography and steric-exclusion h.p.l.c. Basal membranes display both beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors, in the ratio 65:35. Affinity chromatography, hydrophobic chromatography on heptylamine-Sepharose and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel removed most of the contaminating proteins, and final purification of the receptor to apparent homogeneity was achieved by steric-exclusion h.p.l.c. The purified receptors showed Mr 67000 on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions. Specific binding of radioligand to the purified beta-adrenergic receptors displayed stereoselectivity, and the agonist competition profiles demonstrated the presence of both beta 1- and beta 2-receptors. By using the subtype-selective ligands CGP-20712A (beta 1-selective) and ICI-118,551 (beta 2-selective), the purified Mr-67000 species was shown to be composed of equivalent amounts of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors. Affinity chromatography on Sepharose-alprenolol and sequential elution with 1 microM-CGP-20712A followed by 100 microM(-)-alprenolol permitted beta 1-adrenergic receptors to be resolved from the mixture of beta 1-/beta 2-adrenergic receptors. The pharmacologically distinct human beta 1 and beta 2-adrenergic receptors are shown to be structurally very similar peptides.
Project description:Catabolin, a protein that causes proteoglycan resorption in explants of living cartilage, was purified to homogeneity from culture medium conditioned by culturing buffy-coat leucocytes from 60 litres of pig blood in the presence of concanavalin A. The purification steps were (1) gel filtration of concentrated medium, (2) chromatofocusing, (3) hydroxyapatite chromatography, (4) anion-exchange chromatography (Mono Q), (5) reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.) (Zorbax ODS). These achieved approx. 9000-fold purification from the starting material. The purified protein when reduced ran as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis with Mr 21000. On isoelectric focusing its pI was 4.8-5.0, and there was evidence of micro-heterogeneity. The protein co-migrated with active material on h.p.l.c., isoelectric focusing and SDS gels (15 and 12.5% acrylamide) under both reducing and non-reducing conditions. The pure protein caused proteoglycan release from cultured bovine nasal cartilage at 20pM. Its possible identity with interleukin 1 is discussed.
Project description:Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) 3-kinase, which phosphorylates InsP3 to form inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, was purified to apparent homogeneity by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation and sequential chromatographic steps on DEAE-sepharose, calmodulin-Affi-Gel and DEAE-5PW h.p.l.c. The purified enzyme had a specific activity of 24.4 nmol of inositol tetrakisphosphate formed/min per mg of protein, which represented a purification of approx. 195-fold with a 0.29% recovery, compared with the cytosol fraction of the muscle. SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis showed a single protein-staining band of Mr 93,000. Moreover, the major protein peak, of Mr 84,000, was detected by TSK gel G3000SW gel-permeation chromatography of the purified sample. As this value was approximately consistent with the Mr determined by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoretic analysis, the InsP3 3-kinase might be a monomeric enzyme. The purified enzyme had a Km for InsP3 of 0.4 microM, with an optimum pH range of 5.8-7.7. The enzyme was maximally activated by calmodulin, with a stoichiometry of 1:1.
Project description:A cyclic AMP-independent protein kinase which phosphorylates casein was purified to homogeneity from Candida albicans by affinity and ion-exchange chromatography. This protein kinase exhibits maximal activity with casein as substrate and is not stimulated by cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP. The Mr of the purified enzyme is 115,000, as determined by h.p.l.c. It migrates as a single band on gel electrophoresis and has three non-identical subunits, of Mr 44,000, 28,500 and 26,000, as determined by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. This enzyme is insensitive to heparin, but is inhibited by polyamines. Furthermore, it is sensitive to thermal denaturation and to thiol reagents.
Project description:Uroporphyrinogen III synthase purified from rat liver is a monomer of Mr 36,000 by gel filtration and 28,000 by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The enzyme exists in two interconvertible forms separable on h.p.l.c. Both forms of the enzyme could be renatured with full activity after SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, demonstrating the absence of a reversibly bound cofactor. The enzyme activity could be inhibited by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in the absence and in the presence of NaBH4, consistent with (an) essential lysine residue(s). The enzyme thus shows great similarity to that from Euglena gracilis.
Project description:A guanine-nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein) was purified from cholate extracts of bovine brain membranes by sequential DEAE-Sephacel, Ultrogel AcA-34, heptylamine-Sepharose and Sephadex G-150 chromatography. Guanosine 5'-[gamma-[35S]thio]triphosphate (GTP[35S])-binding activity copurified with a 25,000 Da peptide and a 35,000-36,000 Da protein doublet. Neither pertussis toxin nor cholera toxin catalysed the ADP-ribosylation of a protein associated with the GTP[35S]-binding activity. Photoaffinity labelling of the purified protein with 8-azido[gamma-32P]GTP indicated that the GTP-binding site resides on the 25,000 Da protein. The 35,000-36,000 Da protein doublet was electrophoretically indistinguishable from the beta-subunits of other GTP-binding proteins, and the 36,000 Da protein was recognized by antiserum to oligomeric Gt. The purified protein specifically bound 17.2 nmol of GTP[35S]/mg of protein. The Kd of the binding site for radioligand was approx. 15 nM. The brain GTP-binding protein co-migrated during SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis with a GTP-binding protein, named Gp, purified from human placenta [Evans, Brown, Fraser & Northup (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 7052-7059], and cross-reacted with antiserum raised against the placental protein, but not with antiserum raised to brain Go. SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of the brain and placental GTP-binding proteins in the presence of Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease yielded identical peptide maps.
Project description:We describe here the purification and characterization of a form of acid lipase from human liver (designated ALII), which differed from the more abundant Mr-29000 form (ALI). ALII was solubilized from frozen human liver with Triton X-100 and purified 8500-fold by chromatography over concanavalin A-sepharose, CM-cellulose and finally h.p.l.c. over a Mono S column. ALII migrated as a single band on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in both the presence and the absence of SDS. The Mr of ALII was estimated to be 58,500 by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200 gave an apparent Mr of 69,000. 4-Methylumbelliferyl (4MU) palmitate, cholesterol oleate and triolein were substrates for ALII, with apparent Vmax values of 5000, 1100 and 2500 nmol/min per mg respectively and Km values of 1.0, 1.5 and 1.8 mM respectively. Cholesterol oleate and triolein were hydrolysed optimally by ALII at pH 4.5, whereas 4MU palmitate was hydrolysed optimally at pH 5.3. Antisera were raised against ALI and ALII and, on immunoblot analysis, no antigenic similarity was observed between ALI and ALII. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis followed by reaction with 4MU palmitate revealed two forms of lipase, corresponding to ALI and ALII. The two enzymes were also separated by hydrophobic chromatography. The activity of ALII was stimulated by several proteins and was partially inhibited by millimolar concentrations of NaCl, CaCl2 and MgSO4.
Project description:We have characterized the properties of human aspartylglucosaminidase (EC 18.104.22.168), the lysosomal enzyme which is deficient in the human inherited disease aspartylglucosaminuria. The purification procedure from human liver included affinity chromatography, gel filtration, strong-anion- and strong-cation-exchange h.p.l.c., chromatofocusing and reverse-phase h.p.l.c. In a denaturing SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, the 6600-fold purified enzyme was shown to be composed of three non-identical inactive polypeptide chains of molecular masses 24, 18 and 17 kDa. In a native polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, these polypeptide chains ran as one active enzyme complex. As judged from the elution position of the native enzyme in a Biogel P-100 gel filtration, the approximate molecular mass of this complex was 60 kDa. The enzyme had a pI of 5.7, a pH optimum at 6, of 0.48 mM and a specific activity of 200,000 nkat for the substrate 2-acetamido-1-beta-(L-aspartamido)-1,2-dideoxy-D-glucose. The enzyme showed a 57% loss of activity at 60 degrees C after 45 h but was practically inactive after incubation at 72 degrees C for a few minutes. The molecular structure, Km and specific activity as well as the thermostability of the enzyme described here are different from those reported previously for human aspartylglucosaminidase.
Project description:Cytochrome P-450-dependent digitoxin 12 beta-hydroxylase from cell cultures of foxglove (Digitalis lanata) was solubilized from microsomal membranes with CHAPS (3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]propane-1-sulphonic acid). Cytochrome P-450 was separated from NADPH: cytochrome c (P-450) reductase by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel. NADPH:cytochrome c (P-450) reductase was further purified by affinity chromatography on 2',5'-ADP-Sepharose 4B. This procedure resulted in a 248-fold purification of the enzyme; on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis after silver staining, only one band, corresponding to a molecular mass of 80 kDa, was present. The digitoxin 12 beta-hydroxylase activity could be reconstituted by incubating partially purified cytochrome P-450 and NADPH:cytochrome c (P-450) reductase together with naturally occurring microsomal lipids and flavin nucleotides. This procedure yielded about 10% of the original amount of digitoxin 12 beta-hydroxylase.