Properties and prenatal ontogeny of beta-D-mannosidase in selected goat tissues.
ABSTRACT: beta-D-Mannosidase activity in selected normal adult, neonatal and foetal goat tissues and in tissues from animals affected with caprine beta-mannosidosis was examined with the use of 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-mannopyranoside as substrate. The enzyme in normal adult thyroid, kidney and brain exhibited a sharp unimodal pH optimum at pH 5.0, whereas the enzyme in both normal adult and mutant liver exhibited broad pH ranges of activity (pH 4.5-8.0). No residual enzyme was detectable in mutant kidney or brain; in contrast, residual activity in mutant liver was 52% of that in a neonatal control. Concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B (Con A-Sepharose) fractionation of normal adult liver beta-D-mannosidase resolved the enzyme into an unbound (non-lysosomal) from (52%) with a broad pH range of activity (pH 4.5-8.0) and a bound (lysosomal) form (48%) with a sharp pH optimum of 5.5. The enzyme in mutant liver consisted entirely of the unbound (non-lysosomal) form. Beta-D-Mannosidase activity in normal adult thyroid, kidney and brain was resolved by chromatofocusing into two major isoenzymes, with pI 5.5 and 5.9, and traces of a minor isoenzyme, with pI 5.0. In normal adult liver the enzyme was also resolved into three isoenzymes with similar pI values; however, that with pI 5.0 predominated. The predominant form of the enzyme in 60-day-foetal liver was bound by Con A, exhibited a unimodal pH optimum (5.0) and was resolved into two isoenzymes, with pI 5.4 and 5.8; only traces of an isoenzyme with pI 5.0 were detectable. Total hepatic beta-D-mannosidase activity increased progressively towards adult values during the last 90 days of gestation as a result of increasing non-lysosomal isoenzyme activity (pI 5.0). Lysosomal beta-D-mannosidase was shown to occur in all normal goat tissues studied as multiple isoenzymes, which are genetically and developmentally distinct from the non-lysosomal isoenzyme occurring predominantly, if not exclusively, in liver.
Project description:N-Acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activities were determined in homogenates of marmoset kidney, in serum and in urine by using the 4-methylumbelliferyl substrate. The enzyme activity was separated into several components by DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography, starch-gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. The kidney contained two major forms of the enzyme, A and B, which had similar pH optima and Km values. The A-form bound to DEAE-cellulose at pH 6.8, migrated towards the anode on starch-gel electrophoresis and had a pI of 5.0. The B-form did not bind to DEAE-cellulose at pH 6.8, remained near the origin on starch-gel electrophoresis and had a pI of 7.64. The isoenzymes also differed in heat stability, the B-form being the more stable. Serum contained B-form activity and, in addition, two intermediate forms (I1 and I2) were loosely bound to DEAE-cellulose. The serum A-form activity was less firmly bound to DEAE-cellulose than was the tissue A-form and was designated As. Serum from a pregnant marmoset contained a form which may be analogous to the human P-isoenzyme. Urine contained only a small amount of B-form activity, the majority being present in the A-form. The kidney A- and B-forms both had mol.wts. of 96000--100000 and the activity was predominantly lysosomal. Partial purification of the kidney A isoenzyme was undertaken. Immunoprecipitation studies indicated a relationship between marmoset kidney A-form and human liver A-form activity.
Project description:Lysosomal alpha-d-mannosidase from mouse tissues was separated into its constituent isoenzymes by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Forms corresponding to the human isoenzymes B and A were present in testis, brain, spleen and kidney, whereas in epididymis and liver only the B form was present. Murine alpha-mannosidases A and B are glycoproteins and have pH optima, thermal stabilities and molecular masses similar to those of the human isoenzymes. A full-length cDNA (3.1 kb) containing the complete coding sequence for alpha-mannosidase was isolated from a mouse macrophage cDNA library. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of human and mouse alpha-mannosidases showed that they had 75% identity and 83% similarity. Expression of this cDNA in COS cells showed that both the A and the B isoenzymes can arise from a single transcript. Northern blotting analysis showed a 10-fold range in the abundance of alpha-mannosidase mRNA in mouse tissues, with the highest levels found in epididymis, and the lowest in liver.
Project description:Enzymic cleavage of beta-N-acetylglucosamine residues of keratan sulphate was studied in vitro by using substrate a [3H]glucosamine-labelled desulphated keratan sulphate with N-acetylglucosamine residues at the non-reducing end. Both lysosomal beta-N-acetylhexosaminidases A and B are proposed to participate in the degradation of keratan sulphate on the basis of the following observations. Homogenates of fibroblasts from patients with Sandhoff disease, but not those from patients with Tay--Sachs disease, were unable to release significant amounts of N-acetyl[3H]glucosamine. On isoelectric focusing of beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase from human liver the peaks of keratan sulphate-degrading activity coincided with the activity towards p-nitrophenyl beta-N-acetylglucosaminide. A monospecific antibody against the human enzyme reacted with both enzyme forms and precipitated the keratan sulphate-degrading activity. Both isoenzymes had the same apparent Km of 4mM, but the B form was approximately twice as active as the A form when compared with the activity towards a chromogenic substrate. Differences were noted in the pH--activity profiles of both isoenzymes. Thermal inactivation of isoenzyme B was less pronounced towards the polymeric substrate than towards the p-nitrophenyl derivative.
Project description:Two isoforms of acidic 1,2-alpha-D-mannosidases have been isolated from culture filtrate of Penicillium citrinum. The pI values of the two forms, designated 1,2-alpha-mannosidase Ia and Ib, were 4.6 and 4.7 respectively. Isoenzymes Ia and Ib exhibited the same molecular mass which was determined to be 53 kDa by SDS/PAGE and 54 kDa by gel-permeation chromatography. Enzymes Ia and Ib hydrolysed yeast mannan and 1,2-alpha-linked mannooligosaccharides, but did not hydrolyse p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-mannoside. The optimal pH for the hydrolysis of Man(alpha 1-->2)Man was 5.0 for both isoenzymes. Similar kinetic parameters were determined for the two forms. Activation energy was a little lower for Ia than Ib. There was little difference between the enzymes with regard to their performance at acidic or alkaline pH. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the two enzymes were identical. Analysis of C-terminal peptides, which were prepared by tryptic digestion and anhydrotrypsin-agarose chromatography, showed that Ia and Ib had the same amino acid sequences in the C-terminal region. Tryptic digestion revealed a slight difference between the isoenzymes in the pattern of cleaved peptides on SDS/PAGE.
Project description:Two isoenzyme of beta-glucuronidase from a rat basophil leukaemia tumour were co-purified 4067-fold by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and sequential chromatography on concanavalin A--Sepharose, Sephadex G-200, DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose and phosphocellulose. The purity of the mixture was established by the coincidence of the peaks of enzyme activity and protein at a molecular weight of 300 000 on Bio-Gel P-300, the presence of only two protein bands, both of them enzymically active, in polyacrylamide gels after electrophoresis under non-denaturing conditions, and the presence of a single subunit species, of mol.wt. 75 000, after electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels under a denaturing conditioning. The major isoenzyme co-migrated with the L form from rat liver during electrophoresis in alkaline polyacrylamide gels, whereas the minor isoenzyme migrated more rapidly than either the lysosomal form or the rat liver microsomal form and was designated the tumour (T) isoenzyme. A mixture of the purified isoenzymes from two preparations had an average specific activity of 1389 units/mg for phenolphthalein beta-D-glycopyranosiduronic acid. The L and T isoenzymes, which had pI5.9 and 5.7 respectively, could be obtained free of cross-contamination by isoelectric focusing and had similar specific activities. Although the T isoenzyme could be a catabolic product of the M or the L form, it could also be a unique tumour product, because it was not detected in extracts of normal rat tissues.
Project description:Several forms of glutathione S-transferase (GST) are present in human kidney, and the overall isoenzyme pattern of kidney differs significantly from those of other human tissues. All the three major classes of GST isoenzymes (alpha, mu and pi) are present in significant amounts in kidney, indicating that GST1, GST2 and GST3 gene loci are expressed in this tissue. More than one form of GST is present in each of these classes of enzymes, and individual variations are observed for these classes. The structural, immunological and functional properties of GST isoenzymes of three classes differ significantly from each other, whereas the isoenzymes belonging to the same class have similar properties. All the cationic GST isoenzymes of human kidney except for GST 9.1 are heterodimers of 26,500-Mr and 24,500-Mr subunits. GST 9.1 is a dimer of 24,500-Mr subunits. All the cationic isoenzymes of kidney GST cross-react with antibodies raised against a mixture of GST alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon isoenzymes of liver. GST 6.6 and GST 5.5 of kidney are dimers of 26,500-Mr subunits and are immunologically similar to GST psi of liver. Unlike other human tissues, kidney has at least two isoenzymes (pI 4.7 and 4.9) associated with the GST3 locus. Both these isoenzymes are dimers of 22,500-Mr subunits and are immunologically similar to GST pi of placenta. Some of the isoenzymes of kidney do not correspond to known GST isoenzymes from other human tissues and may be specific to this tissue.
Project description:The isoenzymic forms of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase in mitochondria of rat tissues were compared with the better-known cytosolic forms in order to find any regular pattern of expression of these isoenzymes during development. Mitochondria of all tissues examined except brain contained only a type-I isoenzyme differing from the cytosolic type-I isoenzyme in heat stability and activation by mercaptoethanol. Foetal and adult brain mitochondria contained isoenzymes type III as well as type I. The large excess of type-I isoenzyme in foetal liver was localized in mitochondria, apparently of haematopoietic cells. The activity of this isoenzyme declined precipitously (by 80%) from day 19 of gestation at the same period and rate as does the volume fraction of haematopoietic cells that are then leaving the liver. Cortisol treatment accelerated the loss of these cells, and proportionally accelerated loss of the mitochondrial isoenzyme I. A development succession of type-I isoenzyme by the unique type II of liver parenchymal cell cytosols could not be demonstrated, since small, about equal, amounts of types I and II were always present in cytosols of foetal and adult liver. Developmental succession of isoenzymes within tissues was limited to cytosols and was demonstrated by the presence of cytosolic isoenzyme III in foetal and newborn skeletal muscle and kidney, organs which contain only isoenzyme I in the adult.
Project description:1. On isoelectric focusing, renin from rat kidneys showed three activity peaks with pI values at pH 5.0, 5.2 and 5.4 after a purification procedure involving differential centrifugation, acidification, chromatography on Sephadex G-75 and dialysis. 2. The preparation (purified 140-fold) was compared with a crude kidney extract in the absence and presence of 3 M-urea by isoelectric focusing. The pattern of activity distribution was confirmed by these experiments and the content of isoenzymes in the three groups calculated. 3. Pig renin was prepared and compared with rat renin with regard to molecular weight, acid activation, behaviour on isoelectric focusing, immunogenicity and substrate affinity. 4. Extracts of rat kidney contained multiple forms of renin with mol.wt. between 39000and 42000, whereas active pig renin had an approximate mol.wt. of 40000. Acidification of rat renal extracts did not increase the activity of renin, indicating the absence of an inactive form of renin in rat kidneys, whereas pig renin was activated by this procedure. Pig renin has isoelectric points at pH 4.6, 4.8, 5.05 and 5.2, significantly lower than for rat renin. The isoenzymes from the two species had no antigenicity in common, as shown by crossed immunoelectrophoresis or rocket immunoelectrophoresis. 5. The Michaelis constants for pig and rat renin were in the same range, 1 X 10(-6) M, when rat renin substrate was used. The relative content of rat isoenzyme with pI in the pH ranges 4.9-5.1, 5.1-5.3 and 5.3-5.5 was approx. 20, 27 and 53% respectively. Purified pig renin prepared in two different ways had isoenzymes with pI in the pH regions 4.5-4.7, 4.7-4.9, 4.9-5.05 and 5.05-5.20 in the approximate proportions 14, 24, 28 and 29%.
Project description:Isoelectric focusing of a cytosol fraction from human foetal liver revealed the existence of an acidic and a basic isoenzyme of GSH transferase. The acidic and basic forms of GSH transferase were purified in good yield by use of ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose followed by affinity chromatography on S-hexyl-GSH coupled to epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B. The content of the acidic and the basic isoenzymes of GSH transferase together was calculated to constitute 1-2% of the soluble proteins in the hepatic cytoplasm. Physical, catalytic and immunological analyses of the acidic and the basic isoenzymes from foetal liver demonstrated unambiguously that the two forms are different structures with distinct properties. On the other hand, the results show clearly extensive similarities between the foetal acidic transferase and transferase pi from human placenta as well as between the foetal basic form and the basic isoenzymes isolated from adult liver. An exception is that both foetal enzymes seem to be considerably more efficient in catalysing the conjugation of GSH with styrene 7,8-epoxide than the corresponding adult forms of GSH transferase.
Project description:1. Secretion of the lysosomal enzyme beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (EC 126.96.36.199) by normal human fibroblast cultures was linear with respect to time up to 96h. 2. Two forms of the A isoenzyme of beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase were found in the culture medium. One form was similar to the isoenzyme found in other extracellular fluids, such as plasma and tears, the other resembled the intracellular (lysosomal) enzyme. The presence of the two isoenzymes in the culture medium appears to reflect two distinct secretory processes. 3. It is suggested that plasma acid hydrolases may be destined for incorporation into lysosomes in a manner analogous to that described for the packaging of lysosomal enzymes by fibroblasts.