ABSTRACT: The influence of cyclic AMP on cartilage degradation was investigated by using phosphodiesterase inhibitors [theophylline and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)], forskolin (which activates the catalytic subunit of adenylate cyclase) and cyclic AMP analogues (dibutyryl and 8-bromo). Breakdown was assessed by quantification of proteoglycans released into the media of 8-day bovine nasal-septum cartilage cultures. Theophylline (1-20 mM), IBMX (0.01-2 mM) and dibutyryl cyclic AMP (0.1-2 mM) had little or no influence on the rate of proteoglycan release from unstimulated (no-endotoxin) cartilages. A small but detectable increase in breakdown was observed with 8-bromo cyclic AMP (0.5-2 mM) and forskolin (50-75 micrograms/ml). To examine potential inhibitory influences of these agents, the cyclic AMP modulators were added to cultures simultaneously treated with Salmonella typhosa endotoxin (12-25 micrograms/ml), a potent stimulator of cartilage degradation. The 3-4-fold stimulation of breakdown by endotoxin was strikingly inhibited by all three classes of cyclic AMP regulators. Optimal inhibition was found at 10-20 mM-theophylline, 1-2 mM-IBMX, 50-75 micrograms of forskolin/ml, 2 mM-dibutyryl cyclic AMP and 2 mM-8-bromo cyclic AMP. Inhibition was shown to be reversible, indicating that cartilages were viable after treatment. Sepharose CL-2B chromatography of proteoglycan products released from treated cartilages showed that the endotoxin-stimulated shift to lower average Mr was significantly prevented by cyclic AMP analogues and phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Together, these results show that agents which increase cyclic AMP inhibit both quantitative and qualitative aspects of endotoxin-mediated cartilage degradation.
Project description:Glucagon (10 nM) caused a transient elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations, which reached a peak in around 5 min, and slowly returned to basal values in around 30 min. When 1 mM-3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) was present, this process yielded a Ka of 1 nM for glucagon. The addition of insulin (10 nM) after 5 min exposure to glucagon (10 nM) caused intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations to fall dramatically, attaining basal values within 10 min. The regulation of this process was dose-dependent, exhibiting a Ka of 0.4 nM for insulin. If insulin and glucagon were added together to hepatocytes, then insulin decreased the magnitude of the cyclic AMP response to glucagon. IBMX (1 mM) prevented insulin antagonizing the action of glucagon in both of these instances. A gentle homogenization procedure followed by a rapid subcellular fractionation of hepatocytes on a Percoll gradient was developed. This was used to resolve subcellular membrane fractions and to identify cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity in both membrane and cytosol fractions. Glucagon and insulin only affected the activity of two distinct membrane-bound species, a plasma-membrane enzyme and a 'dense vesicle' enzyme. Glucagon (10 nM), insulin (10 nM), IBMX (1 mM), dibutyryl cyclic AMP (10 microM) and cholera toxin (1 microgram/ml) all elicited the activation of the 'dense vesicle' enzyme. The plasma-membrane enzyme was not activated by glucagon, IBMX or dibutyryl cyclic AMP, although insulin and cholera toxin both led to its activation. The degree of activation of the plasma-membrane enzyme produced by insulin was increased in the presence of IBMX or dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Glucagon pretreatment (5 min) of hepatocytes blocked the ability of insulin to activate the plasma-membrane enzyme. The activity state of these phosphodiesterases is discussed in relation to the observed changes in intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations. It is suggested that insulin exerts its action on the plasma-membrane phosphodiesterase through a mechanism involving a guanine nucleotide-regulatory protein.
Project description:Effects on insulin release, cyclic AMP content and protein phosphorylation of agents modifying cyclic AMP levels have been tested in intact rat islets of Langerhans. Insulin release induced by glucose was potentiated by dibutyryl cyclic AMP, glucagon, cholera toxin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX); the calmodulin antagonist trifluoperazine reversed these potentiatory effects. Inhibition by trifluoperazine of IBMX-potentiated release was, however, confined to concentrations of IBMX below 50 microM; higher concentrations, up to 1 mM, were resistant to inhibition by trifluoperazine. IBMX-potentiated insulin release was also inhibited by 2-deoxyadenosine, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase. In the absence of glucose, IBMX at concentrations up to 1 mM did not stimulate insulin release and in the presence of 3.3 mM-glucose IBMX was effective only at a concentration of 1 mM; under the latter conditions trifluoperazine again did not inhibit insulin secretion. The maximum effect on insulin release was achieved with 25 microM-IBMX. Islet [cyclic AMP] was increased by IBMX, with the maximum rise occurring with 100 microM-IBMX. The increase in [cyclic AMP] elicited by IBMX was more rapid than that induced by cholera toxin. Trifluoperazine did not significantly affect islet cyclic AMP levels under any of the conditions tested. When islets were incubated with [32P]Pi, radioactivity was incorporated into islet ATP predominantly in the gamma-position. The rate of equilibration of label was dependent on medium Pi and glucose concentration and at optimal concentrations of these 100% equilibration of internal [32P]ATP with external [32P]Pi required a period of 3h. Radioactivity was incorporated into islet protein and, in response to an increase in islet [cyclic AMP], the major effect was on a protein of Mr 15 000 on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gels. The extent of phosphorylation of the Mr-15 000 protein was correlated with the level of cyclic AMP: phosphorylation in response to IBMX was inhibited by 2-deoxyadenosine but not by trifluoperazine. Fractionation of islets suggested that the Mr-15 000 protein was of nuclear origin: the protein co-migrated with histone H3 on acetic acid/urea/Triton gels. In the islet cytosol a number of proteins were phosphorylated in response to elevation of islet [cyclic AMP]: the major species had Mr values of 18 000, 25 000, 34 000, 38 000 and 48 000. Culture of islets with IBMX increased the rate of [3H]-thymidine incorporation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Project description:We studied the effects of glucagon, dibutyryl cyclic AMP and dexamethasone on the rate of [(14)C]pantothenate conversion to CoA in adult rat liver parenchymal cells in primary culture. The presence of 30nm-glucagon increased the rate by about 1.5-fold relative to control cultures (range 1.4-2.3) and 2.4-fold relative to cultures containing 1-3m-i.u. of insulin/ml. The half-maximal effect was obtained at 3nm-glucagon. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP plus theophylline also enhanced the rate by about 1.5-fold. Dexamethasone acted synergistically with glucagon; glucagon at 0.3nm had no effect when added alone, but resulted in a 1.7-fold enhancement when added in the presence of dexamethasone (maximum effect at 50nm). The 1.4-fold enhancement caused by the addition of saturating glucagon concentrations was increased to a 3-fold overall enhancement by the addition of dexamethasone. However, dexamethasone added alone over the range 5nm to 5mum had no effect on the rate of [(14)C]pantothenate conversion to CoA. The stimulatory effect of dibutyryl cyclic AMP plus theophylline was also enhanced by the addition of dexamethasone. Changes in intracellular pantothenate concentration or radioactivity could not account for the stimulatory effects of glucagon, dibutyryl cyclic AMP or dexamethasone. Addition of 18mum-cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, decreased the rate of incorporation of [(14)C]pantothenate into CoA and the enhancement of this rate by glucagon and dibutyryl cyclic AMP plus theophylline in a reversible manner. These results demonstrate an influence of glucagon, dibutyryl cyclic AMP and glucocorticoids on the intracellular mechanism regulating total CoA concentrations in the liver.
Project description:The homologous and heterologous desensitization of rat Leydig-tumour-cell adenylate cyclase induced by lutropin (LH) was characterized with the aid of forskolin and cholera toxin. Forskolin stimulated cyclic AMP production in a dose-dependent manner, with linear kinetics up to 2h. Forskolin also potentiated the action of LH on cyclic AMP production, but was only additive with cholera toxin. Preincubation of rat Leydig tumour cells with LH (1.0 micrograms/ml) for 1 h produced a desensitization of the subsequent LH (1.0 micrograms/ml)-stimulated cyclic AMP production, whereas the responses to cholera toxin (5.0 micrograms/ml), forskolin (100 microM), LH plus forskolin or cholera toxin plus forskolin were unaltered. In contrast, preincubation with LH for 20h produced a desensitization to all the stimuli tested. When rat Leydig tumour cells were preincubated for 1h with forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic AMP, the only subsequent response that was significantly altered was that to LH plus forskolin after preincubation with forskolin. However, preincubation for 20h with forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic AMP induced a desensitization to all stimuli subsequently tested. LH produced a rapid (0-1h) homologous desensitization, which was followed by a slower (2-8h)-onset heterologous desensitization. Forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP were only able to induce heterologous desensitization. The rate of desensitization induced by either forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic AMP was similar to the rate of heterologous desensitization induced by LH. These results demonstrate that in purified rat Leydig tumour cells LH produces an initial homologous desensitization of adenylate cyclase that involves a cyclic AMP-independent lesion at or proximal to the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (G-protein). This is followed by heterologous desensitization, which can also be induced by forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic AMP, thus indicating that LH-induced heterologous desensitization of rat Leydig-tumour-cell adenylate cyclase involves a cyclic AMP-dependent lesion that is after the G-protein.
Project description:Previous studies showed that phorbol esters and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulated phosphatidylcholine synthesis via protein kinase C in GH3 pituitary cells [Kolesnick (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 14525-14530]. In contrast, 1,2-diacylglycerol-stimulated phosphatidylcholine synthesis appeared independent of protein kinase C. The present studies compare phosphatidylcholine synthesis stimulated by these agents with inhibition via the cyclic AMP system. The potent phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 10 nM) increased [32P]Pi incorporation into phosphatidylcholine at 30 min to 159 +/- 6% of control. The adenylate cyclase activator cholera toxin (CT; 10 nM) and the cyclic AMP analogue dibutyryl cyclic AMP (1 mM) abolished this effect. CT similarly abolished TRH-induced phosphatidylcholine, but not phosphatidylinositol, synthesis. This is the first report of inhibiton of receptor-mediated phosphatidylcholine synthesis by the cyclic AMP system. The 1,2-diacylglycerol 1,2-dioctanoylglycerol (diC8) also stimulated concentration-dependent phosphatidylcholine synthesis. DiC8 (3 micrograms/ml) induced an effect quantitatively similar to that of maximal concentrations of PMA and TRH, whereas a maximal diC8 concentration (30 micrograms/ml) stimulated an effect 3-4-fold greater than these other agents. CT decreased the effect of diC8 (3 micrograms/ml) by 80%. Higher diC8 concentrations overcame the CT inhibition. Similar results were obtained with dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Additional differences were found between low and high concentrations of diC8. Low concentrations of diC8 failed to induce additive phosphatidylcholine synthesis with maximal concentrations of PMA, whereas high concentrations were additive. Hence, low concentrations of 1,2-diacylglycerols appear to be regulated similarly to phorbol esters, and higher concentrations appear to act via a pathway unavailable to phorbol esters.
Project description:Freshly isolated rat hepatocytes maintained as monolayers in a serum-free medium synthesize sulphated glycosaminoglycans, most of which behave as heparan sulphate and are mainly distributed into intracellular compartments. Cyclic AMP, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, glucagon, noradrenaline, prostaglandin E(1), and theophylline, all drugs and hormones known to increase intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations, decreased the incorporation of (35)SO(4) (2-) into heparan sulphate of intra-, extra- and peri-cellular pools. The inhibition mediated by dibutyryl cyclic AMP was dose-dependent and observed as early as 2h after exposure to the drug. In the presence of 1mm-dibutyryl cyclic AMP, incorporation of (35)SO(4) (2-) or [(14)C]glucosamine into heparan sulphate was decreased to 40-50%, suggesting that dibutyryl cyclic AMP interfered with the synthesis of heparan sulphate. This was further supported by pulse-chase experiments, where dibutyryl cyclic AMP had no effect on the degradation of sulphated glycosaminoglycans. Heparan sulphates synthesized and secreted into the extracellular pool in the presence of dibutyryl cyclic AMP were smaller in size, whereas the degree of sulphation and molecular size of the heparan sulphate chains released by beta-elimination from these proteoglycans were not different from control values. In the presence of 1mm-cycloheximide, (35)SO(4) (2-) incorporation was decreased to 5%. Addition of p-nitrophenyl beta-d-xyloside, an artificial acceptor of glycosaminoglycan chain synthesis, enhanced this incorporation to 18%. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP did not have any inhibitory effect on the synthesis of chains initiated on p-nitrophenyl beta-d-xylosides. Incorporation of [(3)H]serine into heparan sulphate was not affected by dibutyryl cyclic AMP, whereas the degree of substitution of serine residues with heparan sulphate chains was less in heparan sulphate synthesized in the presence of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, suggesting that cyclic AMP exerts its effect on the metabolism of sulphated glycosaminoglycans by affecting the transfer of xylose on to the protein core.
Project description:1. The release of growth hormone from isolated fragments of rat anterior pituitary tissue incubated in vitro was studied by employing a double-antibody radioimmunoassay. 2. In the absence of added stimuli, two phases of hormone release could be distinguished, an early phase of 2h duration and a subsequent late phase. In the early phase, hormone release was rapid but could be significantly decreased by calcium depletion and by 2,4-dinitrophenol whereas the rate of release in the late phase was uninfluenced by these incubation conditions. These results have been interpreted as indicating the existence of a secretory component in the early phase of release. 3. In subsequent experiments, the effects of various agents on the rate of hormone output during the late phase of incubation were investigated. Hormone release was increased by theophylline and by dibutyryl cyclic AMP (N(6)-2'-O-dibutyryl-adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate), the response to both of these agents being related to the concentration of the stimulant employed. 4. The stimulation of growth hormone output by theophylline was significantly decreased by calcium deprivation and by 2,4-dinitrophenol. The response to dibutyryl cyclic AMP was diminished by 2,4-dinitrophenol, iodoacetate and 2-deoxyglucose but not by malonate or colchicine. 5. Arginine, beta-hydroxybutyrate, albumin-bound palmitate and variation in the glucose concentration of the incubation medium over a wide range were without any statistically significant effect on the rate of hormone release from either control pituitary fragments or those subject to secretory stimulation by dibutyryl cyclic AMP. 6. It is suggested that the regulation of growth hormone secretion is mediated by cyclic AMP (adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate). The secretion observed in response to cyclic AMP requires the presence of ionized calcium and a source of metabolic energy but is independent of pituitary protein synthesis de novo. The integrity of the glycolytic pathway of glucose metabolism appears to be essential for cyclic AMP-stimulated growth hormone secretion to occur.
Project description:The presence of 1.0mm-dibutyryl cyclic AMP (N(6),O(2')-dibutyryladenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate) and 1.5mm-theophylline completely inhibits the growth of mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells by 24-36h. When compared with N2a cultures without inhibitors (controls), the proportion of cells in S phase, measured by radioautography with [(3)H]-thymidine, was decreased from 55 to 12%. In addition, the presence of the inhibitors decreased apparent [(3)H]fucose incorporation into glycoproteins by 50%, and removing the inhibitors resulted in a rapid recovery of both DNA synthesis and glycoprotein metabolism. Measurement of intracellular acid-soluble radioactive fucose revealed that decreased fucose uptake could account for the apparent change in incorporation. Removing dibutyryl cyclic AMP and theophylline from the medium resulted in a rapid uptake of radioactive fucose to within control values, which illustrated that the inhibitors decreased transport of the carbohydrate, although the cells remained viable. Treatment with dibutyryl cyclic AMP and theophylline also reversibly inhibited glycoprotein degradation. Plasma membranes isolated from growing cells and from growth-inhibited cells labelled with [(14)C]fucose and [(3)H]fucose respectively were co-electrophoresed on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gels. These displayed no apparent differences in synthesis of specific membrane glycoproteins. Electrophoresis of plasma membranes isolated from cultures pulse-chased with [(14)C]fucose and [(3)H]fucose was used to discern turnover patterns of specific plasma-membrane glycoproteins. High-molecular-weight glycoproteins exhibited rapid rates of turnover in membranes from growing cells, but moderate turnover rates in growth-inhibited cells and cells reversed from growth inhibition. These data indicate that growth arrest of N2a cells results in alterations in the metabolic turnover of plasma-membrane glycoproteins.
Project description:1. The ability of exogenously administered cyclic AMP (adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate) to exert andromimetic action on certain carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes was investigated in the rat prostate gland and seminal vesicles. 2. Cyclic AMP, when injected concurrently with theophylline, produced marked increases in hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase, and two hexose monophosphate-shunt enzymes, as well as alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase activity in accessory sexual tissues of castrated rats. The 6-N,2'-O-dibutyryl analogue of cyclic AMP caused increases of enzyme activity that were greater than those induced by the parent compound. 3. Time-course studies demonstrated that, whereas significant increases in the activities of most enzymes occurred within 4h after the injection of cyclic AMP, maximal increases were attained at 16-24h. 4. Increase in the activity of the various prostatic and vesicular enzymes was dependent on the dose of cyclic AMP; in most instances, 2.5mg of the cyclic nucleotide/rat was sufficient to elicit a statistically significant response. 5. Administration of cyclic AMP and theophylline also produced stimulation of enzyme activities in secondary sexual tissues of immature rats. 6. Cyclic AMP and theophylline did not affect significantly any of the enzymes studied in hepatic tissue. 7. Stimulation of various carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes in the prostate gland and seminal vesicles by cyclic AMP was independent of adrenal function. 8. Concurrent treatment with actinomycin or cycloheximide prevented the cyclic AMP- and theophylline-induced increases in enzyme activities in both castrated and adrenalectomized-castrated animals. 9. Administration of a single dose of testosterone propionate (5.0mg/100g) to castrated rats caused a significant increase in cyclic AMP concentration in both accessory sexual tissues. 10. In addition, treatment with theophylline potentiated the effects of a submaximal dose of testosterone (1.0mg/100g) on all those prostatic and seminal-vesicular enzymes that are increased by exogenous cyclic AMP. 11. The evidence indicates that cyclic AMP may be involved in triggering the known metabolic actions of androgens on secondary sexual tissues of the rat.
Project description:1. The aim of this study was to determine the conditions under which the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist UK14304 produces vasoconstriction in the porcine isolated ear artery. 2. UK14304 (0.3 microM) produced a small contraction of porcine isolated ear arteries which was 7.8+/-3.3% of the response to 60 mM KCl. Similar sized contractions were obtained after precontraction with either 30 nM angiotensin II, or 0.1 microM U46619 (8.2+/-1.8% and 10.2+/-2.6% of 60 mM KCl response, respectively). However, an enhanced alpha2-adrenoceptor response was uncovered if the tissue was precontracted with U46619, and relaxed back to baseline with 1-2 microM forskolin before the addition of UK14304 (46.9+/-9.6% of 60 mM KCl response). 3. The enhanced responses to UK14304 in the presence of U46619 and forskolin were not inhibited by the alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (0.1 microM), but were inhibited by the alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist rauwolscine (1 microM), indicating that the enhanced responses were mediated via postjunctional alpha2-adrenoceptors. 4. In the presence of 0.1 microM U46619 and 1 mM isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), 1 microM forskolin produced an increase in [3H]-cyclic AMP levels in porcine isolated ear arteries. Addition of 0.3 microM UK14304 prevented this increase. 5. The enhanced UK14304 response was dependent upon the agent used to relax the tissue. After relaxation of ear arteries precontracted with 10 nM U46619 and relaxed with forskolin the UK14304 response was 46.9+/-9.6% of the 60 mM KCl response, and after relaxation with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) the response was 24.8+3.3%. However, after relaxation of the tissue with levcromakalim the UK14304 response was only 8.2+/-1.7%, which was not different from the control response in the same tissues (12.2+/-5.6%). An enhanced contraction was also obtained after relaxation of the tissue with the cyclic AMP analogue dibutyryl cyclic AMP (23.2+/-1.3%) indicating that at least part of the enhanced response to UK14304 is independent of the ability of the agonist to inhibit cyclic AMP production. 6. Relaxation of U46619 contracted ear arteries with SNP could be inhibited by the NO-sensitive guanylyl-cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) indicating that production of cyclic GMP is necessary for the relaxant effect of SNP. However, ODQ had no effect on the relaxation of tissue by forskolin, suggesting that this compound does not act via production of cyclic GMP. Biochemical studies showed that while forskolin increases the levels of cyclic AMP in the tissues, SNP had no effect on the levels of this cyclic nucleotide. 7. In conclusion, enhanced contractions to the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist UK14304 can be uncovered in porcine isolated ear arteries by precontracting the tissue with U46619, followed by relaxation back to baseline with forskolin, SNP or dibutyryl cyclic AMP before addition of UK14304. There was a greater contractile response to UK14304 after relaxation with forskolin than with SNP or dibutyryl cyclic AMP, suggesting that cyclic AMP-dependent and- independent mechanisms are involved in the enhancement of the UK14304 response.