Effects of phorbol esters and secretagogues on nitrobenzylthioinosine binding to nucleoside transporters and nucleoside uptake in cultured chromaffin cells.
ABSTRACT: Secretagogues inhibited adenosine uptake in chromaffin cells without causing apparent changes in the uptake affinity. The inhibition caused by carbachol, nicotine and acetylcholine reached 50%. This inhibition was reproduced by the action of protein kinase C activators such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 100 nM), phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu; 100 nM), dicaproin (10 micrograms/ml) and tricaprylin (10 micrograms/ml), with inhibitions of Vmax. of 18, 20, 37 and 47% respectively. No changes in the affinity of uptake were observed with these effectors. Down-regulation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters decreased the inhibitory effects of carbachol on adenosine uptake. Binding studies with nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI) showed a similar decrease in the number of transporters when chromaffin cells were treated with the same effectors used for the uptake studies. The high-affinity dissociation constants showed minor changes with respect to the control. The ratio between maximal uptake capacity and the transporter number per cell was not significantly modified by the action of secretagogues or direct effectors of protein kinase C. The number of high-affinity binding sites for NBTI was decreased in cellular homogenates by the direct action of protein kinase C activators, with staurosporine able to reverse this action. Protein kinase C from bovine brain in the presence of ATP and effectors, decreased the number of high-affinity NBTI-binding sites in purified chromaffin cell plasma membranes. These data suggest the possibility of a molecular modification at the transporter level.
Project description:1. The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in agonist-induced contractions of guinea-pig ileum longitudinal smooth muscle has been investigated. 2. The phorbol esters, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), phorbol 12,13-diacetate (PDA) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), relaxed tissues precontracted by submaximal concentrations of carbachol, histamine or substance P. 3. This inhibitory action of the phorbol esters was reversed following the application of ouabain, a specific inhibitor of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. Similarly, pretreatment with ouabain inhibited the ability of phorbol esters to relax tissues precontracted by the above agonists. 4. The slow relaxation of the tonic component of contraction induced by submaximal concentrations of carbachol and histamine, and all concentrations of substance P, was abolished in the presence of ouabain. 5. In Na(+)-loaded tissues, PDBu and carbachol caused a concentration-dependent increase of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, assessed by ouabain-sensitive 86Rb(+)-uptake. Extrusion of Na+, assessed by the cellular content of the ion, was also stimulated by PDBu (the effect of carbachol was not investigated). 6. We conclude that phorbol esters inhibit the tonic component of contractions induced by submaximal concentrations of these agonists through activation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. We suggest that PKC may exert feedback control over the tonic component of agonist contractions through stimulation of the pump.
Project description:The goal of this study was to define profiles of secreted neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters that undergo co-release from sympathoadrenal chromaffin cells upon stimulation by distinct secretagogues. Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla participate in the dynamic responses to stress, especially that of 'fight and flight', and, thus, analyses of the co-release of multiple neurotransmitters is necessary to gain knowledge of how the stress response regulates cell-cell communication among physiological systems. Results of this study demonstrated that six different secretagogues stimulated the co-release of the neuropeptides Met-enkephalin, galanin, NPY, and VIP with the catecholamines dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. Importantly, the quantitative profiles of the secreted neurotransmitters showed similarities and differences upon stimulation by the different secretagogues evaluated, composed of KCl depolarization, nicotine, carbachol, PACAP, bradykinin, and histamine. The rank-orders of the secreted profiles of the neurotransmitters were generally similar among these secretagogues, but differences in the secreted amounts of each neurotransmitter occurred with different secretagogues. Epinephrine among the catecholamines showed the highest level of secretion. (Met)enkephalin showed the largest levels of secretion compared to the other neuropeptides examined. Levels of secreted catecholamines were greater than that of the neuropeptides. These data support the hypothesis that profiles of secreted neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters show similarities and differences upon stimulation by distinct secretagogues. These results illustrate the co-release of concerted neurotransmitter profiles that participate in the stress response of the sympathoadrenal nervous system.
Project description:In this paper we report the rapid phosphorylation of a cytosolic 100 kDa protein during stimulation of secretion from dispersed aggregates of parotid acinar cells with Ca(2+)-mobilizing secretagogues (carbachol, Substance P, ATP and the Ca2+ ionophore A23187). Phosphorylation was inhibited by removal of extracellular Ca2+ but was not observed during stimulation with phorbol esters, suggesting that this protein is not a substrate for protein kinase C. Two-dimensional PAGE and immunoprecipitation with a specific antiserum indicated that this protein is elongation factor 2, whose Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation has been shown to inhibit protein synthesis [Nairn & Palfrey (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 17299-17303]. These results suggest that phosphorylation of elongation factor 2 is the molecular mechanism for the inhibition of protein synthesis which has been previously observed in rat parotid cells during stimulation with Ca(2+)-mobilizing secretagogues.
Project description:Activation of M3 muscarinic receptors in HT-29 cells by carbachol rapidly increases polyphosphoinositide breakdown. Pretreatment of these cells with carbachol (0.1 mM) for 5 h completely inhibits the subsequent ability of carbachol to increase [3H]inositol monophosphate ([3H]InsP) accumulation, paralleled by a total loss of muscarinic binding sites. In contrast, protein kinase C (PK-C)-mediated desensitization by incubation with phorbol esters [PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate)], leading to a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of cholinergically stimulated InsP release (95% inhibition after 4 h with 0.1 microM-PMA), is accompanied by only a 40% decrease in muscarinic receptor binding, which suggests an additional mechanism of negative-feedback control. Neither carbachol nor PMA pretreatment had any effect on receptor affinity. Incubation with carbachol for 15 min caused a small increase of membrane-associated PK-C activity (15% increase, P less than 0.05) as compared with the potency of phorbol esters (PMA) (3-4-fold increase, P less than 0.01). Long-term incubation (4-24 h) with PMA resulted in a complete down-regulation of cytosolic and particulate PK-C activity. Stimulation of InsP release by NaF (20 mM) was not affected after a pretreatment with phorbol esters or carbachol, demonstrating an intact function of G-protein and phospholipase-C (PL-C) at the effector side. Determination of PL-C activity in a liposomal system with [3H]PtdInsP2 as substrate, showed no change in PL-C activity after carbachol (13 h) and short-term PMA (2.5 h) pretreatment, whereas long-term preincubation with phorbol esters (13 h) caused a small but significant decrease in PL-C activity (19%, P less than 0.05). Our results indicate that agonist-induced desensitization of phosphoinositide turnover occurs predominantly at the receptor level, with a rapid loss of muscarinic receptors. Exogenous activation of PK-C by phorbol esters seems to dissociate the interaction between receptor and G-protein/PL-C, without major effects on total cellular PL-C activity.
Project description:1. We have investigated the effect of phorbol esters and the down-regulation of protein kinase C on contraction of guinea-pig ileum longitudinal smooth muscle to carbachol and high K+. 2. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) enhanced the phasic component and inhibited or enhanced, respectively, the tonic component of contraction to carbachol and high K+. In contrast, 4 alpha-phorbol, which does not activate protein kinase C, had no effect on these responses. 3. Exposure to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 1 microM) for up to 8 h induced a time-dependent loss of [3H]-PDBu binding sites, consistent with the down-regulation of protein kinase C by this treatment. 4. The phasic component of contraction to carbachol or high K+ was unaffected following the down-regulation of protein kinase C. The tonic component of contraction to carbachol was markedly enhanced by this treatment while that to high K+ was partially suppressed. 5. These data suggest that although the activation of protein kinase C can lead to potentiation of the phasic component of contraction to carbachol or high K+, this appears to have little physiological significance since the response is not altered in tissues in which protein kinase C has been down-regulated. On the other hand, protein kinase C may limit the tonic contraction to carbachol but potentiate that to high K+.
Project description:The formation of inositol phosphates in response to secretagogues was studied in rat pancreatic acini preincubated with [3H]inositol. Carbachol caused rapid increases in radioactive inositol phosphate, inositol bisphosphate and inositol trisphosphate . This effect was blocked by atropine, and also elicited by caerulein, but not by ionomycin or phorbol dibutyrate. Thus phospholipase C-mediated breakdown of polyphosphoinositides, with the resulting formation of inositol phosphates, may be an early step in the stimulus-secretion coupling pathway in exocrine pancreas. Inositol trisphosphate may function as a second messenger in the exocrine pancreas, coupling receptor activation to internal Ca2+ release.
Project description:Na+/Ca2+ exchange in the B cell was recently characterized by measuring intracellular-Na(+)-dependent 45Ca2+ uptake in isolated rat pancreatic islet cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of this process. Extracellular pH (pHo) and intracellular pH (pHi) markedly affected Na+/Ca2+ exchange. A fall of 0.04 unit in pHi decreased the exchange by 45%, whereas a rise of 0.13 unit increased the uptake by 70%. Mitochondrial poisons (oligomycin, antimycin A and 2,4-dinitrophenol) inhibited reverse Na+/Ca2+ exchange by about 25-50%. The exchanger displayed a low Q10 (temperature coefficient), indicating that it is only indirectly dependent on metabolic energy. The phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate did not affect Na+/Ca2+ exchange. Likewise, lowering the extracellular K+ concentration did not inhibit 45Ca2+ uptake. In conclusion, the pHi and the metabolic state of the cell may represent important modulatory signals by which insulin secretagogues such as glucose could regulate reverse Na+/Ca2+ exchange in the B cell. The process does not appear to co-transport K+ nor to be influenced by protein kinase C.
Project description:The uptake of inositol into 1321N1 astrocytoma cells was studied by measurement of the accumulation of free [3H]inositol within the intracellular pool. Uptake occurs via a saturable transporter with apparent Km for inositol approximately 40 microM and Vmax approximately 180 pmol/min per mg of protein, which permits intracellular inositol concentrations to exceed those of the medium by a factor of approximately 500. At extracellular concentrations up to 500 microM, inositol uptake is highly dependent (> or = 85%) on the presence of Na+ in the medium, and at physiological extracellular inositol concentrations, allows inositol to achieve an intracellular concentration of approximately 20 mM, indicating an active process driven by the Na+ gradient. Despite this, uptake was only minimally impaired or was unaffected by ouabain (1 mM) or dinitrophenol (1 mM). Consistent with a carrier-mediated mechanism, uptake was competitively blocked by phlorhizin (K1 approximately 125 microM). Uptake was also inhibited by carbachol and histamine, which act respectively via muscarinic and H1 receptors in these cells to stimulate phospholipase C. Inhibition by carbachol was dose-dependent (EC50 approximately 3-30 microM) and blocked by atropine. Inhibition by carbachol (1 mM) was non-competitive, resulting from approximately 50% decrease in the Vmax for uptake without affecting the Km and was persistent over 30-90 min. Inhibition by carbachol and histamine was independent of extracellular Ca2+ and was reproduced by phorbol ester, but not by Ca2+ ionophore or stimulation of adenylate cyclase. These results imply that receptors which couple to phospholipase C may mediate inhibition of inositol uptake via protein kinase C. The data are discussed in relation to inositol homoeostasis in resting and stimulated cells.
Project description:The role of various intracellular signals and of their possible interactions in the control of neurotransmitter release was investigated in PC12 cells. To this purpose, agents that affect primarily the cytosolic concentration of Ca2+, [Ca2+]i (ionomycin, high K+), agents that affect cyclic AMP concentrations (forskolin; the adenosine analogue phenylisopropyladenosine; clonidine) and activators of protein kinase C (phorbol esters) were applied alone or in combination to either growing chromaffin-like PC12-cells, or to neuron-like PC12+ cells differentiated by treatment with NGF (nerve growth factor). In addition, the release effects of muscarinic-receptor stimulation (which causes increase in [Ca2+]i, activation of protein kinase C and decrease in cyclic AMP) were investigated. Two techniques were employed to measure catecholamine release: static incubation of [3H]dopamine-loaded cells, and perfusion incubation of unlabelled cells coupled to highly sensitive electrochemical detection of released catecholamines. The results obtained demonstrate that: (1) release from PC12 cells can be elicited by both raising [Ca2+]i and activating protein kinases (protein kinase C and, although to a much smaller extent, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase); and (2) these various control pathways interact extensively. Activation of muscarinic receptors by carbachol induced appreciable release responses, which appeared to be due to a synergistic interplay between [Ca2+]i and protein kinase C activation. The muscarinic-induced release responses tended to become inactivated rapidly, possibly by feedback desensitization of the receptor mediated by protein kinase C. Muscarinic inactivation was prevented (or reversed) by agents that increase, and accelerated by agents that decrease, cyclic AMP. Agents that stimulate release primarily through the Ca2+ pathway (ionomycin and high K+) were found to be equipotent in both PC12- and PC12+ cells, whereas the protein kinase C activator 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol 13-acetate was approx. 10-fold less potent in PC12+ cells, when administered either alone or in combination with ionomycin. In contrast, the cell binding of phorbol esters was not greatly modified by NGF treatment. Thus control of neurotransmitter release from PC12 cells is changed by differentiation, with a diminished role of the mechanism mediated by protein kinase C.
Project description:1. Isolated chromaffin cells from bovine adrenal medulla were used to study glucose transport in a homogeneous neural tissue. 2. The affinity of glucose transporters was 1.20 +/- 0.52 mM by the infinite-cis technique and 1.02 +/- 0.09 mM by the direct transport experiments. 3. The affinity for 2-deoxyglucose of these transporters was 2.3 mM. 4. The glucose transporters, quantified by [3H]cytochalasin B binding, were 419,532 +/- 120,740 receptors/cell, which corresponds to about 7.2 +/- 2 pmol/mg of protein, with KD = 0.1 microM. 5. High-affinity insulin receptors with KD = 3.95 nM were present at a density of 68,400 +/- 7500 per cell. 6. Insulin and secretagogues increased glucose transport, raising the transporter number at the plasma membrane without changes in the affinity.