Evidence for masking of brown adipose tissue mitochondrial GDP-binding sites in response to fasting in rats made obese by dietary manipulation. Effects of reversion to standard diet.
ABSTRACT: A specific immunoassay of uncoupling protein (UCP) and measurement of GDP binding were used to study the chronic responses of brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondria from rats made obese by dietary means (cafeteria rats) and from obese rats subsequently fed a standard diet (post-cafeteria rats). We studied the response to fasting in order to assess the masking/unmasking responses in these groups. These studies have shown the following. (1) In the obese rats (cafeteria and post-cafeteria) the chronic increase in mitochondrial UCP concentration compared with controls parallels the increase in GDP binding. (2) In 24 h-fasted control rats the decrease in GDP binding is associated with a change in UCP concentration, but in fasting cafeteria and post-cafeteria obese rats the decrease in GDP binding is not associated with any change in UCP concentration. (3) Post-cafeteria obese rats showed increased GDP binding and higher UCP concentrations than the controls, but these values were less than in cafeteria obese rats. (4) Control rats at 8 months old showed greater GDP binding and had a higher UCP concentration than 11-month-old control rats. (5) The responses of GDP binding and UCP concentration to fasting in post-cafeteria obese rats were similar to those in cafeteria obese rats, suggesting that such abbreviations are related to the obese status itself rather than to the composition of the cafeteria diet. The evidence supports the hypothesis that the response of the cafeteria and post-cafeteria obese rats to fasting is associated with a masking of UCP, whereas with chronic manipulation of diet changes in UCP concentration predominate.
Project description:The effects of starvation on the thermogenic parameters of three different mitochondrial subpopulations in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of both post-cafeteria obese and lean rats were investigated. Tissue from different BAT depots from fed and 24 h starved rats were collected, pooled and three mitochondrial subpopulations were isolated by differential centrifugation; the M1 fraction (1000 g), the M3 fraction (3000 g) and the M15 fraction (15,000 g). Thermogenic parameters were measured in the three mitochondrial subtypes, and uncoupling protein (UCP) mRNA was determined in BAT. The results showed that starvation induced a decrease in mitochondrial turnover in BAT from both lean and obese rats. Moreover, a selective net loss of UCP from the lightest mitochondrial fraction (M15) in lean rats, with a concomitant reduction of UCP mRNA was observed. The reductions did not occur in obese rats and, as a result, a change in UCP distribution between the mitochondrial subpopulations was produced, with an increase in the M1 mitochondrial subtype. The lack of response of UCP to starvation observed in BAT of obese rats compared with the decrease seen in lean animals, is a consequence of a different mitochondrial subpopulation composition and/or a different response of a particular subpopulation to starvation.
Project description:This study analyzed gene expression of rat peripheral blood mononuclear cells by microarray analysis following different feeding conditions (ad libitum feeding, fasting and refeeding) in normoweight (control) and in diet-induced obese rats (cafeteria rats). The aim of this study was to identify genes and biological pathways that were altered by feeding conditions in normoweight and diet-induced obese rats. Keywords: Dietary treatment, analysis of feeding conditions Overall design: Gene expression of Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was assesed by whole genome microarray analysis. Normoweight and diet-induced obese (cafeteria-fed) Wistar rats were submitted to ad libitum feeding, fasting and re-feeding feed conditions. Two-month-old male Wistar rats (n=29) were assigned into two dietary groups for 4 months: the control group (n=14) was fed with a standard chow diet, whereas the second group (cafeteria group, n=15) was fed with a fat-rich hypercaloric cafeteria diet in addition to the standard chow. At 6 months of age each group of rats was distributed in three subgroups submitted to different feeding conditions (n=4 or 5 for each condition): feeding (animals provided with ad libitum access to diet), fasting (animals deprived of food for 14 h) and re-feeding (fasted animals with a posterior free access to diet for 6 h). For PBMC isolation, blood samples were collected from the safena vein, using heparine in NaCl (0.9%) as anticoagulant; immediately after the blood collection, PBMC were isolated by Ficoll gradient separation, and RNA was extracted. One sample in the control group was excluded because of low amount of RNA. Gene expression changes were assessed using the Agilent rat whole genome microarray (G4131F Agilent Technologies).
Project description:GDP binding to brown-adipose-tissue mitochondria was decreased in obese Zucker rats. Adrenalectomy restored both GDP binding and serum tri-iodothyronine of obese rats to values observed in lean rats. The effects of adrenalectomy on GDP binding and serum tri-iodothyronine were reversed by corticosterone. Decreasing food intake had no effect on brown-adipose-tissue GDP binding in obese rats. Young (5-week-old) obese rats showed a normal increase in brown-adipose-tissue mitochondrial GDP binding after housing at 4 degrees C for 7 days, but this response was attenuated in 10-week-old obese rats. Overfeeding with sucrose increased brown-adipose-tissue thermogenesis in lean, but not in obese, rats. After adrenalectomy, overfeeding with sucrose enhanced brown-adipose-tissue mitochondrial GDP binding in obese rats.
Project description:The effect of cold exposure on thermogenic parameters such as mitochondrial protein content, GDP-binding and uncoupling protein (UCP) levels in different mitochondrial fractions from rat brown adipose tissue has been investigated. Rats were exposed from 12 h to 5 days at 4 degrees C, and three mitochondrial fractions were isolated by differential centrifugation: the M1 fraction (1000 g), the M3 fraction (3000 g) and the M15 fraction (15,000 g). Cytochrome c oxidase activity as an index of mitochondrial mass showed an increase during cold exposure. During the first 24 h of cold exposure UCP was incorporated specifically into the M3 and M15 mitochondrial fractions, and thereafter UCP appeared in the heaviest M1 fraction. However, specific GDP binding was increased during the first 24 h in the same way in all subpopulations, and this increase continued up to 72 h of cold exposure. Results suggest that different molecular events are involved during acute and chronic adaptation to cold: during the first 24 h of cold acclimatization, thermogenic activity is increased by an unmasking process of the UCP binding sites in the M1 mitochondrial fraction as UCP levels were constant and GDP binding increased, but in the M3 and M15 fraction the increase in thermogenic activity was completely due to an increase in GDP binding induced by a specific incorporation of UCP targeted to these mitochondria. Thus thermogenic parameters change in a different way in the brown-fat mitochondrial subpopulations during cold acclimatization.
Project description:We have used a specific immunoassay for uncoupling protein and [3H]GDP binding to study the acute and chronic responses of brown-adipose-tissue (BAT) mitochondria of warm-acclimated rats to housing at 4 degrees C and cold-acclimated rats to housing at 27 degrees C. These studies have shown the following. (1) In the cold-exposed rat the increase in mitochondrial uncoupling-protein concentration parallels the increase in GDP binding from 1 day to 5 days, but that acutely (initial 4 h) the increase in GDP binding is not associated with any change in uncoupling-protein concentration. 2. In the cold-acclimated rat rehoused at 27 degrees C, GDP binding fell by over 50% in the first 2 days, without any change in uncoupling-protein concentrations. 3. Noradrenaline acutely (30 min) increased BAT mitochondrial GDP binding of lean and obese Zucker rats, without any change in uncoupling-protein concentrations. 4. The increases in GDP binding in cold-exposed rats were associated with increases in the rate of swelling of mitochondria in the presence of valinomycin and potassium acetate. The evidence supports the hypothesis that the acute response of the rat to changes in environmental temperature are associated with unmasking or remasking of uncoupling protein, whereas chronically changes in uncoupling-protein concentration predominate.
Project description:GDP binding to brown-adipose-tissue mitochondria of young obese Zucker rats (fa/fa) was significantly lower than in lean control rats, as a result of a decrease in the number of binding sites. Adrenalectomy of fa/fa rats restored GDP binding to control values. Corticosterone replacement suppressed GDP binding in adrenalectomized obese rats.
Project description:Thyroid hormones play an important role in glucose metabolism and there is evidence of increased prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in obese and diabetic patients. This study aimed at evaluating the thyroid function and the effects of the triiodothyronine (T3) treatment on glycemia control, insulin sensitivity and subclinical inflammation in cafeteria-diet-induced obesity in rats. Obesity was induced in male Wistar rats by offering a cafeteria diet and a subset of the obese rats was treated with T3 (1.5 ?g per 100 g of body weight) for a 28-day period. The pituitary-thyroid axis was evaluated by molecular and biochemical parameters. Cytokine content was measured in the serum as well as in the mesenteric and epididymal white adipose tissue. Obese rats exhibited impairment of glycemia control, increased content of inflammatory cytokines in mesenteric white adipose tissue, decreased serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentration and increased sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) and TSH receptor (TSHR) protein content in thyroid gland. T3 treatment improved insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and reduced inflammatory cytokine content in mesenteric white adipose tissue. In the thyroid gland NIS, TSHR, and thyroperoxidase (TPO) content were reduced while thyroglobulin (TG) content was increased by T3. The thyrotrophic response to negative feedback exerted by T3 was preserved in obese rats. The present data reinforce the beneficial effects of T3 treatment of obese rats on the improvement of insulin sensitivity and on the negative modulation of inflammatory cytokine expression in adipose tissue. Moreover, we have evidenced that the pituitary-thyroid axis is affected in obese rats, as illustrated by the impaired TSH secretion.
Project description:Metformin is known to have a beneficial effect on body weight and body composition, although the precise mechanism has not been elucidated yet. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of metformin on energy metabolism and anthropometric factors in both human subjects and rats.In human studies, metformin (1500mg/day) was administered to 23 healthy subjects and 18 patients with type 2 diabetes for 2 weeks. Metabolic parameters and energy metabolism were measured during a meal tolerance test in the morning before and after the treatment of metformin. In animal studies, 13 weeks old SD rats were fed 25-26 g of standard chow only during 12-hours dark phase with either treated by metformin (2.5mg/ml in drinking water) or not for 2 weeks, and metabolic parameters, anthropometric factors and energy metabolism together with expressions related to fat oxidation and adaptive thermogenesis were measured either in fasting or post-prandial state at 15 weeks old.Post-prandial plasma lactate concentration was significantly increased after the metformin treatment in both healthy subjects and diabetic patients. Although energy expenditure (EE) did not change, baseline respiratory quotient (RQ) was significantly decreased and post-prandial RQ was significantly increased vice versa following the metformin treatment in both groups. By the administration of metformin to SD rats for 2 weeks, plasma levels of lactate and pyruvate were significantly increased in both fasting and post-prandial states. RQ during a fasting state was significantly decreased in metformin-treated rats compared to controls with no effect on EE. Metformin treatment brought about a significant reduction of visceral fat mass compared to controls accompanied by an up-regulation of fat oxidation-related enzyme in the liver, UCP-1 in the brown adipose tissue and UCP-3 in the skeletal muscle.From the results obtained, beneficial effects of metformin on visceral fat reduction has been demonstrated probably through a mechanism for a potential shift of fuel resource into fat oxidation and an upregulation of adaptive thermogenesis independent of an anorexigenic effect of this drug.
Project description:Gene expression of rat peripheral blood mononuclear cells was analyzed by microarray analysis in normoweight and in diet-induced obese rats (cafeteria rats). The aim of this study was to identify genes involved in energy homeostasis that are altered in the obese state. Keywords: Dietary treatment, obese-state analysis Overall design: This study analyzed the gene expression of PBMC in normoweight and in diet-induced obese (cafeteria-fed) Wistar rats submitted to ad libitum feed conditions. Two-month-old male Wistar rats (n=10) were assigned into two dietary groups for 4 months: the control group (n=5) was fed with a standard chow diet, whereas the second group (cafeteria group, n=5) was fed with a fat-rich hypercaloric cafeteria diet in addition to the standard chow. At 6 months of age, blood samples were collected in feeding conditions from the safena vein. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated by Ficoll gradient separation, and RNA was extracted. One sample in the control group was excluded because of a low amount of RNA. Gene expression changes were assessed using an Agilent rat whole genome microarray (G4131F Agilent Technologies).
Project description:The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) integrates sensory information with the current value of foods and updates actions based on this information. Obese humans and rats fed a cafeteria diet have impaired devaluation of food rewards, implicating a potential obesity-induced dysfunction of the OFC. We hypothesized that obesity alters OFC pyramidal neuronal structure and function and reduces conditioned suppression of feeding. Rats were given restricted (1?h/day), extended (23?h/day) or no (chow only) access to a cafeteria diet and tested for a conditioned suppression of feeding. Golgi-cox impregnation and whole-cell patch clamp experiments were performed in lateral OFC pyramidal neurons of rats from the 3 feeding groups. Rats with 40 days of extended, but not restricted, access to a cafeteria diet became obese and continued to feed during foot shock-predicting cues. Access to a cafeteria diet induced morphological changes in basilar dendrites of lateral OFC pyramidal neurons. While there were no alterations in excitatory synaptic transmission underlying altered spine density, we observed a more depolarized resting membrane potential. This was accompanied by decreased inhibitory synaptic transmission onto lateral OFC pyramidal neurons due to decreased release probability at GABAergic inputs. These changes could underlie the inability of the OFC to encode changes in the motivation value of food that is observed in obese rodents and humans.