Phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis in isolated guinea-pig islets of Langerhans.
ABSTRACT: Previous studies have reported an increased turnover of phospholipid in isolated islets of Langerhans in response to raised glucose concentrations. The present investigation was thus undertaken to determine the nature of any phospholipases that may be implicated in this phenomenon by employing various radiolabelled exogenous phospholipids. Hydrolysis of 1-acyl-2-[14C]arachidonoylglycerophosphoinositol by a sonicated preparation of islets optimally released radiolabelled lysophosphatidylinositol, arachidonic acid and 1,2-diacylglycerol at pH 5,7 and 9 respectively. This indicates the presence of a phospholipase A1 and a phospholipase C. However, the lack of any labelled lysophosphatidylinositol production when 2-acyl-1-[14C]stearoylglycerophosphoinositol was hydrolysed argues against a role for phospholipase A2 in the release of arachidonic acid. Phospholipase C activity as measured by phosphatidyl-myo-[3H]inositol hydrolysis was optimal around pH8, required Ca2+ for activity and was predominantly cytosolic in origin. The time course of phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis at pH 6 indicated a precursor-product relationship for 1,2-diacylglycerol and arachidonic acid respectively. The release of these two products when phosphatidylinositol was hydrolysed by either islet or acinar tissue was similar. However, phospholipase A1 activity was 20-fold higher in acinar tissue. Substrate specificity studies with islet tissue revealed that arachidonic acid release from phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine was only 8% and 2.5% respectively of that from phosphatidylinositol. Diacylglycerol lipase was also demonstrated in islet tissue being predominantly membrane bound and stimulated by Ca2+. The availability of non-esterified arachidonic acid in islet cells could be regulated by changes in the activity of a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C acting in concert with a diacylglycerol lipase.
Project description:Stimulation of rabbit polymorphonuclear leucocytes with A23187 causes phospholipase C mediated breakdown of polyphosphoinositides, as evidenced by accumulation of [3H]inositol-labelled inositol bisphosphate and inositol trisphosphate. At the same time the polyphosphoinositides and the products of their breakdown, diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid, label rapidly with radioactive arachidonic acid. Enhancement of polyphosphoinositide labelling is not as great as enhancement of diacylglycerol or phosphatidic acid labelling, suggesting additional early activation of a second independent synthetic pathway to the last named lipids. Experiments using double (3H/14C) labelling, to distinguish pools with different rates of turnover, suggest the major pool of arachidonic acid used for synthesis of lipoxygenase metabolites turns over more slowly than arachidonic acid in diacylglycerol, but at about the same rate as arachidonic acid esterified in phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylinositol. Further, when cells are prelabelled with [14C]arachidonic acid, then stimulated for 5 min, it is only from phosphatidylcholine, and to a lesser extent phosphatidylinositol, that radiolabel is lost. Release of arachidonic acid is probably via phospholipase A2, since it is blocked by the phospholipase A2 inhibitor manoalide. The absence of accumulated lysophosphatides can be explained by reacylation and, in the case of lysophosphatidylinositol, deacylation. The importance of phospholipase A2 in phosphatidylinositol breakdown contrasts with the major role of phospholipase C in polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis. Measurements of absolute free fatty acid levels, as well as studies showing a correlation between production of radiolabelled hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids and release of radiolabel from the phospholipid pool, both suggest that hydrolysis of arachidonic acid esterified into phospholipids is the limiting factor regulating formation of lipoxygenase metabolites. By contrast with A23187, fMet-Leu-Phe (a widely used polymorphonuclear leucocyte activator) is a poor stimulant for arachidonic acid release unless a 'second signal' (e.g. cytochalasin B, or a product of A23187-stimulated cells) is also present. In the presence of cytochalasin B, fMet-Leu-Phe, like A23187, stimulates release of radiolabelled arachidonic acid principally from phosphatidylcholine.
Project description:Cross-linking of IgE receptors by antigen stimulation leads to histamine release and arachidonic acid release in rat peritoneal mast cells. Investigators have reported a diverse distribution of [3H]arachidonate that is dependent on labelling conditions. Mast cells from rat peritoneal cavity were labelled with [3H]arachidonic acid for different periods of time at either 30 or 37 degrees C. Optimum labelling was found to be after 4 h incubation with [3H]arachidonate at 30 degrees C, as judged by cell viability (Trypan Blue uptake), responsiveness (histamine release) and distribution of radioactivity. Alterations in 3H-radioactivity distribution in mast cells labelled to equilibrium were examined on stimulation with antigen (2,4-dinitrophenyl-conjugated Ascaris suum extract). The results indicated that [3H]arachidonic acid was lost mainly from phosphatidylcholine and, to a lesser extent, from phosphatidylinositol. A transient appearance of radiolabelled phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol indicated phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis by phospholipase C. Pretreatment with a phospholipase A2 inhibitor, mepacrine, substantially prevented the antigen-induced liberation of [3H]arachidonic acid from phosphatidylcholine. It can be thus concluded that, in the release of arachidonic acid by antigen-stimulated mast cells, the phospholipase A2 pathway, in which phosphatidylcholine is hydrolysed, serves as the major one, the phospholipase C/diacylglycerol lipase pathway playing only a minor role.
Project description:Vasopressin and oxytocin both stimulated inositol phosphate accumulation in isolated uterine decidua cells. Pretreatment of cells with the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) prevented this agonist-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis. TPA (0.1 microM) alone had no effect on basal inositol phosphate accumulation, but stimulated phosphoinositide deacylation, as indicated by a 2-fold increase in lysophosphatidylinositol and glycerophosphoinositol. TPA also stimulated a dose-related release of arachidonic acid from decidua-cell phospholipid [phosphatidylcholine (PC) much greater than phosphatidylinositol (PI) greater than phosphatidylethanolamine]. The phorbol ester 4 beta-phorbol 12,13-diacetate (PDA) at 0.1 microM had no effect on arachidonic acid mobilization. The TPA-stimulated increase in arachidonic acid release was apparent by 2 1/2 min (116% of control), maximal after 20 min (283% of control), and remained around this value (306% of control) after 120 min incubation. TPA also stimulated significant increases in 1,2-diacylglycerol and monoacylglycerol production at 20 and 120 min. Although the temporal increases in arachidonic acid and monoacylglycerol accumulation in the presence of TPA continued up to 120 min, that of 1,2-diacylglycerol declined after 20 min. In decidua cells prelabelled with [3H]choline, TPA also stimulated a significant decrease in radiolabelled PC after 20 min, which was accompanied by an increased release of water-soluble metabolites into the medium. Most of the radioactivity in the extracellular pool was associated with choline, whereas the main cellular water-soluble metabolite was phosphorylcholine. TPA stimulated extracellular choline accumulation to 183% and 351% of basal release after 5 and 20 min respectively and cellular phosphorylcholine production to 136% of basal values after 20 min. These results are consistent with a model in which protein kinase C activation by TPA leads to arachidonic acid mobilization from decidua-cell phospholipid by a mechanism involving phospholipase A-mediated PI hydrolysis and phospholipase C-mediated PC hydrolysis, coupled with further hydrolysis of the 1,2-diacylglycerol product.
Project description:Human platelets exposed to the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 form cyclo-oxygenase metabolites from liberated arachidonic acid and secrete dense granule substituents such as ADP. I have shown previously that A23187 causes activation of phospholipase A2 and some stimulation of phospholipase C. I now report that, in contrast to the case for thrombin, the activation of phospholipase C in response to ionophore is completely dependent upon the formation of cyclo-oxygenase products and the presence of ADP. The addition of A23187 to human platelets induces a transient drop in the amount of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, a decrease in the amount of phosphatidylinositol, and the formation of diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. In addition, lysophosphatidylinositol and free arachidonic acid are produced. The presence of cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors or agents which remove ADP partially impairs these changes. When both types of inhibitor are present, the changes in phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and the formation of diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid are blocked entirely, whereas formation of lysophosphatidylinositol and free arachidonic acid are relatively unaffected. The prostaglandin H2 analogue U46619 activates phospholipase C. This stimulation is inhibited partially by competitors for ADP. I conclude that phospholipase C is not activated by Ca2+ in the platelet, and suggest that stimulation is totally dependent upon a receptor coupled event.
Project description:Arachidonic acid has been implicated as a second messenger in insulin secretion by islets of Langerhans. D-Glucose, the major physiological stimulus, increases unesterified arachidonate accumulation in islets. We now show, for the first time, that the muscarinic agonist carbachol, at concentrations which stimulate insulin secretion, causes a rapid and nearly 3-fold increase in arachidonic acid accumulation in islets. The combination of glucose and carbachol has an additive effect on unesterified arachidonate release. There is a large component of secretagogue-induced arachidonate accumulation that is independent of extracellular Ca2+. Carbachol stimulation of arachidonic acid release is mediated by activation of phospholipase A2, as demonstrated by early increases in endogenous lysophosphatidylcholine. In addition to phospholipase A2 activation, carbachol-induced arachidonic acid accumulation also appears to involve diacylglycerol hydrolysis, since the diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor RG80267 partly inhibited arachidonic acid accumulation. In contrast, glucose-induced arachidonic acid accumulation appears to reflect diacylglycerol hydrolysis entirely. Our observations indicate that phospholipase A2 has an important role in muscarinic-induced insulin secretion.
Project description:(1) The hydrolysis of (32)P- or myo-[2-(3)H]inositol-labelled rat liver microsomal phospholipids by rat liver lysosomal enzymes has been studied. (2) The relative rates of hydrolysis of phospholipids at pH4.5 are: sphingomyelin>phosphatidylethanolamine>phosphatidylcholine> phosphatidylinositol. (3) The predominant products of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine hydrolysis are their corresponding lyso-compounds, indicating a slow rate of total deacylation. (4) Ca(2+) inhibits the hydrolysis of all phospholipids, though only appreciably at high (>5mm) concentration. The hydrolysis of sphingomyelin is considerably less sensitive to Ca(2+) than that of glycerophospholipids. (5) Analysis of the water-soluble products of phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis (by using myo-[(3)H]inositol-labelled microsomal fraction as a substrate) produced evidence that more than 95% of the product is phosphoinositol, which was derived by direct cleavage from phosphatidylinositol, rather than by hydrolysis of glycerophosphoinositol. (6) This production of phosphoinositol, allied with negligible lysophosphatidylinositol formation and a detectable accumulation of diacylglycerol, indicates that lysosomes hydrolyse membrane phosphatidylinositol almost exclusively in a phospholipase C-like manner. (7) Comparisons are drawn between the hydrolysis by lysosomal enzymes of membrane substrates and that of pure phospholipid substrates, and also the possible role of phosphatidylinositol-specific lysosomal phospholipase C in cellular phosphatidylinositol catabolism is discussed.
Project description:Slices of caruncular endometrium from steroid-treated ovariectomized sheep were incubated with myo-[2-3H]inositol to label tissue phosphatidylinositol. Effects of oxytocin were determined on the rate of incorporation of radioactivity into phosphatidylinositol and on the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides to inositol phosphates and diacylglycerol. Incorporation of radioactivity into phosphatidylinositol was linear during 2 h incubations; 10(-7) M (100 nM)-oxytocin caused a 2.8-fold increase in the rate of incorporation. In the presence of Li+, addition of 10(-7) M-oxytocin to slices in which phosphatidylinositol was pre-labelled caused mean increase of 40-fold in the incorporation of radioactivity into inositol mono-, bis- and tris-phosphates. Inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate was quantitatively the major trisphosphate formed. The action of oxytocin on phosphoinositide hydrolysis was dose- and time-dependent, occurring at concentrations within the range observed in plasma during episodes of secretion in vivo, and with a time course comparable with that of the action of oxytocin on uterine prostaglandin production. The effect of oxytocin on incorporation of radioactivity into inositol phosphates was not affected by inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis. Diacylglycerol 1- and 2-lipases in caruncular endometrium converted up to 72% of added 2-[3H]arachidonyldiacylglycerol into [3H]arachidonic acid during 30 min incubations at pH 7.0. Caruncular endometrium contained 1.49 mumol of phosphatidylinositol/g, representing approx. 0.2 mumol/g of phosphatidylinositol arachidonic acid. It is proposed that the stimulation of endometrial prostaglandin synthesis by oxytocin is accounted for by increased hydrolysis of phosphoinositides to diacylglycerol and inositol phosphates with subsequent release of arachidonic acid from diacylglycerol.
Project description:Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) produced by Bacillus thuringiensis has been used as a probe for the distribution of phosphatidylinositol in hepatocyte membranes. Approx. 50% of this phospholipid was hydrolysed in microsomal vesicles (endoplasmic reticulum) with no significant hydrolysis of the remaining membrane phospholipids. Latency of mannose-6-phosphatase was retained during treatment indicating that the vesicles remained impermeable. Stripping of the ribosomes did not increase hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol; however, when the vesicles were opened using dilute sodium carbonate, hydrolysis increased to greater than 90%. Hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol of Golgi membranes was 35% and of plasma membranes was 50%. After treatment with PI-PLC, radiolabelled secretory proteins were retained in Golgi membranes and trapped lactate dehydrogenase was retained in plasma-membrane preparations indicating that the vesicles remained closed. Hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol increased to greater than 90% when the membranes were opened by treatment with dilute sodium carbonate. These observations indicate that PI-PLC of Bacillus thuringiensis is a suitable probe for the distribution of phosphatidylinositol in membranes, and that in liver membranes this phospholipid occurs on each side of the bilayer, a topography consistent with its diverse roles.
Project description:Inositol lipid turnover was studied in quiescent Swiss mouse 3T3 cells stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Stimulation of the cells by PDGF for 10 min at 37 degrees C induced the following changes in lipids: in cells prelabelled with [32P]Pi, a 28% decrease in [32P]phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, a 41% decrease in [32P]phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and a 1.7-fold increase in the 32P-labelling of phosphatidic acid; in cells prelabelled with [3H8]arachidonic acid, a 17.9-fold increase in [3H]phosphatidic acid, a 20% decrease in [3H]phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), an 8.6-fold increase in [3H]arachidonic acid released into the medium, a 57-fold increase in [3H]prostaglandin E2 in the medium, and a 5.3-fold increase in [3H]monoacylglycerol released into the medium (the last was identified as the 2-acyl derivative); in cells prelabelled with [2-3H]glycerol, a 1.7-fold increase in [3H]diacylglycerol, a 6.7-fold increase in [3H]phosphatidic acid, a 1.6-fold increase in [3H]lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPtdCho), a 9% decrease in [3H]PtdIns, and a 1.6-fold increase in [3H]monoacylglycerol released into the medium. PDGF stimulated the formation of inositol tris-, bis- and mono-phosphates in the cells prelabelled with myo-[2-3H]inositol. These results indicate that, in Swiss 3T3 cells stimulated by PDGF, diacylglycerol produced by the hydrolysis of inositol lipids is partly degraded to 2-acylglycerol and partly converted into phosphatidic acid. The increase in lysoPtdCho indicates that a portion of arachidonic acid released from the stimulated cells is formed by the hydrolysis of PtdCho with a phospholipase A2. Different values of half-maximal doses of the partially purified PDGF used in this study were found for the various responses of quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells to PDGF. The values for half-maximal doses suggest that activation of a fraction of the cell-surface receptor for PDGF is sufficient for mitogenesis and for an increase in the cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration, and that the PGDF-stimulated lipid metabolism is probably proportional to the number of receptor sites activated by PDGF.
Project description:Extracellular sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) caused a remarkable elevation in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in immortalized human airway epithelial cells (CFNP9o-). An increase in total inositol phosphates formation was determined; however, the dose responses for [Ca2+]i elevation and inositol phosphates production were slightly different and, furthermore, PMA and pertussis toxin almost completely inhibited [Ca2+]i mobilization by SPC, whereas inositol phosphates production was only partially reduced. The possible direct interaction of SPC with Ca2+ channels of intracellular stores was determined by experiments with permeabilized cells, where SPC failed to evoke Ca2+ release, whereas lysophosphatidic acid was shown to be effective. The level of phosphatidic acid was increased by SPC only in the presence of AACOCF3, a specific inhibitor of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and blocked by both pertussis toxin and R59022, an inhibitor of diacylglycerol kinase. R59022 enhanced diacylglycerol production by SPC and also significantly reduced [Ca2+]i mobilization. Only polyunsaturated diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid were generated by SPC. Lastly, SPC caused stimulation of arachidonic acid release, indicating the involvement of PLA2. Taken together, these data suggest that, after SPC stimulation, phospholipase C-derived diacylglycerol is phosphorylated by a diacylglycerol kinase to phosphatidic acid, which is further hydrolysed by PLA2 activity to arachidonic and lysophosphatidic acids. We propose that lysophosphatidic acid might be the intracellular messenger able to release Ca2+ from internal stores.