Conformation, structure and activation of bovine cathepsin D. Unfolding and refolding studies.
ABSTRACT: Cathepsin D is found in the cell in two forms, one a single polypeptide chain (Mr 44 000) and the other a non-covalent complex of two peptides of Mr 14 000 and 30 000. These correspond to the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of the single chain from which they originate. It has been shown that the two forms of the enzyme are closely similar in secondary-structure content, in aromatic amino acid environment and in denaturation behaviour. The two-chain enzyme has half the specific activity of the single-chain form. The denaturation and renaturation of the single-chain cathepsin D has now been studied by c.d., fluorescence and enzyme activity. Activity is lost irreversibly on unfolding, but the loss of backbone ellipticity and of folded aromatic environment is 75% reversible. The enzyme unfolds in two main stages, and the kinetics of these transitions indicate the existence of at least two intermediate forms between the native and the fully unfolded states. A further form of the enzyme exists in 0.5 M-guanidinium chloride. It is characterized by having an activity 40% greater than that of the native state. This increase is not reversed on removing the denaturant. The similarities between cathepsin D and pepsin are discussed.
Project description:Myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase have been isolated from outdated human blood. Peroxidase activity was extracted from washed leucocytes using 0.5 M-CaCl2 and the extract further purified by chromatography on concanavalin A--Sepharose, phenyl-Sepharose and finally by gel filtration. The final enzyme preparations were highly purified according to spectral and gel-electrophoretic criteria. Under reducing and denaturing conditions on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis myeloperoxidase gave rise to bands of Mr 57 000, 39 000 and 15 500, whereas the eosinophil enzyme yielded bands of Mr 50 000 and 15 500. Both enzymes were very resistant to denaturation either by the chaotropic agents urea and guanidinium chloride or by elevated temperatures. Spectral properties of the native and reduced forms of the enzymes are reported.
Project description:Human plasma alpha-cysteine proteinase inhibitor (alpha CPI) was purified by a two-stage method: affinity chromatography on S-carboxymethyl-papain-Sepharose, and high-resolution anion-exchange chromatography. The protein was obtained as a form of Mr about 64 000 and material of higher Mr (about 100 000). In sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis with reduction, both forms showed a major component of Mr 64 000. An antiserum was raised against alpha CPI, and 'rocket' immunoassays showed the mean concentration in sera from 19 individuals to be 35.9 mg/dl. Both low-Mr and high-Mr forms of alpha CPI were confirmed to be sialoglycoproteins by the decrease in electrophoretic mobility after treatment with neuraminidase. alpha CPI was shown immunologically to be distinct from antithrombin III and alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, two serine proteinase inhibitors from plasma with somewhat similar Mr values. alpha CPI was also distinct from cystatins A and B, the two intracellular low-Mr cysteine proteinase inhibitors from human liver. Complexes of alpha CPI with papain were detectable in immunoelectrophoresis, but dissociated to free enzyme and intact inhibitor in sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The stoichiometry of binding of papain was close to 1:1 for both low-Mr and high-Mr forms. alpha CPI was found to be a tight-binding inhibitor of papain and human cathepsins H and L (Ki 34 pM, 1.1 nM and 62 pM respectively). By contrast, inhibition of cathepsin B was much weaker, Ki being about 35 microM. Dipeptidyl peptidase I also was weakly inhibited. Digestion of alpha CPI with bromelain gave rise to an inhibitory fragment of Mr about 22 000, which was isolated.
Project description:Cathepsin H was purified from human liver by a method involving autolysis and acetone fractionation, and chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, Ultrogel AcA 54, hydroxyapatite and concanavalin A-Sepharose. The procedure allowed for the simultaneous isolation of cathepsin B and cathepsin D. Cathepsin H was shown to consist of a single polypeptide chain of 28 000 mol.wt., and affinity for concanavalin A-Sepharose indicated that it was a glycoprotein. The enzyme existed in multiple isoelectric forms, the two major forms having pI values of 6.0 and 6.4; it hydrolysed azocasein (pH optimum 5.5), benzoylarginine 2-naphthylamide (Ba-Arg-NNap), leucyl 2-naphthylamide (Arg-NNap), (pH optimum 6.8). Arg-NNap and Arg-NMec, unlike Bz-Arg-NNap-, were not hydrolysed by human cathepsin B. Cathepsin H was similar to cathepsin B in being irreversibly inactivated by exposure to alkaline pH. Sensitivity to chemical inhibitors by 1 microM-leupeptin, which gave essentially complete inhibition of the other lysosomal cysteine proteinases, cathepsins B and L.
Project description:Two extracellular proteinases that probably play a central role in the metabolism and pathogenesis of the most common dermatophyte of man, Trichophyton rubrum, were purified to homogeneity. Size-exclusion chromatography and Chromatofocusing were used to purify the major proteinases 42-fold from crude fungal culture filtrate. The major enzyme has pI 7.8 and subunit Mr 44 000, but forms a dimer of Mr approx. 90 000 in the absence of reducing agents. A second enzyme with pI 6.5 and subunit Mr 36 000, was also purified. It is very similar in substrate specificity to the major enzyme but has lower specific activity, and may be an autoproteolysis product. The major proteinase has pH optimum 8, a Ca2+-dependence maximum of 1 mM, and was inhibited by serine-proteinase inhibitors, especially tetrapeptidyl chloromethane derivatives with hydrophobic residues at the P-1 site. Kinetic studies also showed that tetrapeptides containing aromatic or hydrophobic residues at P-1 were the best substrates. A kcat./Km of 27 000 M-1 X S-1 was calculated for the peptide 3-carboxypropionyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide. The enzyme has significant activity against keratin, elastin and denatured type I collagen (Azocoll).
Project description:Cathepsin L was purified to apparent homogeneity from human liver obtained post mortem. It was necessary to treat the homogenate at pH 4.2 and 37 degrees C to release active enzyme. The purification procedure involved ion-exchange chromatography on carboxymethyl-Sephadex and the Mono S column of a Pharmacia fast-protein-liquid-chromatography system. The enzyme was found to consist of two polypeptide chains of Mr 25 000 and 5000. The larger chain was shown to contain the active-site cysteine residue. Human cathepsin L proved to be similar to the rat and rabbit enzymes in regard to kinetic constants for the substrate benzyloxycarbonylphenylalanylarginine 7-(4-methyl)coumarylamide and rates of inactivation by the active-site-directed reagents benzyloxycarbonylphenylalanylphenylalanyldiazomethane and benzyloxycarbonylphenylalanylalanyldiazomethane. Thus clear characteristics of cathepsin L are now emerging, and these should simplify the identification of the enzyme in other tissues and species.
Project description:Purified human plasma fibronectin was digested with cathepsin G and the degradation products were tested for reactivity towards a monoclonal antibody. In an immunoblotting assay, after sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of the digestion products, the 85 000-Mr and 72 000-Mr gelatin- and heparin-binding fragments as well as the N-terminal 30 000-Mr heparin-binding fragment reacted with the antibody, whereas the 64 000-Mr gelatin- and heparin-binding fragment did not. In enzyme immunoassay the antibody reacted with intact fibronectin and the 30 000-Mr fragment but not with a 40 000-Mr gelatin-binding fragment. The alignment of the binding domains in these fragments and in the intact molecule [Vartio (1982) Eur. J. Biochem. 123, 223-233] localizes the antigenic determinant to the 21 000 Da N-terminal Staphylococcus aureus-binding region of fibronectin.
Project description:The subunit composition of human myeloperoxidase was studied with the use of sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and gel filtration. The subunit pattern observed depended on the manner in which the enzyme was treated before analysis. Reduction before heat treatment in detergent led to two main protein species (Mr 57 000 and 10 500), whereas reduction during or after heat treatment yielded an additional species of Mr 39 000. Heating without any reductive pretreatment yielded the 39 000-Mr form as the major electrophoretic species. Carbohydrate staining showed large amounts of sugar on the 57 000-Mr species and little on the 10 500-Mr form. Significant amounts of haem were associated with this latter subunit. Haem also seemed to be associated with the 57 000-Mr form but not with the 39 000-Mr one. These three subunit forms were isolated and their amino acid composition analysed. The 57 000-Mr and 39 000-Mr forms had very similar amino acid composition and yielded an apparently identical collection of fragments on incubation with CNBr. Once separated, the subunits could not be interconverted. Generally, minor amounts of other molecular-mass forms were observed. The nature of the various molecular-mass forms originating from myeloperoxidase is discussed.
Project description:Cathepsin L was purified from rabbit liver by a method involving whole-tissue homogenization, pH precipitation, ammonium sulphate fractionation and chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-50, phenyl-Sepharose and Sephadex G-75. Pure enzyme was obtained without the necessity of laborious subcellular fractionation techniques. The Mr of the enzyme was determined to be 29 000 by gel filtration, and affinity for concanavalin A-Sepharose indicated that it was a glycoprotein. A novel technique for detection of enzyme activity in agarose isoelectrofocusing gels showed that the enzyme existed in multiple isoenzymic forms with pI values ranging from 5.0 to 5.9. The enzyme catalysed the hydrolysis of azocasein, collagen and Z-Phe-Arg-NMec (where Z and NMec indicate benzyloxycarbonyl and N-methylcoumarin derivative respectively) optimally at pH 5.2, 3.3 and 6.0 respectively. In addition, cathepsin L was found to degrade benzoyl-Phe-Val-Arg-NMec and 3-carboxypropionyl-Ala-Phe-Lys-NMec. However, cathepsin B also cleaved all of these substrates. One major difference between these two enzymes was in their Michaelis constants for Z-Phe-Arg-NMec; cathepsin B had Km 75 microM whereas that of cathepsin L was 0.7 microM. Cathepsin L was inhibited by all of the usual chemical inhibitors of thiol proteinases as well as the more specific inhibitors Z-Phe-Phe-CHN2, Z-Phe-Ala-CHN2, compound E-64 and compound Ep-475. Active-site titration with compound E-64 showed that the purified sample contained 80% active protein, which had kcat. 20s-1 for the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-NMec. Antibodies were raised to active cathepsin L, and these did not cross-react with cathepsin B, thus demonstrating that these two enzymes are immunologically distinct.
Project description:The FAD-containing short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase was purified from ox liver mitochondria by using (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and chromatofocusing on PBE 94 resin. The enzyme is a tetramer, with a native Mr of approx. 162 000 and a subunit Mr of 41 000. Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases are usually isolated in a green form. The chromatofocusing step in the purification presented here partially resolved the enzyme into a green form and a yellow form. In the dye-mediated assay system, the enzyme exhibited optimal activity towards 50 microM-butyryl-CoA at pH 7.1. Kinetic parameters were also determined for a number of other straight-chain acyl-CoA substrates. The u.v.- and visible-absorption characteristics of the native forms of the enzyme are described, together with complexes formed by addition of butyryl-CoA, acetoacetyl-CoA and CoA persulphide.
Project description:Vitamin K-dependent protein S exists in two forms in human plasma, namely as the free protein and in complex with C4b-binding protein [Dahlbäck & Stenflo (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78, 2512-2516]. Now reported is a simple purification procedure for human protein S that includes barium citrate adsorption, DEAE-Sephacel chromatography and chromatography on Blue Sepharose. The yield was approx. 30% relative to the concentration of free protein S in plasma, which was found to be approx. 10 mg/l. Purified protein S migrated as a single-chain band on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis under non-reducing conditions and as a doublet of Mr approx. 85 000 and 75 000 on reduction. A third band of Mr 16 000 was observed after electrophoresis of 125I-labelled protein S and radioautography of reduced samples. This band appears to be disulphide-linked to the 75 000-Mr chain before reduction. Thrombin converted the 85 000-Mr chain of protein S into a 75 000-Mr chain and an 8000-Mr fragment, the latter again being detectable only by radioautography of reduced samples. The 16 000-Mr fragment was not observed, suggesting its degradation by thrombin. Under non-reducing conditions, no change in apparent molecular weight of thrombin-treated protein S was observed, indicating disulphide linkage of the fragments. Thrombin also affected the mobility of protein S on agarose-gel electrophoresis in the presence of Ca2+, suggesting a decreased affinity to Ca2+ of the cleaved form of protein S as compared with the undegraded molecule. After activation of the complement system in human serum, protein S was found to be a constituent part of the complex formed by C4b-binding protein and component C4b.