Tryptophan aminotransferase activity in rat liver.
ABSTRACT: By using an antiserum raised against rat liver tyrosine aminotransferase, it was shown that about 60% of tryptophan aminotransferase activity in rat liver extracts is catalysed by this enzyme. Induction of tryptophan aminotransferase activity by intraperitoneal injections of tryptophan or triamcinolone can be entirely attributed to the effects of these agents on tyrosine aminotransferase. The origin of the other 40% of tryptophan aminotransferase activity remains to be established. This activity increases after starvation for 48 h. It is unlikely that tryptophan transamination plays a quantitatively important role in the metabolism of tryptophan by the liver.
Project description:Induction of rat liver tyrosine aminotransferase by l-tyrosine and tryptophan oxygenase by l-tryptophan was studied in groups of rats fed on diets containing 18 or 5% protein. The basal activity of hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase of rats receiving 5% protein gradually increased with the age of the animals but that of rats receiving 18% protein did not. l-Tyrosine induced hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase in rats receiving 18% protein when tested at ages from 4 to 20 weeks. When induction by l-tyrosine was carried out in rats receiving the 5% protein diet, significant induction of tyrosine aminotransferase occurred only in 4- or 6-week-old rats. Induction by l-tryptophan of tryptophan oxygenase in liver or the basal activity of this enzyme in liver did not differ between the groups fed on 5 and 18% protein. On changing the diet from 0 to 18% protein, the above-mentioned effects on the induction of hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase were reversed.
Project description:Liver of rat foetuses from 14 to 19 days of gestation and cultured hepatocytes derived from foetuses of 14 or 15 days gestation show a limited capacity to transaminate tyrosine. This low tyrosine transamination activity can be ascribed to aspartate aminotransferase. Definitive tyrosine aminotransferase can be demonstrated in 1-day-old cultures of hepatocytes taken from 19-day foetuses, but not from 15-day foetuses. However, after 3 days of culture hepatocytes from 15-day foetuses are able to synthesize tyrosine aminotransferase. Induction studies reveal that dexamethasone is capable of increasing tyrosine aminotransferase activity once it is detectable in culture.
Project description:1. During the normal development of the rat, the specific activity of liver ornithine-keto acid aminotransferase exhibits a transient elevation around term, and subsequently increases to adult activity levels during the third postnatal week. 2. The synthetic glucocorticoid triamcinolone, administered as a single injection, produces a marked elevation of the ornithine-keto acid aminotransferase activity within 24hr. if given postnatally before the natural increase in ornithine-keto acid aminotransferase activity has occurred. In foetal and adult animals, triamcinolone does not induce any increase in this enzyme activity. 3. The repeated administration of puromycin completely prevents the rise in ornithine-keto acid aminotransferase activity that follows triamcinolone administration. 4. If adult rats are fed with a protein-free carbohydrate diet, or one free of arginine, the ornithine-keto acid aminotransferase activity diminishes to a fraction of the normal. When such diets are given, a single injection of triamcinolone does not increase the enzyme activity within 24hr. 5. Partial hepatectomy, and repeated injections of growth hormone, depress the ornithine-keto acid aminotransferase activity in adult rats. 6. The findings are discussed in relation to the mechanisms concerned with developmental and adaptive changes in enzyme activities in the liver.
Project description:1. Serine-pyruvate aminotransferase was purified from mouse, rat, dog and cat liver. Each enzyme preparation was homogeneous as judged by polyacrylamide-disc-gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. However, isoelectric focusing resulted in the detection of two or more active forms from enzyme preparations from dog, cat and mouse. A single active form was obtained with the rat enzyme. All four enzyme preparations had similar pH optima and molecular weights. 2. Both mouse and rat preparations catalysed transamination between a number of L-amino acids (serine, leucine, asparagine, methionine, glutamine, ornithine, histidine, phenylalanine or tyrosine) and pyruvate. Effective amino acceptors were pyruvate, phenylpyruvate and glyoxylate with serine as amino donor. The reverse transamination activity, with hydroxypyruvate and alanine as subtrates, was lower than with serine and pyruvate for both species. Serine-pyruvate aminotransferase activities were inhibited by isonicotinic acid hydrazide. 3. In contrast, both dog and cat enzyme preparations were highly specific for serine as amino donor with pyruvate, and utilized pyruvate and glyoxylate as effective amino acceptors. A little activity was detected with phenylpyruvate. The reverse activity was higher than with serine and pyruvate for both species. Serine-pyruvate amino-transferase activities were not inhibited by isonicotinic acid hydrazide.
Project description:Administration of pyridoxine stabilizes rat liver tyrosine aminotransferase in vivo, whereas administration of cortisol, cyclic AMP, glucagon, insulin, tryptophan or tyrosine does not. The results of these and other experiments with pyridoxine are discussed in relation to the mechanisms of action of this vitamin on the activity of the enzyme.
Project description:1. Salicylate, in concentrations of 0.25mm and above, enhances the basal activity of tyrosine-2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase in homogenates of rat liver incubated in the absence of added pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (endogenous activity). The effect is decreased by increasing the concentration of the cofactor. 2. The intraperitoneal administration of sodium salicylate enhances the activity of rat liver tyrosine aminotransferase; the major effect during the first hour being on the enzyme in the absence of added pyridoxal phosphate. Actinomycin D prevents the induction of the enzyme by cortisol and tryptophan. Induction by pyridoxine or salicylate is 50% inhibited by actinomycin D. The effects of the injections of various combinations of cortisol, pyridoxine and salicylate were also studied in the absence or presence of actinomycin D. 3. It is suggested that salicylate induces rat liver tyrosine aminotransferase by displacing its protein-bound cofactor and that a cofactor-type induction of the hepatic enzyme occurs in pyridoxine-treated rats.
Project description:Liver cells from fed Sprague-Dawley rats metabolized phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan at rates consistent with the known kinetic properties of the first enzymes of each pathway. Starvation of rats for 48 h did not increase the maximal activities of phenylalanine hydroxylase, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase and tyrosine aminotransferase in liver cell extracts, when results were expressed in terms of cellular DNA. Catabolic flux through the first two enzymes was unchanged; that through the aminotransferase was elevated relatively to enzyme activity. This is interpreted in terms of changes in the concentrations of 2-oxoglutarate and glutamate. Cells from tryptophan-treated animals exhibited significant increases in the catabolism of tyrosine and tryptophan, but not of phenylalanine. The activities of tyrosine aminotransferase and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase were also increased, although the changes in flux and enzyme activity did not correspond exactly. These results are discussed with reference to the control of aromatic amino acid catabolism in liver; the role of substrate concentration is emphasized.
Project description:Aspartate aminotransferases have been cloned and expressed from Crithidia fasciculata, Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Giardia intestinalis, and Plasmodium falciparum and have been found to play a role in the final step of methionine regeneration from methylthioadenosine. All five enzymes contain sequence motifs consistent with membership in the Ia subfamily of aminotransferases; the crithidial and giardial enzymes and one trypanosomal enzyme were identified as cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferases, and the second trypanosomal enzyme was identified as a mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. The plasmodial enzyme contained unique sequence substitutions and appears to be highly divergent from the existing members of the Ia subfamily. In addition, the P. falciparum enzyme is the first aminotransferase found to lack the invariant residue G197 (P. K. Mehta, T. I. Hale, and P. Christen, Eur. J. Biochem. 214:549-561, 1993), a feature shared by sequences discovered in P. vivax and P. berghei. All five enzymes were able to catalyze aspartate-ketoglutarate, tyrosine-ketoglutarate, and amino acid-ketomethiobutyrate aminotransfer reactions. In the latter, glutamate, phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and histidine were all found to be effective amino donors. The crithidial and trypanosomal cytosolic aminotransferases were also able to catalyze alanine-ketoglutarate and glutamine-ketoglutarate aminotransfer reactions and, in common with the giardial aminotransferase, were able to catalyze the leucine-ketomethiobutyrate aminotransfer reaction. In all cases, the kinetic constants were broadly similar, with the exception of that of the plasmodial enzyme, which catalyzed the transamination of ketomethiobutyrate significantly more slowly than aspartate-ketoglutarate aminotransfer. This result obtained with the recombinant P. falciparum aminotransferase parallels the results seen for total ketomethiobutyrate transamination in malarial homogenates; activity in the latter was much lower than that in homogenates from other organisms. Total ketomethiobutyrate transamination in Trichomonas vaginalis and G. intestinalis homogenates was extensive and involved lysine-ketomethiobutyrate enzyme activity in addition to the aspartate aminotransferase activity. The methionine production in these two species could be inhibited by the amino-oxy compounds canaline and carboxymethoxylamine. Canaline was also found to be an uncompetitive inhibitor of the plasmodial aspartate aminotransferase, with a K(i) of 27 microm.
Project description:Inactivation of tyrosine aminotransferase induced in vivo by triamcinolone was studied in a homogenate incubated at neutral pH values. The integrity and the presence of subcellular particles together with a compartment of acidic pH are necessary for inactivation of tyrosine aminotransferase. It is suggested that tyrosine aminotransferase is inactivated inside lysosomes. The system responsible for inactivation of tyrosine aminotransferase was partially purified and identified with lysosomal cathepsins B and B(1). Inactivation of tyrosine aminotransferase in liver slices is controlled by the amino acid concentration and strongly stimulated by cysteine. 3,3',5-Tri-iodo-l-thyronine reversibly and strongly decreases the rate of inactivation of tyrosine aminotransferase. The effect is not due to an increased rate of tyrosine aminotransferase synthesis.
Project description:After glucagon injection, rats showed virtually identical percentage increases in hepatic histidine-pyruvate aminotransferase and serine-pyruvate aminotransferase activities, both in the mitochondria and in the cytosol. Histidine-pyruvate aminotransferase isoenzyme 1, with pI8.0, was purified to homogeneity from the mitochondrial fraction of liver from glucagon-injected rats. The purified enzyme catalysed transamination between a number of amino acids and pyruvate or phenylpyruvate. For transamination with pyruvate, the activity with serine reached a constant ratio to that with histidine during purification, which was unchanged by a variety of treatments of the purified enzyme. Serine was found to act as a competitive inhibitor of histidine transamination, and histidine of serine transamination. These results suggest that histidine-pyruvate amino-transferase isoenzymes 1 is identical with serine-pyruvate aminotransferase. The enzyme is probably composed of two identical subunits with mol. wt. approx. 38000. The absorbance maximum at 410 nm and the inhibition by carbonyl reagents strongly indicate the presence of pyridoxal phosphate.