The nature of haem a3 in the oxidized state of cytochrome c oxidase. Evidence from low-temperature magnetic-circular-dichroism spectroscopy in the near infrared region.
ABSTRACT: The magnetic-circular-dichroism (m.c.d.) spectra of oxidized 'resting' bovine cytochrome c oxidase and the cyanide-inhibited form are reported at 5.15 T and at 4.2 K along with m.c.d. magnetization curves plotted at selected wavelengths. In both spectra there are features at 790nm and 1564nm due to Cua and haem a respectively, the e.p.r.-detectable components of the enzyme. There is a new peak at 1946nm only in the spectrum of the cyanide-inhibited enzyme. Arguments are advanced that assign this to low-spin ferric haem a3 bridged to Cua3, thereby forming a ferromagnetically coupled pair of metal ions.
Project description:M.c.d. (magnetic-circular-dichroism) spectroscopy was used to study the magnetization properties of the haem centres in cytochrome c oxidase with magnetic fields of between 0 and 5.3 T over the temperature range 1.5--200 K. The oxidized, oxidized cyanide and partially reduced cyanide forms of the enzyme were studied. In the oxidized state only cytochrome a3+ is detectable by m.c.d. spectroscopy, and its magnetization characteristics show it to be a low-spin ferric haem. In the partially reduced cyanide form of the enzyme cytochrome a is in the diamagnetic low-spin ferrous form, whereas cytochrome a3--CN is e.p.r.-detectable and gives an m.c.d.-magnetization curve typical of a low-spin ferric haem. In the oxidized cyanide form of the enzyme both cytochrome a and cytochrome a3--CN are detectable by m.c.d. spectroscopy, although only cytochrome a gives an e.p.r. signal. The magnetization characteristics of haem a3--CN show clearly that its ground state is an electronic doublet and that another state, probably a spin singlet, lies greater than 10 cm-1 above this. These features are well accounted for by an electronic state of spin S = 1 with a predominantly axial distortion, which leaves the doublet, Ms = +/- 1, as the ground state and the component Ms = 0 as the excited state. This state would not give an e.p.r. signal. Such an electronic state could arise either from a ferromagnetic coupling between haem a3+(3)-CN and the cupric ion, Cua3, or form a haem in the Fe(IV) state.
Project description:Optical. e.p.r. and near-infrared low-temperature m.c.d. (magnetic-circular-dichroism) spectroscopy were used to characterize the partially reduced cyanide-inhibited derivative of cytochrome c oxidase produced by anaerobic reductive titration with dithionite. The reductions of cytochrome a3+ and Cu2+a were followed by observation of the e.p.r. signals at g = 3.03, 2.21 and 1.5 and at g = 2.18, 2.03 and 1.99. As reduction proceeds new e.p.r. signals (g = 3.58 and 1.56) appear that quantify to give one haem per enzyme unit when a small excess of dithionite has been titrated in. The e.p.r. signal of the Cu2+a titrates in parallel with the disappearance of the band and 820nm in the optical absorption spectrum. The near-infrared m.c.d. spectrum shows the presence of the low-spin ferric haem, a3+, in the oxidized state of the enzyme, as a well-resolved positive peak at 1650nm. As reduction proceeds this band is replaced by one at 1550nm due to haem a3+(3)--CN in the partially reduced state. Hence as haem a3+(3)--CN becomes e.p.r.-detectable it also shows a near-infrared m.c.d. spectrum characteristic of a low-spin ferric haem. It is concluded that the partially reduced state of cyanide-inhibited cytochrome c oxidase contains a2+ . Cu+a . a3+(3)--CN . Cu+a3.
Project description:The low-temperature e.p.r. and m.c.d. (magnetic-circular-dichroism) spectra of Pseudomonas aeruginosa nitrite reductase, together with those of its partially and fully cyanide-bound derivatives, were investigated. The m.c.d. spectra in the range 600-2000 nm indicate that the native axial ligands to haem c are histidine and methionine, and furthermore that it is the methionine ligand that must be displaced before cyanide binding at this haem. The m.c.d. spectra in the range 1000-2000 nm contain no charge-transfer bands arising from low-spin ferric haem d1, a chlorin. New optical transitions in the region 700-850 nm were found for the cyanide adduct of haem d1. The g-values of haem d1 in the native enzyme are 2.51, 2.43 and 1.71, suggesting co-ordination by two histidine ligands in the oxidized state. There is clear evidence in the e.p.r. data of an interaction between the c and d1 haem groups. This is not apparent in the optical spectra. The results are interpreted in terms of haem groups that are remote from each other, their interaction being mediated through protein conformational changes. The possible implications of this in relation to reduction processes catalysed by the enzyme are considered.
Project description:Optical-absorption-, e.p.r.- and m.c.d. (magnetic-circular-dichroism)-spectroscopic measurements were made on liganded derivatives of oxidized and partially reduced cytochrome c oxidase. When NO was added to oxidized cyanide-bound cytochrome c oxidase, no changes occurred in the optical-absorption difference spectrum. In contrast, NO induced reduction of cytochrome a3 and formation of the nitrosylferrohaem species when the oxidized resting enzyme was the starting material. E.p.r. spectroscopy of the NO-treated oxidized cyanide-bound enzyme revealed the presence of a low-spin haem signal at g = 3.40, whereas the g = 3.02 and g = 2.0 signals of the oxidized enzyme remained unchanged. Both haem groups in this species are e.p.r.-detectable simultaneously. Examination of an identical sample by m.c.d. spectroscopy in the near-i.r. region identified two distinct low-spin species at 1565 and 1785 nm. Irradiation with white light of the NO-treated cyanide-bound sample at 10K resulted in the disappearance of the g = 3.40 e.p.r. signal and the m.c.d. signal at 1785 nm, whereas a band at 1950nm increased in intensity. When the photolysed sample was warmed to 50K and held in the dark for 15 min, the original spectrum returned. Magnetization studies of the 1785nm m.c.d. band support the assignment of this signal to the same metal centre that gives rise to the g = 3.40 e.p.r. signal. The effect of NO on the oxidized cyanide-bound enzyme was compared with that obtained when the oxidized cyanide-bound species was taken to the partially reduced state. Cytochrome a3 is e.p.r.-detectable with a g-value of 3.58 [Johnson, Eglinton, Gooding, Greenwood & Thomson (1981) Biochem. J. 193, 699-708]. Its near-i.r. m.c.d. spectrum shifts from 1950nm in the oxidized cyanide-bound enzyme to 1545nm on addition of reductant. A scheme is advanced for the structure of the cytochrome a3-CuB site that allows for cyanide binding to Fea3 and NO binding to CuB. Cyanide is the bridging ligand in the ferromagnetically coupled cytochrome a3-CuB pair of oxidized cyanide-bound cytochrome c oxidase. The bridged structure and the magnetic interaction are broken when the enzyme is partially reduced. However, when NO binds to CuB the cyanide bridge remains intact, but now the odd spins of NO and CuB are magnetically coupled.
Project description:A detailed study is presented of the room-temperature absorption, natural and magnetic circulation-dichroism (c.d. and m.c.d.) spectra of cytochrome c oxidase and a number of its derivatives in the wavelength range 700-1900 nm. The spectra of the reduced enzyme show a strong negative c.d. band peaking at 1100nm arising from low-spin ferrous haem a and a positive m.c.d. peak at 780nm assigned to high-spin ferrous haem a3. Addition of cyanide ion doubles the intensity of the low-spin ferrous haem c.d. band and abolishes reduced carbonmonoxy derivative the haem a32+-CO group shows no c.d. or m.c.d. bands at wavelengths longer than 700nm. A comparison of the m.c.d. spectra of the oxidized and cyanide-bound oxidized forms enables bands characteristic of the high-spin ferric form of haem a33+ to be identified between 700 and 1300nm. At wavelengths longer than 1300nm a broad positive m.c.d. spectrum, peaking at 1600nm, is observed. By comparison with the m.c.d. spectrum of an extracted haem a-bis-imidazole complex this m.c.d. peak is assigned to one low-spin ferric haem, namely haem a3+. On binding of cyanide to the oxidized form of the enzyme a new, weak, m.c.d. signal appears, which is assigned to the low-spin ferric haem a33+-CN species. A reductive titration, with sodium dithionite, of the cyanide-bound form of the enzyme leads to a partially reduced state in which low-spin haem a2+ is detected by means of an intense negative c.d. peak at 1100 nm and low-spin ferric haem a33+-CN gives a sharp positive m.c.d. peak at 1550nm. The c.d. and m.c.d. characteristics of the 830nm absorption band in oxidized cytochrome c oxidase are not typical of type 1 blue cupric centres.
Project description:The purification of formate dehydrogenase (FDH) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa after anaerobic growth on nitrate-containing medium was carried out. The separation of the FDH enzyme from nitrate reductase (NiR), which are found together in a particle fraction and constitute the short respiratory chain of this bacterium, has been followed by optical, magnetic c.d. (m.c.d.) and e.p.r. spectroscopy. These techniques have allowed the haem, iron-sulphur clusters and molybdenum components to be detected and, in part, their nature to be determined. Attempts to extract FDH anaerobically in the absence of sodium dithionite led to loss of activity. Addition of sodium dithionite maintained the activity of the enzyme, even after subsequent exposure to air, in an assay involving formate reduction with Nitro Blue Tetrazolium as reductant. Three preparations of FDH have been examined spectroscopically. The preparations vary in the amount of contaminating nitrate reductase, the amount of cytochrome c present and the concentration of oxidized [3Fe-4S] cluster. Optical spectra and low-temperature m.c.d. spectroscopy show the loss of a cytochrome-containing protohaem IX co-ordinated by methionine and histidine as NiR is separated from the preparation. In its purest state FDH contains one molecule of cytochrome co-ordinated by two histidine ligands in the oxidized state. This cytochrome has an e.p.r. spectrum with gz = 3.77, the band having the unusual ramp shape characteristic of highly anisotropic low-spin ferric haem. It also shows a charge-transfer band of high intensity in the m.c.d. spectrum at 1545 nm. It has recently been shown [Gadsby & Thomson (1986) FEBS Lett. 197, 253-257] that these spectroscopic properties are diagnostic of a bishistidine co-ordinated haem with steric constraint of the axial ligands. The e.p.r. and m.c.d. spectra of the reduced state of FDH reveal the presence of an iron-sulphur cluster of the [4Fe-4S]+ type. The g-values are 2.044, 1.943 and 1.903. An iron-sulphur cluster of the class [3Fe-4S], detected by e.p.r. spectroscopy in the oxidized state and by low-temperature m.c.d. spectroscopy in the reduced state, is purified away with the NiR. Finally, an e.p.r. signal at g = 2.0 with a narrow bandwidth which persists to 80 K is observed in the purest preparation of FDH. This may arise from an organic radical species.
Project description:The low-temperature m.c.d.(magnetic-circular-dichroism) spectra of haem a derivatives are presented. It is shown that reduced haem a in pyridine contains the low-spin ferrous ion and that oxidized haem a in the presence of excess imidazole has the low-spin ferric form. Both the m.c.d. and the absorption spectra of haem a in excess pyridine are changed by the addition of excess sodium dithionite into a form similar to that of haems b and c. This is interpreted in terms of an attack, by reduced pyridine, at the 8-formyl group of the haem a ring. This leads to a partial assignment of the electronic spectrum of haem a.
Project description:A detailed study of the effect of temperature on the m.c.d. (magnetic circular dichroism) spectra of cytochrome c oxidase and some of its derivatives was undertaken to characterize the spin states of haem a and a(3). The fully reduced enzyme contains haem a(3) (2+) in its high-spin form and haem a(2+) in the low-spin state. This conclusion is reached by comparing the spectrum with that of the mixed-valence CO derivatives and its photolysis product. The cyanide derivative of the fully reduced enzyme contains both haem a and a(3) in the low-spin ferrous form. The m.c.d. spectra of the fully oxidized derivatives are consistent with the presence of one low-spin ferric haem group, assigned to a, which remains unaltered in the presence of ligands. Haem a(3) is high spin in the resting enzyme and the fluoride derivatives, and low spin in the cyanide form. The partially reduced formate and cyanide derivatives have temperature-dependent m.c.d. spectra due to the presence of high- and low-spin haem a(3) (3+) respectively. Haem a is low-spin ferrous in both. A comparison of the magnitude of the temperature-dependence of haem a(3) (3+) in the fully oxidized and partially reduced forms shows a marked difference which is tentatively ascribed to the presence of anti-ferromagnetic coupling in the fully oxidized form of the enzyme, and to its absence from the partially reduced derivatives, owing to the reduction of both Cu(2+) ions.
Project description:The magnetic properties of the haem groups of Pseudomonas cytochrome oxidase and its cyanide-bound derivatives were studied in both the oxidized and reduced states by means of m.c.d. (magnetic circular dichroism) at low temperatures. In addition, the oxidized forms of the enzyme were also investigated by e.p.r. (electron-paramagnetic-resonance) spectroscopy, and a parallel study, using both e.p.r. and m.c.d., was made on Pseudomonas cytochrome c-551 to aid spectral assignments. For ascorbate-reduced Pseudomonas cytochrome oxidase, the temperature-independence of those features in the m.c.d. spectrum corresponding to the haem c, and the temperature-dependence of those signals corresponding to the haem d1, showed the former to be low-spin and the latter to be high-spin (s = 2). However, addition of cyanide to the reduced enzyme gave a form of the protein that was completely low-spin. The e.p.r. and m.c.d. sectra of oxidized Pseudomonas cytochrome oxidase and its cyanide derivative were consistent with the haem c and d1 components being low-spin in both cases. Pseudomonas cytochrome c-551 was found to be low-spin in both its oxidized and reduced redox states.
Project description:The e.p.r. and magnetic circular dichroism (m.c.d.) spectra of bacterioferritin (BFR) extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Azotobacter vinelandii have been studied over a wide temperature range down to liquid-helium temperature. The e.p.r. spectra show the presence of low-spin Fe3+ haem with g values of 2.86, 2.32, 1.48 (P. aeruginosa) and 2.88, 2.31, 1.46 (A. vinelandii), in both the presence and absence of the BFR core. Together with evidence from the porphyrin-to-Fe3+ charge-transfer band at 2240 and 2270 nm the axial haem ligands are identified as two methionines. The low-temperature m.c.d. spectra in the region 300-1000 nm of P. aeruginosa and A. vinelandii BFR are identical with one another and unaffected by removal of the iron core. Hence it can be concluded that the presence of the iron core has no detectable effect on the electronic states and on the stereochemistry of the haem group. This was unexpected, in view of the observations by Watt, Frankel, Papaefthymiou, Spartalian & Stiefel [(1986) Biochemistry 25, 4330-4336] that the redox potential of the haem group in A. vinelandii BFR shifts from -475 mV to -225 mV on removal of the core. The e.p.r. spectra of holoBFR show a broad symmetrical derivative-shaped band centred at g = 2.0 which decreases in bandwidth as the temperature is raised. This signal is assigned to the uncompensated electron spins of the iron core.