Cross-linking and 1H n.m.r. spectroscopy of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Escherichia coli.
ABSTRACT: The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Escherichia coli was treated with o-phenylene bismaleimide in the presence of the substrate pyruvate, producing almost complete cross-linking of the lipoate acetyltransferase polypeptide chains as judged by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. This took place without effect on the catalytic activities of the other two component enzymes and with little evidence of cross-links being formed with other types of protein subunit. Limited proteolysis with trypsin indicated that the cross-links were largely confined to the lipoyl domains of the lipoate acetyltransferase component of the same enzyme particle. This intramolecular cross-linking had no effect on the very sharp resonances observed in the (1)H n.m.r. spectrum of the enzyme complex, which derive from regions of highly mobile polypeptide chain in the lipoyl domains. Comparison of the spin-spin relaxation times, T(2), with the measured linewidths supported the idea that the highly mobile region is best characterized as a random coil. Intensity measurements in spin-echo spectra showed that it comprises a significant proportion (probably not less than one-third) of a lipoyl domain and is thus much more than a small hinge region, but there was insufficient intensity in the resonances to account for the whole lipoyl domain. On the other hand, no evidence was found in the (1)H n.m.r. spectrum for a substantial structured region around the lipoyl-lysine residues that was free to move on the end of this highly flexible connection. If such a structured region were bound to other parts of the enzyme complex for a major part of its time, its resonances might be broadened sufficiently to evade detection by (1)H n.m.r. spectroscopy.
Project description:The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Bacillus stearothermophilus was treated with Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase, causing cleavage of the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase polypeptide chain (apparent Mr 57 000), inhibition of the enzymic activity and disassembly of the complex. Fragments of the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase chains with apparent Mr 28 000, which contained the acetyltransferase activity, remained assembled as a particle ascribed the role of an inner core of the complex. The lipoic acid residue of each dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase chain was found as part of a small but stable domain that, unlike free lipoamide, was able still to function as a substrate for reductive acetylation by pyruvate in the presence of intact enzyme complex or isolated pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) component. The lipoyl domain was acidic and had an apparent Mr of 6500 (by sedimentation equilibrium), 7800 (by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis) and 10 000 and 20 400 (by gel filtration in the presence and in the absence respectively of 6M-guanidinium chloride). 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy of the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase inner core demonstrated that it did not contain the segments of highly mobile polypeptide chain found in the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy of the lipoyl domain demonstrated that it had a stable and defined tertiary structure. From these and other experiments, a model of the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase chain is proposed in which the small, folded, lipoyl domain comprises the N-terminal region, and the large, folded, core-forming domain that contains the acetyltransferase active site comprises the C-terminal region. These two regions are separated by a third segment of the chain, which includes a substantial region of polypeptide chain that enjoys high conformational mobility and facilitates movement of the lipoyl domain between the various active sites in the enzyme complex.
Project description:A deletion in vitro can be made in the aceEF-lpd operon encoding the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Escherichia coli, which causes deletion of two of the three homologous lipoyl domains that comprise the N-terminal half of each dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2p) polypeptide chain. An active complex is still formed and 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy of this modified complex revealed that many of the unusually sharp resonances previously attributed to conformationally mobile segments in the wild-type E2p polypeptide chains had correspondingly disappeared. A further deletion was engineered in the long (alanine + proline)-rich segment of polypeptide chain that linked the one remaining lipoyl domain to the C-terminal half of the E2p chain. 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy of the resulting enzyme complex, which was also active, revealed a further corresponding loss in the unusually sharp resonances observed in the spectrum. These experiments strongly support the view that the sharp resonances derive, principally at least, from the three long (alanine + proline)-rich sequences which separate the three lipoyl domains and link them to the C-terminal half of the E2p chain. Closer examination of the 400 MHz 1H-n.m.r. spectra of the wild-type and restructured complexes, and of the products of limited proteolysis, revealed another sharp but smaller resonance. This was tentatively attributed to another, but smaller, (alanine + proline)-rich sequence that separates the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase-binding domain from the inner core domain in the C-terminal half of the E2p chain. If this sequence is also conformationally flexible, it may explain previous fluorescence data which suggest that dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase bound to the enzyme complex is quite mobile. The acetyltransferase active site in the E2p chain was shown to reside in the inner core domain, between residues 370 and 629.
Project description:A sub-gene encoding the N-terminal 170 residues of the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase chain of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Bacillus stearothermophilus was over-expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed polypeptide consists of the lipoyl domain, inter-domain linker and peripheral subunit-binding domain; these were found to have folded into their native functional conformations as judged by reductive acetylation of the lipoyl domain, limited proteolysis of the linker region and ability to bind the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase dimer. The di-domain was largely (80%) unlipoylated; a small proportion (4%) was correctly modified with lipoic acid and the remainder (16%) was aberrantly modified with octanoic acid. A polyclonal antiserum was raised that recognized both the di-domain and the individual component domains. The 400 MHz 1H-n.m.r. spectrum of the di-domain showed resonances corresponding to those seen in spectra of the lipoyl domain, plus others characteristic of amino acid residues in the flexible linker region. Further, as yet unidentified, resonances are likely to be derived from the peripheral subunit-binding domain. The existence and independent folding of the peripheral subunit-binding domain is thus confirmed and its purification in large-scale amounts for detailed structural analysis is now possible.
Project description:The pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex was isolated from Escherichia coli grown in the presence of [35S]sulphate. The three component enzymes were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and the molar ratios of the three polypeptide chains were determined by measurement of the radioactivity in each band. The chain ratio of lipoamide dehydrogenase to lipoate acetyltransferase approached unity, but there was a molar excess of chains of the pyruvate decarboxylase component. The 35S-labelled complex was also used in a new determination of the total lipoic acid content. It was found that each polypeptide chain of the lipoate acetyltransferase component appears to bear at least three lipoyl groups.
Project description:The dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase subunit (E2p) of mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex has two highly conserved lipoyl domains each modified with a lipoyl cofactor bound in amide linkage to a specific lysine residue. A sub-gene encoding the inner lipoyl domain of human E2p has been over-expressed in Escherichia coli. Two forms of the domain have been purified, corresponding to lipoylated and non-lipoylated species. The apo-domain can be lipoylated in vitro with partially purified E. coli lipoate protein ligase, and the lipoylated domain can be reductively acetylated by human E1p (pyruvate dehydrogenase). Availability of the two forms will now allow detailed biochemical and structural studies of the human lipoyl domains.
Project description:The catalytic roles of the two reductively acetylatable lipoic acid residues on each lipoate acetyltransferase chain of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Escherichia coli were investigated. Both lipoyl groups are reductively acetylated from pyruvate at the same apparent rate and both can transfer their acetyl groups to CoASH, part-reactions of the overall complex reaction. The complex was treated with N-ethylmaleimide in the presence of pyruvate and the absence of CoASH, conditions that lead to the modification and inactivation of the S-acetyldihydrolipoic acid residues. Modification was found to proceed appreciably faster than the accompanying loss of enzymic activity. The kinetics of the modification were fitted best by supposing that the two lipoyl groups react with the maleimide at different rates, one being modified at approximately 3.5 times the rate of the other. The loss of complex activity took place at a rate approximately equal to that calculated for the modification of the more slowly reacting lipoic acid residue. The simplest interpretation of this result is that only this residue is essential in the overall catalytic mechanism, but an alternative explanation in which one lipoic acid residue can take over the function of another was not ruled out. The kinetics of inactivation could not be reconciled with an obligatory serial interaction between the two lipoic acid residues. Similar experiments with the fluorescent N-[p-(benzimidazol-2-yl)phenyl]maleimide supported these conclusions, although the modification was found to be less specific than with N-ethylmaleimide. The more rapidly modified lipoic acid residue may be involved in the system of intramolecular transacetylation reactions that couple active sites in the lipoate acetyltransferase component.
Project description:The reaction of two maleimides, N-ethylmaleimide and bis-(N-maleimidomethyl) ether, with the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Escherichia coli in the presence of the substrate, pyruvate, was examined. In both cases, the reaction was demonstrated to be almost exclusively with the lipoate acetyltransferase component, and evidence is presented to show that the most likely sites of reaction are the lipoic acid residues covalently bound to this component. With both reagents the stoicheiometry of the reaction was measured: 2 mol of reagent reacted with each polypeptide chain of lipoate acetyltransferase, implying that each chain bears two functionally active lipolic acid residues. This observation can be reconciled with previous determinations of the lipoic acid content of the complex by allowing for the variability of the subunit polypeptide-chain ratio that can be demonstrated for this multimeric enzyme.
Project description:The 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Escherichia coli was treated with trypsin at pH 7.0 at 0 degrees C. Loss of the overall catalytic activity was accompanied by rapid cleavage of the lipoate succinyltransferase polypeptide chains, this apparent Mr falling from 50 000 to 36 000 as judged by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. A slower shortening of the 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase chains was also observed, whereas the lipoamide dehydrogenase chains were unaffected. The inactive trypsin-treated enzyme had lost the lipoic acid-containing regions of the lipoate succinyltransferase polypeptide chains, yet remained a highly assembled structure, as judged by gel filtration and electron microscopy. The lipoic acid-containing regions are therefore likely to be physically exposed in the complex, protruding from the structural core formed by the lipoate succinyltransferase component between the subunits of the other component enzymes. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex revealed the existence of substantial regions of polypeptide chain with remarkable intramolecular mobility, most of which were retained after removal of the lipoic acid-containing regions by treatment of the complex with trypsin. By analogy with the comparably mobile regions of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of E. coli, it is likely that the highly mobile regions of polypeptide chain in the 2-oxoglutarate complex are in the lipoate succinyltransferase component and encompass the lipoyl-lysine residues. It is clear, however, that the mobility of this polypeptide chain is not restricted to the immediate vicinity of these residues.
Project description:In the companion paper we reported that Bacillus subtilis requires three proteins for lipoic acid metabolism, all of which are members of the lipoate protein ligase family. Two of the proteins, LipM and LplJ, have been shown to be an octanoyltransferase and a lipoate?:?protein ligase respectively. The third protein, LipL, is essential for lipoic acid synthesis, but had no detectable octanoyltransferase or ligase activity either in vitro or in vivo. We report that LipM specifically modifies the glycine cleavage system protein, GcvH, and therefore another mechanism must exist for modification of other lipoic acid requiring enzymes (e.g. pyruvate dehydrogenase). We show that this function is provided by LipL, which catalyses the amidotransfer (transamidation) of the octanoyl moiety from octanoyl-GcvH to the E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase. LipL activity was demonstrated in vitro with purified components and proceeds via a thioester-linked acyl-enzyme intermediate. As predicted, ?gcvH strains are lipoate auxotrophs. LipL represents a new enzyme activity. It is a GcvH:[lipoyl domain] amidotransferase that probably uses a Cys-Lys catalytic dyad. Although the active site cysteine residues of LipL and LipB are located in different positions within the polypeptide chains, alignment of their structures show these residues occupy similar positions. Thus, these two homologous enzymes have convergent architectures.
Project description:Lipoate is an essential component of the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes and the glycine-cleavage system of Escherichia coli. It is attached to specific lysine residues in the lipoyl domains of the E2p (lipoate acetyltransferase) subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by a Mg(2+)- and ATP-dependent lipoate protein ligase (LPL). LPL was purified from wild-type E. coli, where its abundance is extremely low (< 10 molecules per cell) and from a genetically amplified source. The purified enzyme is a monomeric protein (M(r) 38,000) which forms irregular clusters of needle-like crystals. It is stable at -20 degrees C, but slowly oxidizes to an inactive form containing at least one intramolecular disulphide bond at 4 degrees C. The inactive form could be re-activated by reducing agents or by an as-yet unidentified component (reactivation factor) which is resolved from LPL at the final stage of purification. The pI is 5.80, and the Km values for ATP, Mg2+ and DL-lipoate were determined. Selenolipoate and 6-thio-octanoate were alternative but poorer substrates. Lipoylation was reversibly inhibited by the 6- and 8-seleno-octanoates and 8-thio-octanoate, which reacted with the six cysteine thiol groups of LPL. LPL was inactivated by Cu2+ ions in a process that involved the formation of inter- and intra-molecular disulphide bonds. Studies with lplA mutants lacking LPL activity indicated that E. coli possesses another distinct lipoylation system, although no such activity could be detected in vitro.