Kinetic properties of the Ca2+-accumulation system of a rat liver microsomal fraction.
ABSTRACT: 1. By using Ca-EGTA buffers, the Km for Ca2+ uptake into rat liver heavy microsomes (microsomal fraction) was found to be 0.2 microM free Ca2+. 2. In the absence of oxalate, these vesicles accumulate about 20 nmol of Ca2+/mg of protein. Efflux of Ca2+ from the vesicles is much faster at pH 7.6 than at pH 6.8, but does not apparently show saturation kinetics or any stringent requirement for external ions. 3. The steady-state distribution of Ca2+ between the microsomes and the medium in the presence of ATP and the absence of oxalate is dependent on Ca2+ load. When the vesicles are loaded to 50% capacity, the external free Ca2+ concentration is 70 nM. 4. The affinity of heavy microsomes for Ca2+ is such that is seems likely that they has a dominant role in the determination of cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentrations.
Project description:The Ca2+ uptake and the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-dependent ATPase of the porcine coronary-artery smooth-muscle microsomal fraction ('microsomes') are only slightly stimulated by calmodulin. The Ca2+ uptake after 2 min in the absence of oxalate, corrected for the ATP-independent binding, increased by a factor of 1.44, whereas the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-dependent ATPase is stimulated 1.39 times. These findings contrast with the effect observed in human erythrocyte 'inside-out' microsomes. In these vesicles calmodulin increases the Ca2+ uptake after 20 min in an oxalate-free medium and the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-dependent ATPase respectively by a factor of 3.82 and 6.18. The magnitude of the calmodulin stimulation of the Ca2+ transport in coronary-artery microsomes is similar to that observed in heart microsomes.
Project description:The relationship between the intraluminal Ca2+ content of endoplasmic reticulum and the rate of the glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol was investigated in isolated rat hepatocytes. Different agents which decrease the Ca2+ level in the endoplasmic reticulum [calcium ionophores (A23187, ionomycin) or Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitors(thapsigargin,2,5-di-(t-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone+ ++)] inhibited the conjugation of p-nitrophenol. Depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores by preincubation of hepatocytes in the absence of free Ca2+ (in the presence of excess EGTA) also decreased the rate of glucuronidation; Ca2+ re-admission to EGTA-treated hepatocytes restored glucuronidation. In intact liver microsomes the p-nitrophenol UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase activity was not modified by varying the external free Ca2+ concentrations within a cytosol-like range. Emptying of the Ca2+ from the lumen of microsomal vesicles by A23187, after MgATP-stimulated Ca2+ sequestration, decreased the glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol. A similar effect was observed in filipin-permeabilized hepatocytes. In native and in detergent-treated microsomes, Ca2+ (1-10 mM) increased the p-nitrophenol UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity. It is suggested that the physiological concentration of Ca2+ in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum is necessary for the optimal activity of p-nitrophenol UDP-glucuronosyltransferase; the depletion of Ca2+ decreases the activity of the enzyme.
Project description:Rat parotid gland homogenates were fractionated into mitochondrial, heavy microsomal and light microsomal fractions by differential centrifugation. ATP-dependent 45Ca2+ uptake by the subcellular fractions paralleled the distribution of NADPH-cytochrome c reductase, an enzyme associated with the endoplasmic reticulum. The highest rate of Ca2+ uptake was found in the heavy microsomal fraction. Ca2+ uptake by this fraction was dependent on the presence of ATP and was sustained at a linear rate by 5 mM-oxalate. Inhibitors of mitochondrial Ca2+ transport had no effect on the rate of Ca2+ uptake. Na+ and K+ stimulated Ca2+ uptake. At optimal concentrations. Na+ stimulated Ca2+ uptake by 120% and K+ stimulated Ca2+ uptake by 260%. Decreasing the pH from 7.4 to 6.8 had little effect on Ca2+ uptake. The Km for Ca2+ uptake was 3.7 microM free Ca2+ and 0.19 mM-ATP. Vanadate inhibited Ca2+ uptake; 60 microM-vanadate inhibited the rate of Ca2+ accumulation by 50%. It is concluded that the ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport system is located on the endoplasmic reticulum and may play a role in maintaining intracellular levels of free Ca2+ within a narrow range of concentration.
Project description:By using density-gradient fractionation and high-voltage free-flow electrophoresis, human platelet membranes were separated into highly purified subfractions of surface (SM) and intracellular (IM) origin. Associated exclusively with the IM fraction is an ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake that, in the absence of oxalate, reaches steady-state levels in 5-10 min. When Ca2+-EGTA buffers were used to control the external Ca2+ concentrations (range 0.1-50 microM) there was an increase in the intravesicle steady-state level of Ca2+ up to 10 microM external Ca2+ concentration. Above this level the intravesicle space becomes saturated at a concentration between 10 and 20 nmol of Ca2+ X (mg of protein)-1. The ionophore A23187 promotes a rapid and almost total release of the sequestered Ca2+ (greater than 90%, t1/2 1-2 min). The presence of oxalate in the external medium greatly enhances the Ca2+ accumulation to levels as high as 200 nmol X (mg of protein)-1, but the uptake process is more variable and rarely reaches steady-state level even after 2 h incubation. Moreover, accumulation in the presence of oxalate effects ionophore release with less than 80% depletion in 45-60 min. These findings, taken together with the known presence in the platelet of a wide variety of functional and metabolic processes triggered by this cation, suggest that the platelet IM has a key role in controlling cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations.
Project description:Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release and pH-induced Ca2+ release activities were identified in sarcoplasmic-reticulum (SR) vesicles isolated from adult- and fetal-sheep hearts. Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release and pH-induced Ca2+ release appear to proceed via the same channels, since both phenomena are similarly inhibited by Ruthenium Red. Ca2+ release from fetal SR vesicles is inhibited by higher concentrations of Ruthenium Red than is that from adult membranes. Both fetal and adult SR vesicles bind ryanodine. Fetal SR shows higher ryanodine-binding capacity than adult SR vesicles. Scatchard analysis of ryanodine binding revealed only one high-affinity binding site (Kd 6.7 nM) in fetal SR vesicles compared with two distinct binding sites (Kd 6.6 and 81.5 nM) in the adult SR vesicles. SR vesicles isolated from fetal and adult hearts were separated on discontinuous sucrose gradients into light (free) and heavy (junctional) SR vesicles. Heavy SR vesicles isolated from adult hearts exhibited most of the Ca2+ release activities. In contrast, Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, pH-induced Ca2+ release and ryanodine receptors were detected in both light and heavy fetal SR. These results suggest that fetal SR may not be morphologically and functionally as well differentiated as that of adult cardiac muscle and that it may contain a greater number of Ca2+-release channels than that present in adult SR membranes.
Project description:The hepatic microsomal fraction contains tightly bound calmodulin as demonstrated by affinity chromatography. When this calmodulin was partially removed by EGTA treatment (0.5 mM-EGTA), the uptake of 45Ca2+ by the microsomal vesicles was stimulated by added calmodulin and inhibited by trifluoperazine (TFP). The Ca2+-dependent ATPase was partially purified on a calmodulin column. This partial purification resulted in a 500-fold increase in the specific activity of the enzyme when measured in the presence of added calmodulin. Antibodies prepared against calmodulin prevented this stimulatory effect. The fraction eluted from the calmodulin column contained several protein bands indicating that the specific activity of the Ca2+-dependent ATPase is probably still underestimated. There are likely to be other calmodulin-sensitive processes present in the hepatic microsomal fraction.
Project description:Ca2+ transport across mammary-gland Golgi membranes was measured after centrifugation of the membrane vesicles through silicone oil. In the presence of 2.3 microM free Ca2+ the vesicles accumulated 5.8 nmol of Ca2+/mg of protein without added ATP, and this uptake was complete within 0.5 min. In the presence of 1 mM-ATP, Ca2+ was accumulated at a linear rate for 10 min after the precipitation of intravesicular Ca2+ with 10 mM-potassium oxalate. ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake exhibited a Km of 0.14 microM for Ca2+ and a Vmax. of 3.1 nmol of Ca2+/min per mg of protein. Ca2+-dependent ATP hydrolysis exhibited a Km of 0.16 microM for Ca2+ and a Vmax. of 10.1 nmol of Pi/min per mg of protein. The stoichiometry between ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+-stimulated ATPase varied between 0.3 and 0.7 over the range 0.03-8.6 microM-Ca2+. Both Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+-stimulated ATPase were strongly inhibited by orthovanadate, which suggests that the major mechanism by which Golgi vesicles accumulate Ca2+ is through the action of the Ca2+-stimulated ATPase. However, Ca2+ uptake was also decreased by the protonophore CCCP (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone), indicating that it may occur by other mechanisms too. The effect of CCCP may be related to the existence of transmembrane pH gradients (delta pH) in these vesicles: the addition of 30 microM-CCCP reduced delta pH from a control value of 1.06 to 0.73 pH unit. Golgi vesicles also possess a Ca2+-efflux pathway which operated at an initial rate of 0.5-0.57 nmol/min per mg of protein.
Project description:1. Microsomes were isolated from rabbit fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscle and were separated into heavy and light fractions by centrifugation in a linear (0.3-2m) sucrose density gradient. The membrane origin of microsomal vesicles was investigated by studying biochemical markers of the sarcoplasmic-reticulum membranes and of surface and T-tubular membranes, as well as their freeze-fracture properties. 2. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis showed differences in the Ca(2+)-dependent ATPase/calsequestrin ratio between heavy and light fractions, which were apparently consistent with their respective origin from cisternal and longitudinal sarcoplasmic reticulum, as well as unrelated differences, such as peptides specific to slow-muscle microsomes (mol.wts. 76000, 60000, 56000 and 45000). 3. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy of muscle microsomes demonstrated that vesicles truly derived from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, with an average density of 9nm particles on the concave face of about 3000/mum(2) for both fast and slow muscle, were admixed with vesicles with particle densities below 1000/mum(2). 4. As determined in the light fractions, the sarcoplasmic-reticulum vesicles accounted for 84% and 57% of the total number of microsomal vesicles, for fast and slow muscle respectively. These values agreed closely with the percentage values of Ca(2+)-dependent ATPase protein obtained by gel densitometry. 5. The T-tubular origin of vesicles with a smooth concave fracture face in slow-muscle microsomes is supported by their relative high content in total phospholipid and cholesterol, compared with the microsomes of fast muscle, and by other correlative data, such as the presence of (Na(+)+K(+))-dependent ATPase activity and of low amounts of Na(+)-dependent membrane phosphorylation. 6. Among intrinsic sarcoplasmic-reticulum membrane proteins, a proteolipid of mol.wt. 12000 is shown to be identical in the microsomes of both fast and slow muscle and the Ca(2+)-dependent ATPase to be antigenically and catalytically different, though electrophoretically homogeneous. 7. Basal Mg(2+)-activated ATPase activity was found to be high in light microsomes from slow muscle, but its identification with an enzyme different from the Ca(2+)-dependent ATPase is still not conclusive. 8. Enzyme proteins that are suggested to be specific to slow-muscle longitudinal sarcoplasmic reticulum are the flavoprotein NADH:cytochrome b(5) reductase (mol.wt. 32000), cytochrome b(5) (mol.wt. 17000) and the stearoyl-CoA desaturase, though essentially by criteria of plausibility.
Project description:1. MgATP-dependent 45Ca2+ uptake by microsomes obtained from various non-hepatic tissues, namely rat brain, rat solid Morris hepatoma 3924A and human platelets, was measured in the presence of P(i) at low, cytosol-like, concentrations. 2. Increasing P(i) concentrations (0.5-3 mM) caused a progressive enlargement of the 45Ca(2+)-storage capacity of all the microsomal fractions. 3. As a result of P(i) stimulation of Ca2+ uptake, 45Ca2+ and [32P]P(i) were co-accumulated by the three microsomal fractions. 4. The time course for 45Ca2+ and [32P]P(i) accumulation in brain microsomes revealed a biphasic 45Ca2+ uptake: a rapid phase was followed by a second, slower, phase, which depended on the presence of P(i). During the P(i)-dependent phase, the uptake of 45Ca2+ was paralleled by the uptake of [32P]Pi. 5. The passive efflux of Ca2+ was paralleled by the efflux of P(i) and vice versa. In fact, the inhibition of active Ca2+ uptake by excess EGTA, or lowering the P(i) concentration of the incubation system by dilution, caused the release of 45Ca2+ and [32P]P(i) from 45Ca2+ or [32P]P(i) pre-loaded brain microsomes. The Ca2+ ionophore A23187 also released 45Ca2+ and [32P]P(i). 6. Ca2+ efflux by A23187 was rapid (t 1/2 approx. 2 s) and independent of the extent of intravesicular Ca2+ loading, which indicates that Ca2+ and P(i) do not form intravesicular insoluble complexes. 7. The progressive increase in Ca2+ accumulation, depending on P(i) stimulation, resulted in a proportional increase in the amount of Ca2+ releasable by InsP3 in the three non-hepatic microsomal fractions and in digitonin-permeabilized platelets. 8. Concomitantly to Ca2+, microsomal P(i) was also released by InsP3.
Project description:1. Limited proteolytic digestion of rat liver microsomes (microsomal fractions) with trypsin (5 micrograms/ml), proteinase K (1.0 microgram/ml) and Pronase (20 micrograms/ml final concns.) resulted in abolition of GTP-dependent vesicle fusion. 2. Vesicle fusion could be partially restored to microsomes which had undergone limited tryptic digestion, by the addition of untreated microsomal vesicles. 3. GTP-dependent Ca2+ efflux from rat liver microsomes was also observed to be inhibited by limited proteolysis with trypsin and proteinase K. 4. Limited proteolysis of rat liver microsomes had no effect on subsequent GTP-dependent phosphorylation of polypeptides of Mr 17,000 and 38,000, and thus it is unlikely that the phosphorylation of these proteins is involved in GTP-dependent Ca2+ efflux and GTP-dependent vesicle fusion. 5. GTP binding by Gn proteins [proteins which bind GTP after transfer to nitrocellulose, as defined by Bhullar & Haslam (1986) Biochem. J. 245, 617-620] was inhibited by pre-treatment of microsomes with trypsin, proteinase K and Pronase at concentrations similar to those which abolished GTP-dependent Ca2+ efflux and vesicle fusion. 6. We suggest that one or more of the Gn proteins may be involved in the molecular mechanisms of GTP-dependent vesicle fusion and Ca2+ efflux in rat liver microsomes and that limited proteolytic digestion may be a useful tool in further investigation of these processes.