Purification and some physico-chemical and enzymic properties of a calcium ion-activated neutral proteinase from rabbit skeletal muscle.
ABSTRACT: Ca(2+)-activated neutral proteinase was purified from rabbit skeletal muscle by a method involving DEAE-Sephacel chromatography, affinity chromatography on organomercurial-Sepharose and gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200 and Sephadex G-150. The SDS (sodium dodecyl sulphate)/polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis data show that the purified enzyme contains only one polypeptide chain of mol.wt. 73000. The purification procedure used allowed us to eliminate a contaminant containing two components of mol.wt. about 30000 each. Whole casein or alpha(1)-casein were hydrolysed with a maximum rate at 30 degrees C, pH7.5, and with 5mm-CaCl(2), but myofibrils were found to be a very susceptible substrate for this proteinase. This activity is associated with the destruction of the Z-discs, which is caused by the solubilization of the Z-line proteins. The activity of the proteinase in vitro is not limited to the removal of Z-line. SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis on larger plates showed the ability of the proteinase to degrade myofibrils more extensively than previously supposed. This proteolysis resulted in the production of a 30000-dalton component as well as in various other higher- and lower-molecular-weight peptide fragments. Troponin T, troponin I, alpha-tropomyosin, some high-molecular-weight proteins (M protein, heavy chain of myosin) and three unidentified proteins are degraded. Thus the number of proteinase-sensitive regions in the myofibrils is greater than as previously reported by Dayton, Goll, Zeece, Robson & Reville [(1976) Biochemistry15, 2150-2158]. The Ca(2+)-activated neutral proteinase is not a chymotrypsin- or trypsin-like enzyme, but it reacted with all the classic thiol-proteinase inhibitors for cathepsin B, papain, bromelain and ficin. Thus the proteinase was proved to have an essential thiol group. Antipain and leupeptin are also inhibitors of the Ca(2+)-activated neutral proteinase.
Project description:Cytoplasmic granules were isolated from horse blood polymorphonuclear leucocytes by the heparin method and extracted with 0.9% NaCl by repeated freezing. Soluble proteins were separated on a column of Sephadex G-75 followed by chromatography on a column of CM-Sephadex with a NaCl gradient. Gel filtration, density-gradient centrifugation, isoelectric focusing and 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis at pH 7.0 and at pH 4.5 were used to determine molecular parameters of proteinases. Three enzymes hydrolysing both casein and N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-alanine nitrophenyl ester were found in the granule extract: proteinase 1, mol.wt. 38000, pI5.3; proteinase 2A, mol.wt. 24500, pI8.8; and proteinase 2B, mol.wt. 20500, pI above 10. The latter two elastase-like proteinases were purified to apparent homogeneity.
Project description:Treatment of isolated myofibrils with Ca2+-activated neutral proteinase (CANP) results in specific removal of Z-line and of alpha-actinin. To investigate the ionic requirement for these processes, we measured Z-line removal by phase-contrast and interference microscopy and alpha-actinin removal by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoretic analysis of myofibrillar proteins. The proteolytic digestion of native purified proteins was measured directly on polyacrylamide gels and by the fluorescamine technique. We found that the removal of Z-line and alpha-actinin as well as the release of proteolytic degradation products from isolated myofibrils by CANP occur only in the presence of Ca2+; Sr2+, Ba2+, Mn2+, Mg2+, Co2+ and Zn2+ are all ineffective. In contrast with this stringent requirement for Ca2+, the proteolytic activity of CANP measured with denatured casein, native and denatured haemoglobin, native actin and tropomyosin also occurs in the presence of other bivalent cations, in the following order: Ca2+ greater than Sr2+ greater than Ba2+. These data suggest that only Ca2+ can produce the conformational change in myofibrils that renders them susceptible to the action of CANP, whereas its proteolytic activity is stimulated by several bivalent ions.
Project description:A method for isolation of troponin T kinase (ATP-protein phosphotransferase, EC 184.108.40.206) from rabbit skeletal muscles in proposed. The method gives a 7000-10 000-fold purification and results in an enzyme with specific activity of 400-800-nmol x min-1 x mg-1 of protein. The molecular weight of tropin T kinase as determined by gel filtration exceeds 500 000. Electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate revealed that isolated preparations of the enzyme consisted of at least three distinct proteins with apparent mol.wt. of 50 000, 46 000 and 31 000. The enzyme phosphorylates isolated troponin T at a rate which exceeds the phosphorylation rates of casein, phosvitin, histones, phosphorylase b and protamine 5-30-fold. Within the whole troponin complex, only troponin T is phosphorylated by the enzyme. The enzyme phosphorylates only the N-terminal serine residue of troponin T, i.e. the site that is normally phosphorylated in the whole troponin complex isolated from rabbit skeletal muscles.
Project description:A neutral proteinase secreted by rabbit synovial fibroblasts in parallel with specific collagenase was partially purified by ion-exchange chromatography. At pH 7.6 this proteinase degraded 35S-labelled bovine nasal proteoglycan and azo-casein. The enzymic activity was inhibited by EDTA, 1,10-phenanthroline and serum, whereas di-isopropyl phosphorofluoridate and soya-bean trypsin inhibitor had little effect. By gel filtration the apparent mol.wt. of the enzyme was 25000. The fibroblast neutral proteinase was compared with the proteoglycan-degrading neutral proteinases of rabbit polymorphonuclear-leucocyte granules. Two distinct activities were found in the granules: one was inhibited by soya-bean trypsin inhibitor and the other by EDTA. The proteoglycan-degrading proteinases of rabbit fibroblasts and polymorphonuclear leucocytes at acid pH also were examined. Both cathepsin D and a thiol-dependent proteinase contributed to the degradation of proteoglycan at pH 4.5.
Project description:Z-discs were isolated from Lethocerus (waterbug) flight muscle by removing the contractile proteins from myofibrils with a solution of high ionic strength. Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis confirmed a previous report that major Z-disc proteins had subunit mol.wts of 200 000, 180 000, 105 000, 95 000, 42 000 and 35 000. A protein of subunit mol.wt 25 000 was found in once-washed Z-discs but was degraded or was removed by successive washes. In addition, a protein of high molecular weight (less than 300 000) was found in Z-discs. Proteins of subunit mol.wts. 42 000, 35 000 and 25 000 were individually sliced from SDS/polyacrylamide gels and eluted. Amino acid analysis showed that the 35 000-subunit-mol.wt. protein was not, as was previously suggested, tropomyosin, but was a distinct Z-disc protein rich in proline. Calculations based on the amino acid analysis showed that this protein contained substantial hydrophobic regions. Preliminary investigations into the isoelectric point and a method of isolation of the 35 000-subunit-mol.wt. Z-disc protein are described. This protein was found in slices cut from SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoretograms of whole myofibrils. The protein of 42 000 subunit mol.wt. was shown by amino acid analysis to be actin and the 25 000-subunit-mol.wt. Z-disc protein was proline-rich.
Project description:Culture medium from rabbit uterine cervical fibroblasts contained a procollagenase and a neutral proproteinase which acts as a procollagenase activator. These two proenzymes have been purified by a combination of ion-exchange, affinity and gel chromatographies. The purified neutral proproteinase showed Mr 60,000 with sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. This neutral proproteinase was activated by trypsin, 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate (APMA) and plasmin, and the active species of the proteinase had Mr 53,000 when activated by APMA; kallikrein and urokinase did not activate this proproteinase. The purified neutral proteinase was inhibited by EDTA, 1,10-phenanthroline and rabbit plasma, but not by serine proteinase inhibitors, suggesting that this proteinase is a metal-dependent proteinase. The purified enzyme could also degrade gelatin, casein, proteoglycan and type IV procollagen. The purified procollagenase had Mr 55,000 and was activated by trypsin, APMA and the active neutral proteinase. These activations were accompanied by decrease in Mr, and the activated species had an Mr which was approx. 10,000 less than that of the procollagenase. In particular, procollagenase activation with neutral proteinase depended on incubation time and proteolytic activity of proteinase. These results indicate that activation of procollagenase by the rabbit uterine neutral proteinase is related to limited proteolysis in the procollagenase molecule.
Project description:Localization and quantification studies were carried out on bay-scallop (Aequipecten irradians) striated-muscle troponin C- and troponin I-like proteins. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy of scallop myofibrils stained with either rabbit anti-(scallop troponin I) or anti-(scallop troponin C) antibodies shows staining of all I-bands observed. The results of quantification studies using sodium dodecyl sulfate poly-acrylamide-gel electrophoresis of untreated scallop myofibrils, washed scallop myofibrils, and isolated scallop thin filaments indicate an actin/tropomyosin/troponin-C molar rationn of 7:1:1. The molar ratio for troponin I could not be determined in untreated myofibrils because of interfering bands; in washed myofibrils a value of 0.6 mol of troponin I/mol of tropomyosin was found. Purified scallop troponin C binds Ca2+ and interacts with scallop troponin I to relieve troponin I-induced inhibition of actomyosin ATPase. Although scallop troponin C is an acidic protein, it appears to be less acidic than troponin C from higher organisms. A calmodulin-like protein has been isolated from scallop striated muscle that activates bovine brain phosphodiesterase to the same extent as does brain calmodulin. Its amino acid composition and its electrophoretic mobility on alkaline 6 M-urea/polyacrylamide gels differs from that of scallop troponin C, and it appears not to be associated with thin filaments.
Project description:1. The solubilization and partial purification of a proteinase from the intestinal smooth muscle of rats fed on protein-free diets are described. 2. It has a mol.wt. of about 33000 and it is stable over a narrow pH range. 3. From its susceptibility to known modifers of proteolytic enzymes, it appears to be a serine proteinase of a trypsin-like nature. Active-site titration with soya-bean trypsin inhibitor shows that the concentration of proteinase was about 3 microgram/g wet wt. of intestinal smooth muscle. However, the muscle proteinase demonstrates a marked ability for inactivating enzymes in their native conformation at neutral pH. It is about 100 times more efficient than pancreatic trypsin when the inactivating activities are compared on an approximately equimolar basis. 4. Inactivation of the substrate enzymes is accompanied by limited proteolysis, as demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. 5. An endogenous inhibitor was separated from the proteinase by fractionation with (NH4)2SO4. 6. Contamination of the muscle tissue by lumen, mucosal or blood proteinases and inhibitors is shown to be unlikely. 7. A role for the neutral trypsin-like proteinase in initiating the degradation of intracellular enzymes is considered.
Project description:The effects of the Ca2+-activated cysteine proteinase, the rat trypsin-like serine proteinase and bovine trypsin on myofibrillar proteins from rabbit skeletal muscle are compared. 2. Myofibrils that had been treated at neutral pH with the Ca2+-dependent proteinase and with the rat enzyme were (a) analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and (b) examined in the electron microscope. Treatment with each proteinase resulted in the loss of the Z-discs, but the rat enzyme caused much more extensive disruption of the ultrastructure and degraded more of the myofibrillar proteins. 3. Purified F-actin was almost totally resistant to the proteinases, whereas G-actin was degraded by the rat trypsin-like proteinase at a rate approx. 15 times faster than was obtained with bovine trypsin. 4. Similar results were obtained with alpha-actinin, whereas tropomyosin was degraded more readily by bovine trypsin than by the rat trypsin-like proteinase. 5. The implications of these findings for the non-lysosomal breakdown of myofibrillar proteins in vivo are considered.
Project description:1. Human uterine cervical stroma was found to contain a Ca(2+)-independent neutral proteinase against casein and N-benzoyl-dl-arginine p-nitroanilide (Bz-dl-Arg-Nan). This enzyme was tightly bound to an insoluble material (20000g pellet) and was solubilized by high concentrations of NaCl or KCl. High concentrations of them in the reaction system, however, inhibited reversibly the activity of this enzyme. 2. The neutral proteinase was partially purified by extraction with NaCl, gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 and affinity chromatography on casein-Sepharose. 3. The optimal pH of this partially purified enzyme was 7.4-8.0 against casein and Bz-dl-Arg-Nan. The molecular weight of the enzyme was found to be about 1.4x10(5) by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. 4. The enzyme was significantly inhibited by di-isopropyl phosphorofluoridate (0.1mm). High concentration of phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride (5mm), 7-amino-1-chloro-3-l-tosylamidoheptan-2-one (0.5mm), antipain (10mum) or leupeptin (10mum) was also found to be inhibitory, but chymostatin (40mug/ml), soya-bean trypsin inhibitor (2.5mg/ml), human plasma (10%, v/v), p-chloromercuribenzoate (1mm), EDTA (10mm) and 1-chloro-4-phenyl-3-l-tosylamidobutan-2-one (1mm) had no effect on the enzyme. 5. The neutral proteinase hydrolysed casein, Bz-dl-Arg-Nan and heat-denatured collagen, but was inactive towards native collagen and several synthetic substrates, such as 4-phenylazobenzyloxycarbonyl-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro-d-Arg, 3-carboxypropionyl-Ala-Ala-Ala p-nitroanilide and 2,4-dinitrophenyl-Pro-Gln-Gly-Ile-Ala-Gly-Gln-d-Arg, and also proteoglycan. The enzyme did not act as a plasminogen activator. 6. These properties suggested that a neutral proteinase in the human uterine cervix was different from enzymes previously reported.