The inactivation of rat adipocyte Mg2+-dependent phosphatidate phosphohydrolase by noradrenaline.
ABSTRACT: The inactivation of rat adipocyte Mg2+-dependent phosphatidate phosphohydrolase by noradrenaline [Cheng & Saggerson (1978) FEBS Lett. 87, 65--68; Cheng & Saggerson (1978) FEBS Lett. 93, 120--124] persists for at least 40 min in crude defatted homogenates kept at 0 degrees C or 20 degrees C, but is diminished at 37 degrees C. The effect of noradrenaline persists through the isolation of post-105000 g supernatants and is then stable in these preparations at 0 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Inclusion of albumin (10--20 mg/ml) in homogenization buffers abolishes the effect of noradrenaline. The effect of noradrenaline is not removed by dialysis of extracts or by raising the concentrations of Mg2+ or phosphatidate in assays.
Project description:When a particle-free supernatant fraction from rat liver was incubated at 37 degrees C with mitochondria and oleate, some of the enzyme phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (PAP), initially present in the particle-free supernatant, was recovered, after the incubation, bound to mitochondria. This translocation of PAP from cytosol to mitochondria was stimulated by oleate or palmitate in a similar fashion to the stimulation of translocation of PAP to endoplasmic reticulum [Martin-Sanz, Hopewell & Brindley (1984) FEBS Lett. 175, 284-288]. Translocation of PAP from particle-free supernatant to a partially purified mitochondrial-outer-membrane preparation was also stimulated by oleate. More PAP was bound to a mitochondrial-outer-membrane fraction washed in 0.5 M-NaCl before resuspension in sucrose than to a sucrose-washed mitochondrial-outer-membrane preparation. In contrast, washing of microsomal membranes in 0.5 M-NaCl did not enhance the binding of PAP to these membranes. PAP also binds to phosphatidate-loaded mitochondria or microsomes (microsomal fractions). In the experimental system employed, more PAP bound to mitochondria loaded with phosphatidate than to microsomes loaded with phosphatidate. The results are discussed in relation to the role of mitochondrial phosphatidate in liver lipid metabolism.
Project description:[14C]Malonyl-CoA bound to intact mitochondria isolated from rat liver and heart in a manner consistent with the presence of two independent classes of binding sites in each tissue. The binding characteristics for mitochondria obtained from fed male rats were: for heart, KD(1) = 11-18nM, KD(2) = 30 microM, N1 = 7pmol/mg of protein, N2 = approx. 660pmol/mg of protein; for liver, KD(1) = 0.1 microM, KD(2) = 5.6 microM, N1 = 11pmol/mg of protein, N2 = 165pmol/mg of protein. In the presence of 40 microM-palmitoyl-CoA the characteristics of binding at the high-affinity sites were changed, so that for heart KD(1) = 0.26 microM, with no change in N1 and for liver KD(1) = approx. 2 microM, with N1 increased to approx. 40pmol/mg of protein. Differences between the two tissues in tightness of malonyl-CoA binding at the high-affinity sites explains the considerably greater sensitivity of heart CPT1 (overt form of carnitine palmitoyltransferase) to inhibition by malonyl-CoA [Saggerson & Carpenter, (1981) FEBS Lett. 129, 229-232; McGarry, Mills, Long & Foster (1983) Biochem. J. 214, 21-28]. Starvation (24h) did not change the characteristics of [14C]malonyl-CoA binding to liver mitochondria and did not alter the I50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) for displacement of [14C]malonyl-CoA by palmitoyl-CoA. Therefore the decreased sensitivity of liver CPT1 to inhibition by malonyl-CoA in starvation [Saggerson & Carpenter (1981) FEBS Lett. 129, 225-228; Bremer (1981) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 665, 628-631] is not explained by differences in malonyl-CoA binding. Percentage occupancy of the high-affinity sites in heart mitochondria by malonyl-CoA correlated closely with percentage inhibition of CPT1 measured under similar conditions. This finding supports the proposal that the high-affinity binding sites are the functional sites mediating inhibition of CPT1 by malonyl-CoA. Similar experiments with liver mitochondria also suggested that the occupancy of high-affinity sites by malonyl-CoA regulates CPT1 activity. 5,5'-Dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid), which decreased the sensitivity of heart or liver CPT1 to inhibition by malonyl-CoA [Saggerson & Carpenter (1982) FEBS Lett. 137, 124-128], also decreased [14C]malonyl-CoA binding to the high-affinity sites of heart mitochondria. N1 values for [14C]malonyl-CoA binding to high-affinity sites in liver mitochondria were determined in various physiological states which encompassed a 7-fold range of CPT1 maximal activity (fed, starved, pregnant, hypothyroid, foetal). The N1 value did not change in these states.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Project description:Incubation of rat adipose-tissue microsomal fractions with iodoacetate caused an inactivation of glycerol phosphate acyltransferase that could be prevented by the presence of palmitoyl-CoA. A microsomal protein of subunit Mr 54 000 was found to react with radioactively labelled iodoacetate in the absence, but not in the presence, of palmitoyl-CoA. It is suggested that this protein is a component of glycerol phosphate acyltransferase. Incubation of rat adipose-tissue microsomal fractions with the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, ATP and Mg2+ caused an inactivation of glycerol phosphate acyltransferase whose magnitude depended on the conditions used for assay of the acyltransferase. Rat adipose tissue microsomal proteins were phosphorylated by using protein kinase and [gamma-32P]ATP. One of the phosphorylated proteins was very similar, but not identical, in mobility to the Mr-54 000 protein labelled by iodoacetate. In contrast with a previous report [Sooranna & Saggerson (1976) FEBS Lett. 64, 36-39], no changes could be detected in the activity of glycerol phosphate acyltransferase in adipocytes treated with adrenaline. Adipocytes were labelled with [32P]Pi and treated with adrenaline, but no 32P was incorporated into the Mr-54000 protein labelled by iodoacetate. The results suggest that the activity of adipose-tissue microsomal glycerol phosphate acyltransferase is not directly controlled by phosphorylation.
Project description:Lung contains both Mg2+-dependent and Mg2+-independent phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activities. Addition of Triton X-100 (0.5%) or chlorpromazine (1 mM) leads to a marked increase in the total phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity in rat lung microsomes (microsomal fractions), but a decrease in the Mg2+-dependent activity. These observations suggest that the Mg2+-independent activity is stimulated, whereas the Mg2+-dependent activity is inhibited. However, the possibility exists that Triton X-100 could stimulate the Mg2+-dependent enzymic activity in an Mg2+-independent manner. In addition, the positively charged amphiphilic drug could be replacing the enzyme's requirement for Mg2+. These two possibilities were examined by using subcellular fractions in which the Mg2+-dependent phosphatidate phosphohydrolase had been abolished by heat treatment at 55 degrees C for 15 min. Heat treatment does not affect the microsomal Mg2+-independent phosphohydrolase to any great extent. Since the 6-8-fold stimulations due to Triton X-100 and chlorpromazine are retained after heat treatment of this fraction, the Mg2+-independent activity must be involved. Addition of Triton X-100 and chlorpromazine to cytosol virtually abolishes the Mg2+-dependent phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity and decreases the Mg2+-independent activity by half. Heat treatment also abolishes the Mg2+-dependent activity and decreases the Mg2+-independent activity by over half. The Mg2+-independent phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity remaining after heat treatment was not affected by Triton X-100 or chlorpromazine. These studies demonstrate that Triton X-100 and chlorpromazine specifically stimulate the heat-stable Mg2+-independent phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity in rat lung microsomes. In contrast, the heat-labile Mg2+-independent phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activities in cytosol are inhibited by these reagents. Triton X-100 and chlorpromazine inhibit the Mg2+-dependent phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activities in both rat lung microsomes and cytosol. These results are consistent with the view that a single Mg2+-dependent phosphatidate phosphohydrolase present in both microsomes and cytosol is specifically involved in glycerolipid metabolism.
Project description:The stability of the mRNA coding for the uncoupling protein thermogenin was investigated in mouse brown-fat cells differentiated in culture. After 7 days in culture, the cells were stimulated for 24 h with noradrenaline, and a high level of thermogenin mRNA was then observed. If noradrenaline treatment was continued, the mRNA level remained high, but, upon withdrawal of noradrenaline, the level decreased rapidly, with a half-life of only 2.7 h. The presence of transcriptional (actinomycin) or translational (cycloheximide) inhibitors prolonged the apparent half-life by about 50%. The presence of noradrenaline during transcriptional blockade led to a further stabilization of thermogenin mRNA. It was concluded that an induced (or short-lived) gene product is important for thermogenin mRNA degradation. Direct interaction of noradrenaline with the cultured brown adipocytes could apparently not mimic the paradoxical destabilization of thermogenin mRNA in vivo, previously observed in the cold-exposed mouse [Jacobsson, Cannon and Nedergaard (1987) FEBS Lett. 244, 353-356], indicating significant differences between the systems in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:We investigated 3,3',5-tri-iodo-l-thyronine transport by human erythrocytes and by ;ghosts' prepared from these cells. Uptake of tri-iodothyronine by erythrocytes at 37 degrees C was time-dependent with a maximum reached after 60min. Tracer analysis after incubation for 1min revealed only one saturable binding site, with K(m) 128+/-19nm (mean+/-s.e.m.; n=7) and V(max.) 4.6+/-0.7pmol of tri-iodothyronine/min per 6x10(7) cells. After 10min incubation K(m) 100+/-16nm (n=10) was found with V(max.) 7.7+/-1.2pmol of tri-iodothyronine/10min per 6x10(7) cells. At 0 degrees C the uptake system is still active, with K(m) 132+/-26nm and V(max.) 1.8+/-0.3pmol of tri-iodothyronine/10min per 6x10(7) cells. The V(max.) with intact cells is 5-fold greater than the V(max.) with membranes derived from the same amount of cells when uptake studies are performed in media with similar free tri-iodothyronine concentrations. This indicates that at least 80% of tri-iodothyronine taken up by the intact erythrocytes enters the cell. This saturable uptake system can be inhibited by X-ray-contrast agents in a dose-dependent fashion. (+/-)-Propranolol, but not atenolol, has the same effect, indicating that the membrane-stabilizing properties of (+/-)-propranolol are involved. Furthermore, there is no inhibition by ouabain or vanadate, which indicates that tri-iodothyronine uptake is not dependent on the activity of Na(+)+K(+)-dependent adenosine triphosphatase. We have prepared erythrocyte ;ghosts', resealed after 2.5min with 0mm-, 2mm- or 4mm-ATP inside. Inclusion of ATP and integrity of the membrane of the erythrocyte ;ghosts' were verified on the basis of an ATP-concentration-dependent functioning of the Ca(2+) pump. No difference was found in the uptake of tri-iodothyronine by erythrocyte ;ghosts' with or without ATP included, indicating that uptake of tri-iodothyronine is not ATP-dependent. The following conclusions are drawn. (1) Tri-iodothyronine enters human erythrocytes. (2) There is only one saturable uptake system present for tri-iodothyronine, which is neither energy (i.e. ATP)-dependent nor influenced by the absence of an Na(+) gradient across the plasma membrane. This mode of uptake of tri-iodothyronine by human erythrocytes is in sharp contrast with that of rat hepatocytes, which uptake system is energy-dependent and ouabain-sensitive [Krenning, Docter, Bernard, Visser & Hennemann (1978) FEBS Lett.91, 113-116; Krenning, Docter, Bernard, Visser & Hennemann (1980) FEBS Lett.119, 279-282]. (3) X-ray-contrast agents inhibit tri-iodothyronine uptake by erythrocytes in a similar fashion to that by which they inhibit the uptake of tri-iodothyronine by rat hepatocytes [Krenning, Docter, Bernard, Visser & Hennemann (1982) FEBS Lett.140, 229-233].
Project description:The exocellular beta-lactamase of Streptomyces albus G has been purified to near protein homogeneity. It consists of one single polypeptide chain of mol.wt. 30 000-31 000, has a rather low isoelectric point (at pH 6.0) and contains less lysine (2.1%) and more half-cystine residues than most beta-lactamases from other Gram-positive bacteria. Penicillins are much better substrates than delta 3-cephalosporins; the catalytic-centre activity of good penicillin substrates is 333-500 s-1. The exocellular, mol.wt. 17 000 DD-carboxypeptidase of S. albus G [previously purified to protein homogeneity; Duez, Frère, Geurts, Ghuysen, Dierickx & Delcambe (1978) Biochem. J. 175, 793-800] behaves as an exceedingly poor beta-lactamase, hydrolysing benzylpenicillin into benzylpenicilloate 5 x 10(-6)-fold less rapidly than does the exocellular beta-lactamase. To all appearances, the beta-lactamase has no bivalent cation requirement whereas, as shown elsewhere [Dideberg, Charlier, Dupont, Vermeire, Frère & Ghuysen (1980) FEBS Lett. 117, 212-214, and Dideberg, Joris, Frère, Ghuysen, Weber, Robaye, Delbrouck & Roelands (1980) FEBS Lett. 117, 215-218], the DD-carboxypeptidase possesses one essential Zn2+ ion per molecule. Peptide 'mapping' and immunological studies suggest that the two Streptomyces enzymes probably have very different structural and mechanistic properties.
Project description:The fatty acids palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), arachidic (C20:0) and arachidonic (C20:4) acids inhibit Ca2+ uptake and enhance Ca2+ efflux measured in vesicles derived from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle. These effects of the fatty acids are impaired by the Ca(2+)-ATPase ligands Mg2+, Ca2+ and K+, and by drugs that block the leakage of Ca2+ through the Ca(2+)-ATPase such as Ruthenium Red, spermine [de Meis (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 5736-5742] and thapsigargin [de Meis and Inesi (1992) FEBS Lett. 299, 33-35].
Project description:1. Adipocytes were isolated from the interscapular brown fat and the epididymal white fat of normal, streptozotocin-diabetic and hypothyroid rats. 2. Measurements were made of the maximum rate of triacylglycerol synthesis by monitoring the incorporation of [U-14C]glucose into acylglycerol glycerol in the presence of palmitate (1 mM) and insulin (4 nM) and of the activities of the following triacylglycerol-synthesizing enzymes: fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (FAS), mitochondrial and microsomal forms of glycerolphosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase (DHAPAT), monoacylglycerol phosphate acyltransferase (MGPAT), Mg2+-dependent phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (PPH) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT). 3. FAS activity in brown adipocytes was predominantly localized in the mitochondrial fraction, whereas a microsomal localization of this enzyme predominated in white adipocytes. Subcellular distributions of the other enzyme activities in brown adipocytes were similar to those shown previously with white adipocytes [Saggerson, Carpenter, Cheng & Sooranna (1980) Biochem. J. 190, 183-189]. 4. Relative to cell DNA, brown adipocytes had lower activities of triacylglycerol-synthesizing enzymes and showed lower rates of metabolic flux into acylglycerols than did white adipocytes isolated from the same animals. 5. Diabetes decreased both metabolic flux into acylglycerols and the activities of triacylglycerol-synthesizing enzymes in white adipocytes. By contrast, although diabetes decreased metabolic flux into brown-adipocyte acylglycerols by 80%, there were no decreases in the activities of triacylglycerol-synthesizing enzymes, and the activity of PPH was significantly increased. 6. Hypothyroidism increased metabolic flux into acylglycerols in both cell types, and increased activities of all triacylglycerol-synthesizing enzymes in brown adipocytes. By contrast, in white adipocytes, although hypothyroidism increased the activities of FAS, microsomal GPAT and DGAT, this condition decreased the activities of mitochondrial GPAT and PPH. 7. It was calculated that the maximum capabilities for fatty acid oxidation and esterification are approximately equal in brown adipocytes. In white adipocytes esterification is predominant by approx. 100-fold. 8. Diabetes almost abolished incorporation of [U-14C]glucose into fatty acids in both adipocyte types. Hypothyroidism increased fatty acid synthesis in white and brown adipocytes by 50% and 1000% respectively.
Project description:At constant 1 mM-ATP, the Mg2+-saturation curves for adenylate cyclase (EC 22.214.171.124) particulate preparations obtained from corpus striatum and cortex tissues of rat brain show that addition of 0.1 mM-noradrenaline increases the apparent Vmax. for Mg2+ by 300% in corpus striatum particles, and by 280% in cortex particles. At 10 mM-MgCl2, the addition of 0.1 mM-noradrenaline increased by 800% the adenylate cyclase activity of corpus striatum particles. At all Mg2+ concentrations, the addition of 0.3 mM-CaCl2 suppressed the noradrenaline-induced stimulation of adenylate cyclase of corpus striatum particles, and even resulted in a strong inhibition of the activating effect of Mg2+ itself on adenylate cyclase of corpus striatum particles, and even resulted in a strong inhibition of the activating effect of Mg2+ itself on adenylate cyclase activity of cortex particles. The addition of noradrenaline during a 3 h preincubation of particle preparations of brain cortex at 38 degrees C decreased by more than 4-fold the half-life of the decay of adenylate cyclase activity. The addition of MgATP protected against noradrenaline-induced inactivation.