The separate roles of glucose and insulin in the induction of glucokinase in hepatocytes isolated from neonatal rats.
ABSTRACT: 1. The specificity of the effect of glucose on the induction of glucokinase activity that occurs when hepatocytes freshly isolated from 13-day-old rats are incubated in Medium 199 together with insulin [Wakelam & Walker (1980) FEBS Lett. 111, 115-119] was examined. A pattern that is different from other known effects of glucose is found, and metabolism of this compound is not necessarily to account for this particular effect. 2. The effects of a raised glucose concentration and of insulin on the induction can be separated. The hexose initiates the process in the absence of insulin in a manner that is sensitive to actinomycin D but not to cycloheximide. The subsequent effect of insulin is dependent on the prior effect of glucose or other positive analogue, does not require the presence of glucose and is inhibited by cycloheximide but not by actinomycin D. 3. Induction of glucokinase in vitro in hepatocytes from neonatal animals is inhibited by adrenaline, glucagon and dibutyryl cyclic AMP, but not by vasopressin or angiotensin II. The inhibition by cyclic AMP is on the stage requiring insulin and is comparatively specific, because total protein synthesis is not apparently diminished. 4. The implications of these results are discussed with reference to possible mechanisms of induction and to the situation in vivo.
Project description:Glucokinase (EC 126.96.36.199) first appears in the liver of the rat 2 weeks after birth and increases after weaning on to a high-carbohydrate diet. We investigated the hormonal regulation of glucokinase (GK) mRNA in primary cultures of hepatocytes from 10-12-day-old suckling rats. GK mRNA was undetectable in such cells after 48 h of culture in serum-free medium devoid of hormones. Addition of insulin or tri-iodothyronine (T3) to the medium resulted in induction of GK mRNA. The effects of insulin and T3 were dose-dependent and additive. Dexamethasone alone did not induce GK mRNA, but enhanced the response to insulin and decreased the response to T3. Induction of GK mRNA by insulin was not affected when the medium glucose concentration was varied between 5 and 15 mM, nor when culture was conducted in glucose-free medium supplemented with lactate and pyruvate or galactose. The time course of initial accumulation of GK mRNA in response to insulin was characterized by a lag of 12 h and an induction plateau reached after 36 h. If hepatocytes were then withdrawn from insulin for 24 h and subsequently subjected to a secondary stimulation by insulin, GK mRNA re-accumulated with much faster kinetics and reached the fully induced level within 8 h. Both primary and secondary responses to insulin were abolished by actinomycin D. These results provide insight into the role of hormonal stimuli in the ontogenic development of hepatic glucokinase.
Project description:1. The physiological factors that prevent the precocious appearance of glucokinase activity in the 13-day-old rat that can be induced by oral glucose administration were explored. 2. Evidence is presented that the galactose component of milk sugar is inhibitory. In the absence of this inhibitory galactose, the amount of glucose necessary to effect appreciable induction is greater than that present in milk. 3. The induction is prevented both by administration of mannoheptulose, which inhibits insulin release, and by excess insulin; the amount of insulin available therefore seems to be critical. 4. The inhibition of induction by galactose does not appear to be via competition with glucose but by enhancing insulin release and thereby making this excessive. The relative amounts of glucose and insulin appear to be important in regulating glucokinase induction. 5. The precocious induction of glucokinase by glucose is inhibited by simultaneous treatment with approriate amounts of adrenaline, glucagon, dibutyryl cyclic AMP or isoprenaline but not by vasopressin or angiotensin II. 6. No single cause of glucokinase induction in neonatal rat liver can be recognized. The process is subject to regulation by many factors at a time subsequent to when competence to synthesize the enzyme has been established.
Project description:1. After nicotinic acid treatment, rat liver glycogen is depleted and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity increased, to about twice the initial value. 2. The increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity promoted by nicotinic acid is prevented by cycloheximide or actinomycin D, suggesting that this effect is produced by synthesis of the enzyme de novo. 3. Despite the enhancement of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity and glycogen depletion, which occurs 5h after the injection of nicotinic acid, the gluconeogenic capacity of liver is low and considerably less than the values found in rats starved for 48h. 4. When the livers of well-fed rats are perfused in the presence of low concentrations of glucose, the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase significantly increases compared with the control. 5. This increase is not related to the glycogen content, but seems to be also the result of synthesis of the enzyme de novo, since this effect is counteracted by previous treatment with cycloheximide or actinomycin D. 6. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity is not increased in the presence of low concentrations of circulating glucose when 40 mM-imidazole (an activator of phosphodiesterase) is added to the perfusion medium. 7. Addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP to the perfusion medium results in an increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity, in spite of the presence of normal concentrations of circulating glucose. On the other hand, the concentration of cyclic AMP in the liver increases when that of glucose in the medium is low. 8. These results suggest that, in the absence of hormonal factors, the regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase can be accomplished by glucose itself, inadequate concentrations of it resulting in the induction of the enzyme. The mediator in this regulation, as in hormonal regulation, seems to be cyclic AMP.
Project description:Inhibitors of signalling pathways were used to dissect the mechanism of insulin action on expression of the gene encoding glucokinase in cultured rat hepatocytes. Wortmannin and LY 294002 completely prevented the insulin-induced increase in glucokinase mRNA seen in unhibited cells, indicating that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase module has a key role. A ligand inducible protein kinase B (PKB, also termed cAkt) fusion protein was expressed by using adenoviral transduction of hepatocytes in primary culture. The PKB activity of this protein was shown to be activated in transduced hepatocytes within 30 min of the addition of 4-hydroxytamoxifen and to stay high for 8 h, as a result of serine phosphorylation at position 473 of PKB. The increase in PKB activity was reflected in the hyperphosphorylation of phosphorylated, heat and acid stable regulated by insulin protein (PHAS-I; also termed 4E-BP1, for eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1), a protein involved in the regulation of translation initiation. These effects were comparable to the insulin-induced activation of endogenous PKB and phosphorylation of PHAS-I in non-transduced hepatocytes. The addition of tamoxifen to transduced hepatocytes resulted in an induction of glucokinase mRNA with kinetics and magnitude similar to those of insulin-induced mRNA accumulation. The effect of tamoxifen depended on stimulated PKB activity because it did not occur in hepatocytes that were transduced with a mutant PKB fusion protein that was refractory to activation with tamoxifen. These results establish that acute activation of PKB is sufficient to produce an insulin-like induction of glucokinase in isolated hepatocytes. Together with the inhibition by phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors, they suggest that the activation of PKB might be critical in mediating the induction of glucokinase by insulin. In addition, experiments showed that PD98059 decreased by half the increase in glucokinase mRNA brought about by insulin, suggesting a contributory role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade.
Project description:Hyperglycemia resulting from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the main cause of diabetic complications such as retinopathy and neuropathy. A reduction in hyperglycemia has been shown to prevent these associated complications supporting the importance of glucose control. Glucokinase converts glucose to glucose-6-phosphate and determines glucose flux into the ?-cells and hepatocytes. Since activation of glucokinase in ?-cells is associated with increased risk of hypoglycemia, we hypothesized that selectively activating hepatic glucokinase would reduce fasting and postprandial glucose with minimal risk of hypoglycemia. Previous studies have shown that hepatic glucokinase overexpression is able to restore glucose homeostasis in diabetic models; however, these overexpression experiments have also revealed that excessive increases in hepatic glucokinase activity may also cause hepatosteatosis. Herein we sought to evaluate whether liver specific pharmacological activation of hepatic glucokinase is an effective strategy to reduce hyperglycemia without causing adverse hepatic lipids changes. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated a hepatoselective glucokinase activator, PF-04991532, in Goto-Kakizaki rats. In these studies, PF-04991532 reduced plasma glucose concentrations independent of changes in insulin concentrations in a dose-dependent manner both acutely and after 28 days of sub-chronic treatment. During a hyperglycemic clamp in Goto-Kakizaki rats, the glucose infusion rate was increased approximately 5-fold with PF-04991532. This increase in glucose infusion can be partially attributed to the 60% reduction in endogenous glucose production. While PF-04991532 induced dose-dependent increases in plasma triglyceride concentrations it had no effect on hepatic triglyceride concentrations in Goto-Kakizaki rats. Interestingly, PF-04991532 decreased intracellular AMP concentrations and increased hepatic futile cycling. These data suggest that hepatoselective glucokinase activation may offer glycemic control without inducing hepatic steatosis supporting the evaluation of tissue specific activators in clinical trials.
Project description:Isolated rat hepatocytes in primary monolayer culture were maintained for 18-24 h in the presence of 10% (v/v) serum and [3H]inositol. Vasopressin (100 nM) stimulated the production of inositol mono-, bis- and tris-phosphates (IP1, IP2, and IP3). Prior exposure of hepatocytes to 8-bromo cyclic AMP (8Br-cAMP; 100 microM), but not 8-bromo cyclic GMP, enhanced the vasopressin-mediated stimulation of inositol phosphate accumulation, but had no significant effect on their formation in the absence of vasopressin. The effect of the cyclic AMP analogue was mimicked by glucagon (10 nM), and was seen whether cyclic AMP or glucagon was added 5 min or 12 h before the addition of vasopressin. An 8 h incubation with dexamethasone (100 nM) enhanced the accumulation of IP3, but not that of IP2 or IP1, in the presence of 8Br-cAMP and vasopressin. Cycloheximide or actinomycin D had little effect on the vasopressin stimulation of inositol phosphate accumulation, after an 8 h incubation in the presence or absence of 8Br-cAMP.
Project description:1. The activities of l-serine dehydratase and l-serine-pyruvate aminotransferase were determined in rat liver during foetal and neonatal development. 2. l-Serine-pyruvate aminotransferase activity begins to develop in late-foetal liver, increases rapidly at birth to a peak during suckling and then decreases at weaning to the adult value. 3. l-Serine dehydratase activity is very low prenatally, but increases rapidly after birth to a transient peak. After a second transient peak around the time weaning begins, activity gradually rises to the adult value. Both of these peaks have similar isoenzyme compositions. 4. In foetal liver both l-serine dehydratase and l-serine-pyruvate aminotransferase activities are increased after injection in utero of glucagon or dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Cycloheximide or actinomycin D inhibited the prenatal induction of both enzymes and actinomycin D blocked the natural increase of l-serine dehydratase immediately after birth. Glucose or insulin administration also blocked the perinatal increase of l-serine dehydratase. 5. After the first perinatal peak of l-serine dehydratase, activity is increased by cortisol and this is inhibited by actinomycin D. After the second postnatal peak, activity is increased by amino acids or cortisol and this is insensitive to actinomycin D inhibition. Glucose administration blocks the cortisol-stimulated increase in l-serine dehydratase and also partially lowers the second postnatal peak of activity. 6. The developmental patterns of the enzymes are discussed in relation to the pathways of gluconeogenesis from l-serine. The regulation of enzyme activity by hormonal and dietary factors is discussed with reference to the changes in stimuli that occur during neonatal development and to their possible mechanisms of action.
Project description:The role of glucose 6-P (glucose 6-phosphate) in regulating the activation state of glycogen synthase and its translocation is well documented. In the present study, we investigated the effects of glucose 6-P on the activation state and compartmentation of phosphorylase in hepatocytes. Glucose 6-P levels were modulated in hepatocytes by glucokinase overexpression or inhibition with 5-thioglucose and the effects of AMP were tested using AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-beta-D-ribofuranoside), which is metabolized to an AMP analogue. Inhibition of glucokinase partially counteracted the effect of glucose both on the inactivation of phosphorylase and on the translocation of phosphorylase a from a soluble to a particulate fraction. The increase in glucose 6-P caused by glucokinase overexpression caused translocation of phosphorylase a to the pellet and had additive effects with glucose on inactivation of phosphorylase. It decreased the glucose concentration that caused half-maximal inactivation from 20 to 11 mM, indicating that it acts synergistically with glucose. AICAR activated phosphorylase and counteracted the effect of glucose 6-P on phosphorylase inactivation. However, it did not counteract translocation of phosphorylase by glucose 6-P. Glucose 6-P and AICAR had opposite effects on the activation state of glycogen synthase, but they had additive effects on translocation of the enzyme to the pellet. There was a direct correlation between the translocation of phosphorylase a and of glycogen synthase to the pellet, suggesting that these enzymes translocate in tandem. In conclusion, glucose 6-P causes both translocation of phosphorylase and inactivation, indicating a more complex role in the regulation of glycogen metabolism than can be explained from regulation of glycogen synthase alone.
Project description:The effect of amino acids, in concentrations corresponding to those found in the portal vein of rats given a high-protein diet, was investigated on the activity of system A amino acid transport in hepatocytes from fed rats. Amino acids counteracted the induction of system A by insulin or glucagon. This effect was observed at all concentrations of hormones tested, up to 1 microM. Amino acids did not affect the basal cyclic AMP concentration in hepatocytes, or the large rise in cyclic AMP elicited by glucagon. The reversal of system-A induction was observed at relatively low concentration of amino acids, corresponding to plasma values reported in rats given a basal diet. Amino acids were separately tested: substrates of system A were particularly efficient, but so were glutamine and histidine. Non-metabolizable substrates of system A, such as 2-aminoisobutyrate, were also inhibitory, suggesting that a part of the effect of amino acids is independent of their cellular metabolism. Provision of additional energy substrates such as lactate and oleate did not affect induction of system A or the inhibitory effects of amino acids. Thus amino acids do not act by serving as an energy source and by maintaining the integrity of hepatocytes. Inhibition of mRNA synthesis by actinomycin practically abolished the effect of amino acids on the induction of system A by glucagon. The results suggest that amino acids may promote the synthesis of protein(s) affecting the activity of system A either directly at the carrier unit or at an intermediate stage of its emergence.
Project description:1. Measurements were made of the activities of the four key enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, pyruvate carboxylase (EC 188.8.131.52), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 184.108.40.206), fructose 1,6-diphosphatase (EC 220.127.116.11) and glucose 6-phosphatase (EC 18.104.22.168), of serine dehydratase (EC 22.214.171.124) and of the four enzymes unique to glycolysis, glucokinase (EC 126.96.36.199), hexokinase (EC 188.8.131.52), phosphofructokinase (EC 184.108.40.206) and pyruvate kinase (EC 220.127.116.11), in livers from starved rats perfused with glucose, fructose or lactate. Changes in perfusate concentrations of glucose, fructose, lactate, pyruvate, urea and amino acid were monitored for each perfusion. 2. Addition of 15mm-glucose at the start of perfusion decreased the activity of pyruvate carboxylase. Constant infusion of glucose to maintain the concentration also decreased the activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, fructose 1,6-diphosphatase and serine dehydratase. Addition of 2.2mm-glucose initially to give a perfusate sugar concentration similar to the blood sugar concentration of starved animals had no effect on the activities of the enzymes compared with zero-time controls. 3. Addition of 15mm-fructose initially decreased glucokinase activity. Constant infusion of fructose decreased activities of glucokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, glucose 6-phosphatase and serine dehydratase. 4. Addition of 7mm-lactate initially elevated the activity of pyruvate carboxylase, as also did constant infusion; maintenance of a perfusate lactate concentration of 18mm induced both pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities. 5. Addition of cycloheximide had no effect on the activities of the enzymes after 4h of perfusion at either low or high concentrations of glucose or at high lactate concentration. Cycloheximide also prevented the loss or induction of pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities with high substrate concentrations. 6. Significant amounts of glycogen were deposited in all perfusions, except for those containing cycloheximide at the lowest glucose concentration. Lipid was found to increase only in the experiments with high fructose concentrations. 7. Perfusion with either fructose or glucose decreased the rates of ureogenesis; addition of cycloheximide increased urea efflux from the liver.