Receptor-mediated vitellogenin binding to chicken oocytes.
ABSTRACT: The specific binding of vitellogenin to chicken oocyte membranes was characterized. This major hen serum phospholipoglycoprotein and one of its lower-molecular-weight components, phosvitin, bound to oocyte membranes with KD values of approx. 6 x 10-7 M. The optimum pH for binding was 6.0, the same as the pH of yolk contents. Phosvitin and vitellogenin compete with each other for binding; other proteins tested do not compete to the same degree. Phosvitin, which contains 10% phosphate by weight, appears to be the polypeptide recognized by the receptor. RNA failed to compete with either vitellogenin or phosvitin for binding, suggesting that the binding specificity may require more than polymeric phosphate. The binding was tissue-specific in that phosvitin and vitellogenin bound to oocyte surfaces (at both pH 6.0 and 7.5), but not to chicken erythrocytes (at either pH).
Project description:This paper describes the biochemical characterization of the chicken oocyte plasma-membrane receptor for one of the major lipid-carrying yolk proteins, vitellogenin (VTG). The receptor was extracted from oocyte membranes with the non-ionic detergent octyl-beta-D-glucoside and visualized by ligand blotting, with 125I-VTG as a protein with an apparent Mr of 96000, under non-reducing conditions. It exhibited high affinity for native chicken VTG (Kd 2 X 10(-7) M) but was unable to bind VTG with reductively methylated lysine residues or phosvitin (the phosphoserine-rich intracellular cleavage product of VTG). Polyclonal antibodies to the 96 kDa protein inhibited VTG binding to the receptor and were able to precipitate functional VTG-receptor activity from oocyte-membrane detergent extracts with a concomitant removal of the 96 kDa protein. Antibodies directed against the mammalian receptor for low-density lipoprotein showed cross-reactivity with the chicken oocyte VTG receptor, raising the possibility that lipoprotein receptors in birds are structurally related to those in mammalian species.
Project description:Chicken phosvitin was prepared from egg yolk by a variety of published methods, including a modification of our own original procedure. Yolk granules and all phosvitin preparations have been previously found to contain major phosphoproteins at Mr 40,000 and 33,000 and minor satellite components when electrophoresed on polyacrylamide gradient gels and stained with Stains-all. However, only our current preparation contained three additional phosphoproteins (Mr 18,000, 15,000 and 13,000) that are also present in yolk granules. Our current phosvitin preparation also appeared to have additional components when compared with other preparations by size-exclusion and anion-exchange chromatography. Particularly complex but entirely reproducible patterns were obtained by hydrophobic-interaction chromatography. However, a cross-referencing of fractions eluted by size-exclusion chromatography to the other procedures employed, including gel electrophoresis, reinforced the notion that unfractionated chicken phosvitin contains at least five major components, designated B, C, E1, E2 and F for the Mr 40,000, 33,000, 15,000, 18,000, and 13,000 phosphoproteins, respectively. Stoichiometric considerations lead us to suggest that vitellogenin I gives rise to phosvitins C and F, vitellogenin II gives rise to phosvitin B, and vitellogenin III gives rise to either phosvitin E1 or E2, but not both. Thus, a fourth, as yet undetected, vitellogenin may exist for the chicken.
Project description:1. The process by which the egg-yolk protein precursor vitellogenin is biosynthesized, assembled and secreted by Xenopus laevis (South African clawed toad) liver was studied. It was previously shown in other laboratories that vitellogenin contains the two egg-yolk proteins lipovitellin (mol.wt. 140 000) and phosvitin (mol.wt. 35 000). 2. Evidence is presented which shows that Xenopus liver microsomal fractions synthesize precursors of vitellogenin. These precursors were solubilized from the membranes with detergent and analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. This analysis indicated that there is only one precursor polypeptide, and this has mol.wt. approx. 200 000 +/- 20 000. This demonstrates that the egg-yolk proteins are translated as part of this larger polypeptide. 3. Experiments also demonstrate the existence of a microsomal proteinase which is able to cleave the precursor into smaller fragments. The nature of these fragments provided some indirect evidence that phosvitin and lipovitellin light chains are situated together within the precursor molecule. 4. These precursor data fit in well with structural studies on serum vitellogenin, since it has been shown that the latter protein consists of two identical subunits each with a mobility on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gels identical with that shown by the microsomal precursor. This indicates that both the intracellular precursor and subunit of vitellogenin have similar (but not necessarily identical) molecular weights. 5. It was also shown that trypsin or chymotrypsin can cleave the serum vitellogenin into leucine- and serine-rich fragments which resemble lipovitellin and phosvitin respectively. Attention is, however, drawn to the fact that the serine-rich fragment is not identical with phosvitin, since it contains eight times more leucine than that expected for the authentic phosvitin molecule [Penning (1976) Ph.D. Thesis, University of Southampton].
Project description:Oocyte membrane fragments bind specifically radioiodinated VLD lipoprotein (very-low density lipoprotein) and LD lipoprotein (low-density lipoprotein). Competitive binding assays showed 2-3 times more VLD lipoprotein than LD lipoprotein bound at 4 degrees C. Equilibrium-binding data revealed the presence of one class of non-interacting sites for VLD lipoprotein (kD 12 microgram/ml) and co-operative binding for LD lipoprotein. The binding of VLD lipoprotein showed a distinct pH maximum at 5.3, whereas an indistinct maximum at about pH 7.3 was observed for LD lipoprotein. Unlabelled VLD lipoprotein did compete with 125I-labelled LD lipoprotein binding, but unlabelled LD lipoprotein did not compete with 125I-labelled VLD lipoprotein binding. VLD lipoprotein binding was inhibited by HD lipoprotein (high-density lipoprotein), but not by lysozyme, collagen, poly-L-lysine or poly-L-arginine; LD lipoprotein binding was inhibited by lysozyme and collagen, but not by HD lipoprotein. On the basis of these studies, we suggest that: (1) VLD lipoprotein and LD lipoprotein enter the oocytes by a receptor-mediated transport mechanism; (2) the receptors for VLD lipoprotein and LD lipoprotein are distinct; and (3) the binding of LD lipoprotein to chicken oocyte membranes differs from that to other cell types.
Project description:A single lipophosphoprotein complex, vitellogenin, was isolated and purified from the plasma of oestrogen-stimulated female toads by preparative ultracentrifugation and chromatography on TEAE-cellulose (triethylaminoethylcellulose). The protein contains 12% lipid, 1.5% phosphorus, 1.6% calcium and smaller amounts of carbohydrates and biliverdin. In amino acid composition it is identical with total yolk-platelet protein. The platelet protein, however, is fractionated on TEAE-cellulose into two components, a high-molecular-weight lipovitellin and a smaller phosvitin. Analyses of the soluble plasma vitellogenin suggest that it is a complex of two phosvitin molecules covalently bound to one lipovitellin dimer, and that it is the immediate precursor of the yolk proteins, into which it is converted by a molecular rearrangement. Uptake of vitellogenin from the plasma into the growing oocyte, and its subsequent crystallization as a yolk platelet, appear to be enhanced by gonadotrophic hormones.
Project description:The mosquito (Aedes aegypti) vitellogenin receptor (AaVgR) is a large membrane-bound protein (214 kDa when linearized) that mediates internalization of vitellogenin, the major yolk-protein precursor, by oocytes during egg development. We have cloned and sequenced two cDNA fragments encompassing the entire coding region of AaVgR mRNA, to our knowledge the first insect VgR sequence to be reported. The 7.3-kb AaVgR mRNA is present only in female germ-line cells and is abundant in previtellogenic oocytes, suggesting that the AaVgR gene is expressed early in oocyte differentiation. The deduced amino acid sequence predicts a 202.7-kDa protein before posttranslational processing. The AaVgR is a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor superfamily, sharing significant homology with the chicken (Gallus gallus) VgR and particularly the Drosophila melanogaster yolk protein receptor, in spite of a very different ligand for the latter. Distance-based phylogenetic analyses suggest that the insect VgR/yolk protein receptor lineage and the vertebrate VgR/low density lipoprotein receptor lineage diverged before the bifurcation of nematode and deuterostome lines.
Project description:Large lipid transfer proteins are involved in lipid transportation and diverse other molecular processes. These serum proteins include vitellogenins, which are egg yolk precursors and pathogen pattern recognition receptors, and apolipoprotein B, which is an anti-inflammatory cholesterol carrier. In the honey bee, vitellogenin acts as an antioxidant, and elevated vitellogenin titer is linked to prolonged life span in this animal. Here, we show that vitellogenin has cell and membrane binding activity and that it binds preferentially to dead and damaged cells. Vitellogenin binds directly to phosphatidylcholine liposomes and with higher affinity to liposomes containing phosphatidylserine, a lipid of the inner leaflet of cell membranes that is exposed in damaged cells. Vitellogenin binding to live cells, furthermore, improves cell oxidative stress tolerance. This study can shed more light on why large lipid transfer proteins have a well conserved α-helical domain, because we locate the lipid bilayer-binding ability of vitellogenin largely to this region. We suggest that recognition of cell damage and oxidation shield properties are two mechanisms that allow vitellogenin to extend honey bee life span.
Project description:Vitellogenin (Vg) is precursor of vitellin. Here, we identified a Vg (NlVg) and two Vg-likes (NlVg-like1 and NlVg-like2) in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. Phylogenetic analyses showed that NlVg-like1 and NlVg-like2 are not clustered with the conventional insect Vgs associated with vitellogenesis. Temporo-spatial expression analyses showed that the NlVg and NlVg-like2 transcript levels increased significantly 24 h after emergence and were primarily expressed in female adults. However, NlVg-like1 was expressed during all stages, and in both genders. Tissue-specific analyses showed that all three genes were most highly expressed in the fat body. The injection of double-stranded RNA targeting NlVg showed that NlVg is essential not only for oocyte development but also for nymph development. The knockdown of NlVg-like1 in female adults resulted in failure to hatch or death before eggshell emergence in 18% of offspring embryos, suggesting that NlVg-like1 plays an important role during late embryogenesis. Approximately 65% of eggs laid by females that were treated with double-stranded RNA targeting NlVg-like2 failed to hatch, indicating that NlVg-like2 plays a role in nutrition absorption during oocyte, or embryonic development. Our results illustrate the structural and functional differences among the Vg and Vg-like genes and provide potential targets for RNA-interference-based insect pest management strategies.
Project description:The catalytic activity of phosvitin in Fe(II) oxidation and the addition of iron to transferrin were studied under various conditions. It was concluded that the Fe(II) oxidized by phosvitin would bind to apotransferrin, although an appreciable fraction of Fe(III) remained bound to phosvitin. Fe(III) also migrated from phosvitin to apotransferrin. This reaction was first-order with respect to Fe(III)-phosvitin concentration with a half-time (t1/2) of 10 min, and a first-order rate constant, k=0.069min-1, in 700 muM-phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, at 30 degrees C. The catalysis of the oxidation of Fe(III) by phosvitin was proportional to O2 concentration, and is quite different from the relative O2 independence of Fe(II) oxidation as catalysed by ferroxidase. A scheme for the mobilization and transfer of iron in the chicken, including the role of ferroxidase, phosyitin and transferrin, is presented.
Project description:The yolk protein precursor, vitellogenin (Vg), provides nutrition for embryonic development whereas the vitellogenin receptor (VgR) is responsible for the uptake of yolk protein by maturing oocytes. These two proteins are key reproduction-related proteins in insects. We cloned and characterized Vg and VgR genes in Sogatella furcifera, and investigated their function in oocyte maturation. Cloned SfVg and SfVgR have open reading frames of 6,114 and 5,796 bp, encoding 2,037 and 1,931 amino acid residues, respectively. Structural analysis indicates that SfVg has the three conserved LPD_N, DUF1943, and VWFD domains, SfVgR contains all conservative motifs of the LDLR superfamily. Both genes were highly expressed in adult females; SfVg was most highly expressed in the fat body whereas SfVgR was mainly expressed in the ovary. Knockdown of either gene reduced yolk protein deposition in oocytes and arrested oocyte maturation. However, silencing one of these two genes did not affect the transcript level of the other. These results demonstrate the role of SfVgR in transporting SfVg into oocytes. Both SfVg and SfVgR are essential for oocyte maturation in S. furcifera and both genes could potentially be targeted as means of controlling this pest.