The catabolism of intravenously injected heparan N-[35S] sulphate in the rat.
ABSTRACT: The metabolic fate of heparan N-[(35)S]sulphate was studied in rats. Heparan sulphate was obtained from either bovine aorta or lung and labelled with (35)S by desulphation and subsequent resulphation in vitro. Experiments in which heparan N-[(35)S]sulphate was administered intravenously to either free-range or wholly anaesthetized rats with ureter cannulae established that substantial desulphation occurs in vivo, with elimination of inorganic [(35)S]sulphate in urine. Oligosaccharides labelled with (35)S, possible intermediates in heparan sulphate degradation, could not be detected in urine or blood. The general distribution of radioactivity after administration of heparan N-[(35)S]sulphate, as demonstrated by whole-body radioautography, suggested that desulphation was not restricted to one organ in particular. Support for this view was obtained in experiments in which heparan N-[(35)S]sulphate was administered to animals after the removal of kidneys, liver, spleen, pancreas or gastrointestinal tract. In all cases inorganic [(35)S]sulphate was still produced. The ability of rats of desulphate heparan N-[(35)S]sulphate was progressively impaired by increasing concentrations of heparin administered simultaneously. It was concluded that heparan sulphate is metabolized at a number of sites in the body by a sequence of degradative events leading to the formation of inorganic sulphate. It is also concluded that at least some of these events are common to heparan sulphate and heparin.
Project description:Receptor-mediated endocytosis of decorin depends on its core-protein-mediated interaction with a 51 kDa membrane protein, which, in addition to its core-protein-binding site, carries a binding site for glycosaminoglycan chains. Membrane-associated heparan sulphate as well as heparin are known to have an inhibitory effect on decorin endocytosis by cultured skin fibroblasts. In this study, structural features of both glycosaminoglycans required for binding to the 51 kDa protein and for inhibiting decorin endocytosis, were investigated. Upon digestion of [(3)H]glucosamine-labelled heparan sulphate with heparinase III, dodeca- and higher saccharides were able to interact with the receptor protein. In comparison with unbound fragments of the same size, bound fragments were enriched in N-sulphated disaccharides carrying one or two sulphate ester groups. Using heparinase III-generated fragments from [(35)S]sulphate-labelled heparan sulphate chains, binding of fragments as small as octasaccharides could be detected. Competition experiments between dermatan sulphate and chemically modified heparin revealed that N- and 6-O-sulphation of glucosamine residues are important structural elements for binding to the receptor, whereas iduronate-2-O-sulphate groups contribute to binding only to a limited extent. However, with respect to the inhibition of decorin endocytosis, 2-O-desulphation had a quantitatively similar effect to 6-O-desulphation. Furthermore, for maximal inhibition of decorin endocytosis, longer fragments were required than for binding to the receptor. Thus, it appears that heparin/heparan sulphate has to interact with additional component(s) for effective inhibition of decorin uptake.
Project description:Intraperitoneal, intravenous or oral administration of sodium oestrone [(35)S]-sulphate to male and female Medical Research Council hooded rats is followed by the rapid excretion of the bulk of the radioactivity in urine in the form of inorganic [(35)S]sulphate. Pre-treatment of rats with an antibiotic regimen does not affect the results except in the case of oral administration, when relatively large amounts of the dose are recovered as ester [(35)S]sulphate in faeces. Intravenous administration of the labelled ester to male and female rats with cannulae in bile duct and ureter gave results similar to those obtained with free-range animals. Only small amounts of radioactivity appeared in bile and this was mainly in the form of ester sulphate, including both oestrone [(35)S]sulphate and oestradiol-17beta 3[(35)S]-sulphate. Whole-body radioautography pinpointed the liver as the probable site of the desulphation of the sulphate ester and this was confirmed by liver and kidney perfusion experiments and by studies with rats in which kidney function had been eliminated by ligation of the renal pedicles.
Project description:A heparan sulphate sulphotransferase was partially purified from an ox lung homogenate by (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation. Various glycosaminoglycans were assayed as sulphate acceptors with this enzyme. The highest acceptor activity was obtained with desulphated heparin and heparan sulphate, which indicates that sulphate transfer may be to free amino groups of the substrate. Some heparan sulphate was (35)S-labelled by incubation with the enzyme and re-isolated. On treatment of this heparan [(35)S]sulphate with nitrous acid and separation of the degradation products on Sephadex G-15, a major peak of radioactivity was obtained, and identified as [(35)S]sulphate by high-voltage electrophoresis at pH5.3. The [(35)S]sulphate is believed to be derived from N-[(35)S]sulphated groups of heparan [(35)S]-sulphate. That the ox lung preparation contained an N-sulphotransferase was confirmed by the isolation of 2-deoxy-2-[(35)S]sulphoamino-d-glucose as the major product from the flavobacterial degradation of heparan [(35)S]sulphate.
Project description:1. Chondroitin sulphate was isolated from different regions of rat costal cartilage after extensive proteolysis of the tissues. The molecular weight, determined by gel chromatography, of the polysaccharide obtained from an actively growing region (lateral zone) near the osteochondral junction was higher than that of the polysaccharide isolated from the remaining portion of the costal cartilage (medial zone). 2. In both types of cartilage the molecular weight of chondroitin sulphate, labelled with [(35)S]sulphate, remained unchanged in vivo over a period of 10 days, approximately corresponding to the half-life of the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan. The molecular-weight distribution of chondroitin [(35)S]sulphate, labelled in vivo or in vitro, was invariably identical with that of the bulk polysaccharide from the same tissue. It is concluded that the observed regional variations in molecular-weight distribution were established at the time of polysaccharide biosynthesis. 3. In tissue culture more than half of the (35)S-labelled polysaccharide-proteins of the two tissues was released into the medium within 10 days of incubation. The released materials were of smaller molecular size than were the corresponding native proteoglycans. In contrast, the molecular-weight distribution of the chondroitin [(35)S]sulphate (single polysaccharide chains) remained constant throughout the incubation period. 4. A portion (about 20%) of the total radioactive material released from (35)S-labelled cartilage in tissue culture was identified as inorganic [(35)S]sulphate. No corresponding decrease in the degree of sulphation of the labelled polysaccharide could be detected. These findings suggest that a limited fraction of the proteoglycan molecules had been extensively desulphated. 5. It is suggested that the initial phase of degradation involves proteolytic cleavage of the proteoglycan, but the constituent polysaccharide chains remain intact. The partially degraded proteoglycan may be eliminated from the cartilage by diffusion into the circulatory system. An additional degradative process, which may occur intracellularly, includes desulphation of the polysaccharide, probably in conjunction with a more extensive breakdown of the polymer.
Project description:Rat liver cells grown in primary cultures in the presence of [(35)S]sulphate synthesize a labelled heparan sulphate-like glycosaminoglycan. The characterization of the polysaccharide as heparan sulphate is based on its resistance to digestion with chondroitinase ABC or hyaluronidase and its susceptibility to HNO(2) treatment. The sulphate groups (including sulphamino and ester sulphate groups) are distributed along the polymer in the characteristic block fashion. In (3)H-labelled heparan sulphate, isolated after incubation of the cells with [(3)H]galactose, 40% of the radioactive uronic acid units are l-iduronic acid, the remainder being d-glucuronic acid. The location of heparan sulphate at the rat liver cell surface is demonstrated; part of the labelled polysaccharide can be removed from the cells by mild treatment with trypsin or heparitinase. Further, a purified plasma-membrane fraction isolated from rats previously injected with [(35)S]sulphate contains radioactively labelled heparan sulphate. A proteoglycan macromolecule composed of heparan sulphate chains attached to a protein core can be solubilized from the membrane fraction by extraction with 6m-guanidinium chloride. The proteoglycan structure is degraded by treatment with papain, Pronase or alkali. The production of heparan [(35)S]sulphate by rat liver cells incubated in the presence of [(35)S]sulphate was followed. Initially the amount of labelled polysaccharide increased with increasing incubation time. However, after 10h of incubation a steady state was reached where biosynthetic and degradative processes were in balance.
Project description:[35S]Heparin proteoglycans were isolated from the skins and peritoneal mast cells of male rats aged 2 to 22 months. Their [35S]heparin chains were separated on antithrombin-agarose into fractions with high and low affinities for antithrombin. In skin, the proportion of 35S-labelled high-affinity heparin chains declined from 23% at 2 months to 8% at 12 months and did not change significantly between 12 and 22 months. In peritoneal mast cells, the proportion of 35S-labelled high-affinity heparin chains increased from 14% at 2 months to 21% at 4 months and then did not vary significantly until 15 months of age. By 21 months a consistent and significant decline to 8% occurred. The structures of high-affinity heparin proteoglycans did not change with age. Their decreased proportions, without change in their structure, may indicate that they are produced by a unique subset of mast cells, the proportion of which declines with age. [35S]heparan sulphate chains were isolated from skins and brains of rats in the same age range and fractionated on antithrombin-agarose. There were no significant variations in the proportions of 35S-labelled high-affinity heparan sulphate chains in skin (10%) or brain (24%) between 4 and 22 months of age.
Project description:Heparan sulphate and heparin are chemically related alpha beta-linked glycosaminoglycans composed of alternating sequences of glucosamine and uronic acid. The amino sugars may be N-acetylated or N-sulphated, and the latter substituent is unique to these two polysaccharides. Although there is general agreement that heparan sulphate is usually less sulphated than heparin, reproducible differences in their molecular structure have been difficult to identify. We suggest that this is because most of the analytical data have been obtained with degraded materials that are not necessarily representative of complete polysaccharide chains. In the present study intact heparan sulphates, labelled biosynthetically with [3H]glucosamine and Na2(35)SO4, were isolated from the surface membranes of several types of cells in culture. The polysaccharide structure was analysed by complete HNO2 hydrolysis followed by fractionation of the products by gel filtration and high-voltage electrophoresis. Results showed that in all heparan sulphates there were approximately equal numbers of N-sulpho and N-acetyl substituents, arranged in a similar, predominantly segregated, manner along the polysaccharide chain. O-Sulphate groups were in close proximity to the N-sulphate groups but, unlike the latter, the number of O-sulphate groups could vary considerably in heparan sulphates of different cellular origins ranging from 20 to 75 O-sulphate groups per 100 disaccharide units. Inspection of the published data on heparin showed that the N-sulphate frequency was very high (greater than 80% of the glucosamine residues are N-sulphated) and the concentration of O-sulphate groups exceeded that of the N-sulphate groups. We conclude from these and other observations that heparan sulphate and heparin are separate families of N-sulphated glycosaminoglycans.
Project description:Rats were infected with the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, resulting in an approx. 5-fold increase in the number of mucosal mast cells and the histamine content of the intestinal (jejunum) wall. After injection of the infected animals with inorganic [35S]sulphate, a similar increase in the yield of labelled intestinal glycosaminoglycans was observed, compared with uninfected control rats. Autoradiography showed a highly selective labelling of the numerous mucosal mast cells and of the few connective-tissue mast cells in the subserosal region of the bowel. Analysis of the labelled polysaccharide from the infected animals showed that almost 60% of this material consisted of oversulphated galactosaminoglycan, whereas heparin-related polysaccharides accounted for only 13%. The galactosaminoglycan contained 4-monosulphated and 4,6-disulphated N-acetylgalactosamine residues in approx. 5:1 molar ratio, both being linked to D-glucuronic acid residues; the occurrence of L-iduronic acid units could not be excluded. No significant difference in structure was found between this polysaccharide and the corresponding component isolated from uninfected rats. It is concluded that the major polysaccharide produced by rat mucosal mast cells in vivo is an oversulphated galactosaminoglycan rather than heparin.
Project description:1. The preparation of potassium l-serylglycine O-sulphate and the corresponding (35)S-labelled ester is described. 2. Intraperitoneal injection of potassium l-serylglycine O[(35)S]-sulphate to rats results in about 75% of the radioactivity of the dose appearing in the urine within 48hr. Almost 72% of the radioactivity recovered in the urine was in the form of inorganic [(35)S]sulphate. 3. Analysis of urines by paper chromatography showed the presence of unchanged l-serylglycine O[(35)S]-sulphate and several other unidentified (35)S-labelled materials. 4. It has been established that micro-organisms of the gastrointestinal tract do not play any significant role in the production of inorganic [(35)S]sulphate from the injected ester. 5. l-Serylglycine O-sulphate was hydrolysed by crude dipeptidase preparations from rat kidney and intestine to yield l-serine O-sulphate and glycine as the sole products.
Project description:Heparins from bovine mucosa and lung, and chemically modified heparins were assayed for their capacity to: (i) protect human recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) from tryptic cleavage; (ii) prevent 125I-bFGF binding to heparan sulphate proteoglycans present in the extracellular matrix and on the cell surface of fetal bovine aortic endothelial GM 7373 cell cultures; (iii) affect 125I-bFGF binding to high-affinity tyrosine kinase FGF receptors present on the cell membrane of GM 7373 cells; (iv) inhibit the mitogenic activity exerted by bFGF in the same cells. The results demonstrate that the potency shown by mucosal heparins in the different assays is a direct function of size, very-low-molecular-mass heparin (2.0 kDa) being significantly less effective on a molar basis than unfractionated heparin (13.6 kDa). Increased flexibility of the backbone structure, as observed in reduced/oxidized heparins of different size, does not affect the capacity of the polysaccharide to interact with bFGF. In contrast, selective 2-O-desulphation, but not 6-O-desulphation, drastically reduced the capacity of heparin to protect bFGF from proteolytic cleavage, to affect its interaction with low- and high-affinity sites, and to inhibit its mitogenic activity. Two preparations of bovine lung heparin, differing in molecular mass, were as effective as mucosal heparin in the bFGF-tryptic-digestion assay and the endothelial-cell proteoglycan-binding assay, but they were highly inefficient at inhibiting the capacity of bFGF to interact with its tyrosine kinase receptors. Bovine lung heparins were also less effective than mucosal heparin as bFGF antagonists in GM 7373-cell-proliferation assays. N-Desulphated/N-acetylated bovine lung heparin retained only a significant capacity to protect bFGF from tryptic cleavage. The results demonstrate that different chemical features of the heparin molecule, including decrease in molecular mass, selective desulphation, disaccharide composition and clustering, affect differently the capacity of the glycosaminoglycan to interact with bFGF and to influence its biological behaviour in different assays in vitro and in endothelial cell cultures. Our findings should aid the design of synthetic oligosaccharides aimed at improving the bioavailability of bFGF when administered in vivo as a therapeutic agent.