Effects of gamma-irradiation on biosynthesis of different types of ribonucleic acids in normal and regenerating rat liver.
ABSTRACT: 1. The effect of gamma-irradiation (4000rd) on the synthesis of ribosomal (pre-rRNA) and heterogeneous nuclear RNA (pre-mRNA) in normal and in regenerating rat liver was studied by using 40 min labelling with [6(-14)C]orotic acid. 2. Partial hepatectomy caused a sharp transient increase in the specific radioactivity of the endogenous low-molecular-weight RNA precursors in the livers of both normal and irradiated rats. Irradiation of intact animals did not affect the pool. 3. Irradiation enhanced the synthesis of pre-rRNA for at least 12h. The synthesis of pre-mRNA was also enhanced, but only in the first 3h after irradiation. 4. Partial hepatectomy strongly stimulated the synthesis of both pre-rRNA and pre-mRNA. 5. The synthesis of pre-rRNA was enhanced also in regenerating liver of animals irradiated before or after the operation. The conclusion can be drawn that the early increase in the synthesis of ribosomal RNA is a non-specific cellular response to different injuring factors. 6. The only case where irradiation caused an early inhibition of RNA synthesis was that of pre-mRNA in regenerating liver. This supports the hypothesis that ionizing radiation does not suppress the transcription per se but affects the mechanisms of activation of new genes (cellular programming).
Project description:The synthesis of RNA during mouse liver regeneration was studied by two different methods at 24 and 48 h after partial hepatectomy. Total chromatin-bound RNA polymerase activity showed an increase of 32% at 24 h after partial hepatectomy. At 48 h a slight increase in total activity was also observed in regenerating liver, but the difference was not significant. The increase in total RNA polymerase activity was due to a rise in RNA polymerase I plus III activity. This enzyme activity was increased at both 24 and 48 h. The increase was 57% at 24 h and 51% at 48 h. When [methyl-14C]methionine was used for labelling of methyl groups in rRNA, there was an increased specific radioactivity of this class of RNA at both 24 h and 48 h. The increases were 263 and 103% at 24 and 48 h respectively. Thus both methods revealed an increased synthesis of rRNA during mouse liver regeneration. The results are discussed in relation to previous results from this laboratory [Yngner, Carlberg, Lewan & Engelbrecht (1979) Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 360, 1069-1074; Yngner, Engelbrecht, Lewan & Annerfeldt (1979) Biochem. J. 178, 1-8; Yngner, Bengtsson, Carlberg, Engelbrecht & Wieslander (1980) Exp. Cell. Biol. 48, 393-403], which have shown that the incorporation of orotic acid or uridine into RNA is not increased in mouse liver regenerating after partial hepatectomy.
Project description:Rats maintained on a protein-free diet for 3 days have an altered time course of hepatic DNA synthesis during liver regeneration. The delay in DNA synthesis is eliminated by the administration of casein hydrolysate (given as late as 6h after partial hepatectomy), but not by glucose or incomplete amino acid mixtures. Despite the change in the timing of DNA synthesis, the increases in hepatic amino acid pools, which take place at the earliest stages of the regenerative process, occur in a normal pattern in the regenerating liver of rats fed the protein-free diet. Protein-deprived rats have increased protein synthesis and decreased rates of protein degradation in the liver in response to partial hepatectomy, but these adaptations do not prevent a lag in protein accumulation and low protein/RNA ratios. The regenerating livers of these animals show a deficit in the accumulation of cytoplasmic polyadenylated mRNA as well as a smaller proportion of free polyribosomes. It is suggested that the deficit in free polyribosomes found in the regenerating liver of protein-deprived rats might be a consequence of the slow accumulation of mRNA species coding for intracellular proteins.
Project description:Kinetic experiments of labelling in vivo with [14C]orotate of cellular free UMP and/or UTP, nucleolar, nucleoplasmic and cytoplasmic rRNA in normal and 12 h-regenerating rat liver were performed. The specific-radioactivity curves obtained were analysed by computer and the rates of synthesis of precursor rRNA (45S pre-rRNA) and cytoplasmic 28S and 18S rRNA calculated. (a) The rates of synthesis of 45S pre-rRNA in normal and regenerating rat liver are 1400 and 3700 molecules/min per nucleus respectively; (b) the average rates of formation of mature 28S and 18S rRNA are identical with the rates of synthesis of 45S pre-rRNA in both normal and regenerating rat liver. Thus the synthesis of rRNA in 12h-regenerating rat liver is activated 2.7-fold. The analysis of rRNA synthesis in isolated nucleoli also shows a 2.7-fold stimulation of transcription in regenerating liver. It is concluded that all the 45S pre-rRNA molecules synthesized are processed and transferred as 28S and 18S rRNA in the cytoplasm, i.e. degradation (wastage) of newly synthesized ribosomes in the nucleus does not occur in both normal and regenerating rat liver. Thus the enhanced production of ribosomes in regenerating rat liver is regulated only at the transcriptional level.
Project description:Repeated injections of 1,3-diaminopropane into rats after partial hepatectomy caused a repression-type inhibiton of liver ornithine decarboxylase (EC 220.127.116.11) and totally prevented the marked increases in liver putrescine and spermidine concentrations that normally occur in response to partial hepatectomy. The inhibition of polyamine synthesis by diaminopropane was accompanied by a profound decrease (about 80%) in the synthesis of DNA in the regenerating rat liver without any changes in the synthesis of RNA and total liver protein.
Project description:1. The proportion of thiol groups in the total thiol+disulphide of histone extracts from fertilized eggs from Echinus and Psammechinus was increased during periods of structural alterations in the nucleus. 2. The probable start of DNA synthesis in the fertilized eggs coincided with periods of maximum thiol content. 3. Histone extracts from rat liver and regenerating liver were predominantly in the thiol form and no significant variations could be detected during the first 30hr. after partial hepatectomy. 4. An assay system was developed to follow the phosphorylation believed to be associated with the arginine-rich histone F3. Phosphorylation increased by 50% at 1 and 2hr. after partial hepatectomy. The phosphate content also increased during the period of DNA synthesis. 5. The increased phosphorylation found 1hr. after partial hepatectomy was not prevented by actinomycin or prior irradiation. 6. The phosphate content of histone F1 was very high in livers from foetal rats and declined in neonatal rats similarly to the decline in DNA synthesis.
Project description:The changes in the specific radioactivities of the pool of total acid-soluble uridine nucleotides and of uridine and cytidine components of total cellular and nuclear RNA were monitored in regenerating rat liver for 12 days after partial hepatectomy. Evidence is presented for the re-utilization of pyrimidine nucleotides derived from cytoplasmic RNA degradation for the synthesis of new RNA. The extent of recycling was assessed and the true rate of rRNA turnover determined more accurately. The reutilization of the uridine components of RNA was 7.0%/day during the proliferative and 3.2%/day during the post-proliferative phase, whereas that of the cytidine nucleotides was more pronounced (9.6%/day and 18.1%/day respectively). The results reveal the existence of partial compartmentalization of pyrimidine ribonucleoside triphosphate pools in the nucleus and cytoplasm of rat liver cells.
Project description:1. The activity of the soluble phosphokinase for histone F1 increases in regenerating rat liver during the first period of DNA synthesis after partial hepatectomy. The increase probably represents new enzyme synthesis. 2. A dose of 500rd of gamma-irradiation given early in G1 decreases the amount of histone F1 phosphokinase found 22h after partial hepatectomy by 60-70%. 3. The enzyme preparations also contained a histone F1 phosphatase; the presence together of the kinase and phosphatase caused a disproportion between net (31)P uptake and (32)P incorporation into histone F1. 4. All four subclasses of histone F1 could accept phosphate from ATP. 5. Crude enzyme preparations transferred more (31)P into histone F1 with an initially low phosphate content than into one with a high phosphate content; conversely, more (32)P was transferred into the latter.
Project description:1. Synthesis de novo of fatty acids in the rat liver, measured per g wet wt. of tissue, was increased by a factor of about two, between 1 and 4 days after partial hepatectomy, compared with rates in sham-operated control rat livers. 2. There were no associated changes in the rates of liver cholesterol synthesis or of adipose-tissue fatty acid synthesis in rats after partial hepatectomy, compared with rates in sham-operated rats. 3. In regenerating livers, perfused under three different conditions, there was no alteration in the capacity for fatty acid synthesis compared with that of control rats. 4. The increased synthesis of fatty acids in regenerating liver was associated with insignificant increases in plasma concentrations of tricylglycerols and free fatty acids, with a decrease in content of liver glycogen, and with no change in hepatic activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. 5. The accelerated rate of synthesis of fatty adids in regenerating liver appears not to be due to any intrinsic alteration in hepatic capacity for fatty acid synthesis, but it may be caused by the continuous action on liver of unidentified circulating factors.
Project description:Kinetic experiments on RNA labelling in vivo with [14C]orotate were performed with normal and 12h-regenerating rat liver. The specific radioactivities of nucleolar, nucleoplasmic and cytoplasmic rRNA species were analysed by computer according to the models of rRNA processing and nucleo-cytoplasmic migration given previously [Dudov, Dabeva, Hadjiolov & Todorov, Biochem. J. (1978) 171, 375-383]. The rates of formation and the half-lives of the individual pre-rRNA and rRNA species were determined in both normal and regenerating liver. The results show clearly that the formation of ribosomes in regenerating rat liver is post-transcriptionally activated: (a) the half-lives of all the nucleolar pre-rRNA and rRNA species are decreased by 30% on average; (b) the pre-rRNA processing is directed through the shortest maturation pathway: 45 S leads to 32 S + 18 S leads to 28 S; (c) the nucleo-cytoplasmic transfer of ribosomes is accelerated. As a consequence, the time for formation and appearance of ribosomes in the cytoplasm is shortened 1.5-fold for the large and 2-fold for the small subparticle. A new scheme for endonuclease cleavage of 45 S pre-rRNA is proposed, which explains the alterations in pre-rRNA processing in regenerating liver. Its validity for pre-rRNA processing in other eukaryotes is discussed. It is concluded that: (i) the control sites in the intranucleolar formation of 28 S and 18 S rRNA are the immediate precursor of 28 S rRNA, 32 S pre-rRNA, and the primary pre-rRNA, 45 S pre-rRNA, respectively; (ii) the limiting step in the post-transcriptional stages of ribosome biogenesis is the pre-rRNA maturation.
Project description:Effects of partial hepatectomy on protein synthesis were defined in liver and extra-hepatic tissues of the mature rat. Studies were performed at 24 h and 48 h after surgery in the absence of the dietary input. Protein accretion in the regenerating liver preceded mitosis, but was accompanied by increases in RNA content and fractional rates of protein synthesis (ks). A positive relationship existed between protein-synthetic capacity and ks over the period of study. Increases in ks also bore a positive relationship with increases in translational efficiency. Extra-hepatic tissues showing decreased rates of protein synthesis after liver resection included kidney, striated muscles and brain. Effects were observed mainly at 24 h after surgery and resulted from decreased translational efficiency. Partial hepatectomy increased ks in diaphragm and tibia at both 24 h and 48 h after surgery. In diaphragm, there was net protein accretion, and, as in liver, increases in ks were due to increases in both protein-synthetic capacity and efficiency.