The control of tricarboxylate-cycle oxidations in blowfly flight muscle. The oxidized and reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide content of flight muscle and isolated mitochondria, the adenosine triphosphate and adenosine diphosphate content of mitochondria, and the energy status of the mitochondria during controlled respiration.
ABSTRACT: 1. A study is presented of the mitochondrial NADH content during controlled (state 4) and active (state 3) pyruvate oxidation by blowfly flight-muscle mitochondria. The results confirm and extend those of an earlier study (Hansford, 1972), which indicated an increased reduction in state 3. Nicotinamide nucleotide is normally highly oxidized during state 4; however, there can be substantial reduction in the presence of carnitine or high concentrations of proline, or on lengthy incubation in the presence of either of the systems used to generate intramitochondrial tricarboxylate-cycle intermediate. 2. Omission of phosphate leads to substantial reduction and this can be reversed by adding phosphate or acetate. 3. Estimations of NAD-+ and NADH in fly thoraces show a marked increase in NADH on flight, tending to corroborate the results of mitochondrial experiments and testifying to the importance of dehydrogenase activation in this tissue. 4. Determination of intramitochondrial adenine nucleotides reveals a total of 4-5 nmol/mg of protein, and an ADP content of less than 0.1 nmol/mg during state 4 oxidation of pyruvate and proline. ATP content is found to increase slowly during state 4 and this is attributed to the net phosphorylation of AMP. 5. The uncoupling agent carbonyl cyanide p=trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone leads to hydrolysis of some, but not all, of the mitochondrial ATP. Studies of mitochondrial ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase), measured by external pH change, show that it is inactive unless the mitochondria are allowed to respire for several minutes in state 4 in the presence of phosphate before the addition of carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone. It is suggested that phosphate uptake is essential for maximal ATPase activity. 6. Studies of the fluorescence of the fluorochrome 8-anilino-1-naphthalensulphonic acid suggest that the energy status of the mitochondrion is high during state 4-pyruvate oxidattion, and decrease slightly in state 3. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Project description:1. High rates of state 3 pyruvate oxidation are dependent on high concentrations of inorganic phosphate and a predominance of ADP in the intramitochondrial pool of adenine nucleotides. The latter requirement is most marked at alkaline pH values, where ATP is profoundly inhibitory. 2. Addition of CaCl(2) during state 4, state 3 (Chance & Williams, 1955) or uncoupled pyruvate oxidation causes a marked inhibition in the rate of oxygen uptake when low concentrations of mitochondria are employed, but may lead to an enhancement of state 4 oxygen uptake when very high concentrations of mitochondria are used. 3. These properties are consistent with the kinetics of the NAD-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 18.104.22.168) from this tissue, which is activated by isocitrate, citrate, ADP, phosphate and H(+) ions, and inhibited by ATP, NADH and Ca(2+). 4. Studies of the redox state of NAD and cytochrome c show that addition of ADP during pyruvate oxidation causes a slight reduction, whereas addition during glycerol phosphate oxidation causes a ;classical' oxidation. Nevertheless, it is concluded that pyruvate oxidation is probably limited by the respiratory chain in state 4 and by the NAD-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase in state 3. 5. The oxidation of 2-oxoglutarate by swollen mitochondria is also stimulated by high concentrations of ADP and phosphate, and is not uncoupled by arsenate.
Project description:1. With freshly isolated blowfly mitochondria 38% of the intramitochondrial adenine nucleotide was present as AMP. 2. On incubation with oxidizable substrates the AMP and ADP concentrations fell and that of ATP rose; with pyruvate together with proline the ATP concentration reached its maximum value at 6min; with glycerol phosphate the phosphorylation of endogenous nucleotide was more rapid. 3. Addition of the uncoupling agent carbonyl cyanide phenylhydrazone caused a rapid fall of ATP and a parallel rise in ADP, then ADP was converted into AMP. 4. This was in contrast with rat liver mitochondria endogenous AMP concentrations, which were always lower than those of blowfly mitochondria and changed little under different metabolic conditions. 5. Evidence is presented that adenylate kinase (EC 22.214.171.124) has a dual distribution in blowfly mitochondria, a part being located in the matrix space and a part in the space between the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes, as in liver and other mitochondria. 6. The possible regulatory role of changing AMP concentrations in the mitochondrial matrix was investigated. Partially purified pyruvate carboxylase (EC 126.96.36.199) and citrate synthase (EC 188.8.131.52) were inhibited 30% by 2mm-AMP, whereas pyruvate dehydrogenase (EC 184.108.40.206) was unaffected. 7. AMP activated the NAD(+)-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 220.127.116.11) activity of blowfly mitochondria in the absence of ADP, but in the presence of ADP, AMP caused inhibition. 8. It is suggested that AMP may exert a controlling effect on the oxidative activity of blowfly mitochondria.
Project description:Submitochondrial particles from bovine heart in which NADH dehydrogenase is reduced by either addition of NADH and rotenone or by reversed electron transfer generate 0.9 +/- 0.1 nmol of O2-/min per mg of protein at pH 7.4 and at 30 degrees C. When NADH is used as substrate, rotenone, antimycin and cyanide increase O2- production. In NADH- and antimycin-supplemented submitochondrial particles, rotenone has a biphasic effect: it increases O2- production at the NADH dehydrogenase and it inhibits O2- production at the ubiquinone-cytochrome b site. The generation of O2- by the rotenone, the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide rho-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone and oligomycin at concentrations similar to those required to inhibit energy-dependent succinate-NAD reductase. Cyanide did not affect O2- generation at the NADH dehydrogenase, but inhibited O2- production at the ubiquinone-cytochrome b site. Production of O2- at the NADH dehydrogenase is about 50% of the O2- generation but the ubiquinone-cytochrome b area at pH 7.4. Additivity of the two mitochondrial sites of O2- generation was observed over the pH range from 7.0 to 8.8. AN O2- -dependent autocatalytic process that requires NADH, submitochondrial particles and adrenaline is described.
Project description:In isolated plant mitochondria the oxidation of both succinate and exogenous NADH responded in the expected manner to the addition of ADP or uncoupling agents, and the uncoupled rate of respiration was often in excess of the rate obtained in the presence of ADP. However, the oxidation of NAD+-linked substrates responded in a much more complex manner to the addition of ADP or uncoupling agents such as carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone to mitochondria oxidizing pyruvate plus malate failed to result in a reliable stimulation; this uncoupled rate could be stimulated by adding AMP or ADP in the presence of oligomycin or bongkrekic acid. Spectrophometric measurements showed that the addition of AMP or ADP resulted in the simultaneous oxidation of endogenous nicotinamide nucleotide and the reduction of cytochrome b. ADP was only effective in bringing about these changes in redox state in the presence of Mg2+ whereas AMP did not require Mg2+. It was concluded that AMP activated the flow of electrons from endogenous nicotinamide nucleotide to cytochrome b, possible at the level of the internal NADH dehydrogenase.
Project description:We report the isolation of mitochondria from the endosperm of castor beans (Ricinus communis). These mitochondria oxidized succinate, external NADH, malate and pyruvate with respiratory-control and ADP/O ratios consistent with those found previously with mitochondria from other plant sources. The mitochondria exhibited considerable sensitivity to the electron-transport-chain inhibitors antimycin A and cyanide when oxidizing succinate and external NADH. Pyruvate-dependent O2 uptake was relatively insensitive to these inhibitors, although the residual O2 uptake could be inhibited by salicylhydroxamic acid. We conclude that a cyanide-insensitive alternative terminal oxidase is functional in these mitochondria. However, electrons from the succinate dehydrogenase or external NADH dehydrogenase seem to have no access to this pathway. There is little interconnection between the salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive and cyanide-sensitive pathways of electron transport. alpha-Cyanocinnamate and its analogues, compound UK5099 [alpha-cyano-beta-(1-phenylindol-3-yl)acrylate] and alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate, were all found to be potent non-competitive inhibitors of pyruvate oxidation in castor-bean mitochondria. The accumulation of pyruvate by castor-bean mitochondria was determined by using a silicone-oil-centrifugation technique. The accumulation was shown to observe Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a Km for pyruvate of 0.10 mM and a Vmax. of 0.95 nmol/min per mg of mitochondrial protein. However, the observed rates of pyruvate accumulation were insufficient to account for the pyruvate oxidation rates found in the oxygen-electrode studies. We were able to demonstrate that this is due to the immediate export of the accumulated radiolabel in the form of malate and citrate. Compound UK5099 inhibited the accumulation of [2-14C]pyruvate by castor-bean mitochondria at concentrations similar to those required to inhibit pyruvate oxidation.
Project description:Diamide is reduced by mitochondria utilizing endogenous substrates with Vmax. 20nmol/min per mg of protein and Km 75micrometer. The reaction is inhibited by: (a) thiol-blocking reagents (N-ethylmaleimide, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, mersalyl and 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol);(b) respiratory inhibitors (arsenicals, malonate and antimycin, but not cyanide or oligomycin; inhibition by antimycin is reversed by ATP); (c) uncouplers (carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, 2,4-dinitrophenol and valinomycin with K+; inhibition by the first of these uncouplers is not reversed by cyanide); (d) reagents affecting energy conservation (Ca2+, increasing pH, phosphate; phosphate inhibition is augmented by catalytic ADP or ATP and augmentation is abolished by respiratory inhibitors). Concentrations of mitochondrial glutathione are high when diamide reduction is uninhibited, but low after adding one of the above inhibitors such that the reduction rate is roughly proportional to the glutathione concentration. Endogenous ATP concentrations are lower in the presence of diamide than without, but the difference is abolished by respiratory inhibitors. With oligomycin added, however, ATP concentrations are higher in the presence of diamide and this positive increment is decreased by antimycin, N-ethylmaleimide and malonate. In the presence of diamide and an uncoupler, the mitochondrial glutathione content does not fall if various reducible substrates are present, although the inhibition of diamide reduction is not relieved. Some of these substrates prevent the fall in reduced glutathione concentration found with diamide and phosphate. They also relieve the inhibition of diamide reduction and the relief is sensitive to butylmalonate. The inhibition of diamide reduction by N-ethylmaleimide, mersalyl or p-hydroxymercuribenzoate is not relieved by reducible substrates, but the latter mitigate the fall in the concentration of glutathione. Inhibitors of carriers of tricarboxylic acid-cycle intermediates also inhibit reduction of diamide. The reduced glutathione concentration remains high when they are added singly, but falls when two of them are combined. It is proposed that diamide may enter the matrix as a protonated adduct formed with the thiol groups of mitochondrial carriers and then be reduced in the matrix by glutathione, which is regenerated via NADH, energy-dependent transhydrogenase and NADP+-specific glutathione reductase. Some of the high-energy equivalents required for the transhydrogeneration may be generated by the substrate phosphorylation step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
Project description:1. The effects of succinate oxidation on pyruvate and also isocitrate oxidation by rat liver mitochondria were studied. 2. Succinate oxidation was without effect on pyruvate and isocitrate oxidation when respiration was maximally activated with ADP. 3. When respiration was partially inhibited by atractylate, succinate oxidation severely inhibited the oxidation of pyruvate and isocitrate. 4. This inhibitory effect of succinate was associated with a two- to three-fold increase in the reduction of mitochondrial NAD(+) but no change in the reduction of cytochrome b. 5. It is concluded that, in the partially energy-controlled state, respiration is more severely inhibited at the first phosphorylating site than at the other two. 6. The effects of succinate oxidation are compared with those of palmitoylcarnitine oxidation. It is concluded that a rapid flow of electrons directly into the respiratory chain at the level of cytochrome b is in itself inadequate to inhibit the oxidation of intramitochondrial NADH. 7. The effects of succinate oxidation on pyruvate oxidation were similar in rat heart and liver mitochondria.
Project description:The oxidation of L-glutamate and L-glutamine by enterocyte mitochondria was supported by malate. The stimulation of the rate of oxidation of the two amino acids by small amounts of added malate was 93% and 76% respectively. This could not be accounted for by the oxidation of the small amounts of malate added. Amino-oxyacetate added initially inhibited malate-supported oxidation of L-glutamate by 81% and that of L-glutamine by 38%. The inhibition of L-glutamate oxidation was partially reversed by L-glutamine. The dicarboxylate-carrier inhibitor 2-phenylsuccinate inhibited the malate-supported oxidation of both amino acids, but appeared to be slightly stimulatory to L-glutamine oxidation when added initially. The inhibition of L-glutamate oxidation was reversed by L-glutamine. The mitochondrial uncoupler FCCP (carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone) inhibited malate-supported oxidation of L-glutamate by 78% when added initially. The oxidation of L-glutamine was completely inhibited. However, the uncoupler stimulated the oxidation of both amino acids when added finally. Pyruvate inhibited aspartate synthesis when either of these amino acids was the main substrate, alanine being synthesized. There was no effect on O2 uptake. Mitochondria did not swell in KCl solution, but swelled rapidly in water. Mitochondrial swelling in potassium phosphate and potassium acetate solutions was activated by valinomycin and to a lesser extent by the further addition of FCCP. With potassium malate, swelling was mainly activated by phosphate. The swelling of enterocyte mitochondria in potassium glutamate was slow. In glutamine solution, mitochondrial swelling was greater and appeared to be enhanced by the initial presence of small amounts of phosphate.
Project description:1. It was previously shown [Passarella, Marra, Doonan & Quagliariello (1980) Biochem. J. 192, 649-658] that, when mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase from rat liver is incubated with sulphite-loaded mitochondria from the same source, uptake of the enzyme occurs, as judged by a fluorimetric assay of intramitochondrial enzyme activity. Confirmation of sequestration of the enzyme inside the organelles is provided by its proteinase-resistance after uptake. 2. Enzyme uptake into mitochondria is inhibited by enzyme treatment with mersalyl at concentrations that do not affect its catalytic activity. 3. Enzyme uptake is energy-dependent, as shown by inhibition of the process by carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone and by antimycin. ATP and oligomycin, on the other hand, both stimulate the process, but stimulation by ATP is inhibited by oligomycin. These results suggest that uptake depends on maintenance of transmembrane ion gradient rather than direct ATP involvement. 4. Measurements of delta psi by means of the 'redistribution signal' probe safranine suggest no dependence of malate dehydrogenase uptake on membrane potential. 5. Comparison of the effects of the ionophores valinomycin, nonactin, gramicidin and nigericin shows that uptake depends on maintenance of a transmembrane pH gradient.
Project description:An exo-NADH oxidase system [NADH oxidase system (external)], effecting intact-mitochondrial oxidation of added NADH, was studied in pigeon heart mitochondria. Breast muscle mitochondria showed an equal specific activity of the system. The exo-NADH oxidase activity (200 micron mol of NADH/min per g of protein) equalled two-thirds of the State-3 respiratory activity with malate + pyruvate or one-seventh of the total NADH oxidase activity of heart mitochondria. The activity was not caused by use of proteinase in the preparation procedure and all measured parameters were very reproducible from preparation to preparation. The activity is therefore most likely not due to preparation artefacts. The exo-NADH oxidase system is present in all mitochondria in the preparation and is not confined to a subpopulation. The system reduced all cytochrome anaerobically and direct interaction with all cytochrome oxidase was demonstrated by interdependent cyanide inhibition. The exo-NADH oxidase system seems to be located at the outer surface of the mitochondrial inner membrane because, for instance, only this system was rapidly inhibited by rotenone, and ferricyanide could act as acceptor in the rotenone-inhibited system (reductase activity = 20 times oxidase activity). In the presence of antimycin, added NADH reduced only a part of the b-cytochromes. Freezing and thawing the mitochondria, one of the methods used for making them permeable to NADH, destroyed this functional compartmentation. The characteristics of the exo-NADH oxidase system and the malate-aspartate shuttle are compared and the evidence for the shuttle's function in heart in vivo is re-evaluated. It is proposed that oxidation of cytoplasmic NADH in red muscles primarily is effected by the exo-NADH oxidase system.