High total histone deoxyribonucleic acid ratios for rat liver nuclei.
ABSTRACT: The ratios of total histone to DNA for rat liver nuclei isolated by four methods as well as for calf liver nuclei isolated by one method were determined by obtaining the ratios of the total areas of the electrophoretic histone peaks for the liver nuclei to the corresponding total area given by a known amount of standard calf thymus histone. Ratios of total histone to DNA of approx. 2 for rat liver nuclei isolated at pH3.8 or 5.8 and for calf liver nuclei isolated at pH3.8 were confirmed twice by the above procedure and also by direct measurement, by the method of Lowry et al. (1951), of histone extracted in 0.2m-H(2)SO(4). The histones of calf thymus, calf liver and rat liver were characterized by their amino acid compositions and by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis.
Project description:1. The interaction of polyamines and methylglyoxal bis(guanythydrazone) (1, 1'-[(methylethanediylidene)-dinitrilo]diguanidine) with isolated rat liver nuclei was investigated by electron microscopy. 2. At 4mM, putrescine was without effect; however, spermidine, spermine or methylglyoxal bis(guanythydrazone) resulted in dispersed chromatin and alterations in nucleolar structure. In addition, spermidine or methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) caused marked aggregation of interchromatin granules. 3. The DNA template property of calf thymus DNA was examined by using DNA polymerases from Escherichia coli, Micrococcus lysodeikticus and calf thymus in the presence of 0-5 mM-amine. 4. In the presence of DNA polymerase, spermine or methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) inhibited activity, whereas putrescine or spermidine had much less effect or in some cases stimulated [3H]dTMP incorporation. 5. Template activity which was inhibited by spermine or methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) could be partially restored by additional DNA or enzyme. 6. When mixed with calf thymus DNA, calf thymus histone inhibited template activity as measured with E. coli DNA polymerase. The template activity of such a 'histone-nucleate' could not be restored by putrescine, spermidine, spermine or methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone). 7. DNA template activity of isolated rat liver nuclei was tested by using E. coli DNA polymerase. None of the amines was able to increase the template activity of the nuclear DNA in vitro.
Project description:THE DNA POLYMERASES OF THE FOLLOWING EUKARYOTIC TISSUES WERE STUDIED: regenerating rat liver, normal rat liver, rat thymus, normal mouse liver and Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells. In all cases two main polymerase forms are observed, one of mol.wt. 200000, preferring denatured DNA to native calf thymus DNA primer, designated type I, and the other, designated type II, of mol.wt. 100000, showing a variable and slight preference for native calf thymus DNA primer. Some catalytic properties of these polymerases are described. Nuclei have been isolated from some of these tissues by using two different buffer systems. The ionic composition of the isolation medium is found to affect greatly the amounts and types of polymerase that bind to the nuclei, and also affects the kinetic properties of the polymerases. The way the polymerases and nuclei change properties as the ionic composition of the buffers is changed suggests that ionic effects may be a significant factor in the control of DNA synthesis in vivo. These ionic effects also explain much of the previous confusion over the localization of specific DNA polymerases.
Project description:A non-histone protein was obtained by extraction of nuclei derived from rat liver or thymus or ascites-hepatoma cells with 5% (w/v) HClO(4). Separation from histone F1 was achieved by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The purified component P1 was characterized and the formation of complexes with histone F1 and polylysine was studied.
Project description:1. The incorporation of (14)C-labelled amino acids into acid-extractable proteins from rat-liver and -thymus nuclei confirmed the existence of a protein component with a higher uptake than that into the major histone components. 2. This rapidly labelled component appeared to contain the thiol groups detectable in the acid extracts. 3. Histone f1 contained 1mol. of serine phosphate/mol. of mol.wt. of 42000-43000. 4. Phosphate was present in other components of the 50mm-hydrochloric acid extract from liver and thymus nuclei, and was probably associated with the thiol-containing component. 5. The difference in amino acid uptake into the histones of diffuse and dense chromatin was confirmed. Dense chromatin was found to have a higher proportion of disulphide than did diffuse chromatin.
Project description:The phosphate content of rat thymus histones was determined. As expected for a replicating tissue, histones 1 and 2B were more phosphorylated and had higher 32P uptakes than did histones from resting liver nuclei; the other histones all showed 32P uptake, but the phosphate content and uptake of histone 2A was about half that for liver histone 2A. When thymus nuclei were incubated in a slightly hypo-osmotic medium, non-histone proteins and phosphorylated histones were released into solution; this was enhanced if ATP was present in the medium. [gamma-32P]ATP was incorporated into non-histone proteins, including protein P1, and into the ADP-ribosylated form of histone 1; negligible 32P was incprporated into the other, bound, histones. Histones 1 and 2B added to the incubation medium were extensively, and histones 2A and 4 slightly, phosphorylated. Histones released by increasing the ionic strength of the medium were phosphorylated. Added lysozyme and cytochrome c were neither bound nor phosphorylated, but added non-histone protein P1 was phosphorylated, causing other histones to be released from the nuclei, especially histones 2A and 3. The released histones were phosphorylated. gamma-Irradiation decreased 32P uptake into the non-ADP-ribosylated histones 1 and 4; phosphorylation of histone 1 in vitro was unaffected. The importance of non-histone proteins, ATP availability and nuclear protein kinases to the control of histone phosphorylation in vivo is discussed.
Project description:When rat liver nuclei were incubated with [adenine-3H]NAD, besides histone 1, histone 2A and especially histone 2B accepted 3H radioactivity. 3H radioactivity was also found on the non-histone proteins and on the small amounts of histones 1 and 3 released into the supernatant during incubation. [14C]Adenine uptake in vivo by liver and thymus nuclei showed radioactivity in histones 1 and 3. After digestion with Pronase and leucine aminopeptidase 14C- or 32P-labelled histone 3 released a serine phosphate-containing nucleotide, which on acid hydrolysis yielded ADP-ribose and serine phosphate. Serine phosphate was also found in the material from the nucleotide peaks from histones 2A and 2B. ADP-ribosylated histones 1 and 3 were more easily released from nuclei than their unmodified forms and showed higher [32P]Pi and [3H]lysine uptakes in vivo [Ord & Stocken (1975) FEBS Meet. Proc. 34, 113-125].
Project description:1. Histones were examined from five human tissues, namely thymus, liver, placenta, bronchial tumour and peripheral leucocytes. 2. The four main histone fractions [F1, F2(b), F2(a), and F3] were isolated and characterized. 3. The amino acid analyses, N-terminal group analyses and electrophoretic patterns were very similar to those of the corresponding fractions of calf thymus. 4. The yields of fractions F1 and F2(b) were high in human thymus, in human bronchial tumour and in some preparations of normal human leucocytes. 5. It is concluded that the pattern of nuclear histones found in lower forms of life was conserved during the evolutionary process leading to man.
Project description:The high-mobility-group (HMG) non-histone chromosomal proteins from calf thymus, liver, spleen and kidney were extracted, and fractionated by CM-Sephadex chromatography and trichloroacetic acid precipitation. The isolated proteins HMG 1, HMG 2 and HMG 17 from the tissues were compared by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing and amino acid analysis. The results show that the three proteins are very similar in the tissues studied, implying a lack of tissue specificity.
Project description:Four subfractions of histone F1 from rat thymus were obtained by preparative polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. These subfractions are closely related in primary structure but show marked differences in radioactivity when derived from rat thymus nuclei labelled in vitro with [(32)P]phosphate.
Project description:1. The histones of trout liver were examined and four main fractions (f1, f2b, f2a and f3) were isolated and characterized. 2. The amino acid analyses, N-terminal group analyses and starch-gel electrophoresis patterns are remarkably similar to the corresponding fractions of calf thymus. 3. The group f2a was also separated into two subfractions, f2al and f2a2, which are similar to those of calf thymus.