Calcium and magnesium ions as effectors of adipose-tissue pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase.
ABSTRACT: The metal-ion requirement of extracted and partially purified pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase from rat epididymal fat-pads was investigated with pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase [(32)P]phosphate as substrate. The enzyme required Mg(2+) (K(m) 0.5mm) and was activated additionally by Ca(2+) (K(m) 1mum) or Sr(2+) and inhibited by Ni(2+). Isolated fat-cell mitochondria, like liver mitochondria, possess a respiration- or ATP-linked Ca(2+)-uptake system which is inhibited by Ruthenium Red, by uncouplers when linked to respiration, and by oligomycin when linked to ATP. Depletion of fat-cell mitochondria of 75% of their total magnesium content and of 94% of their total calcium content by incubation with the bivalent-metal ionophore A23187 leads to complete loss of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase activity. Restoration of full activity required addition of both MgCl(2) and CaCl(2). SrCl(2) could replace CaCl(2) (but not MgCl(2)) and NiCl(2) was inhibitory. The metal-ion requirement of the phosphatase within mitochondria was thus equivalent to that of the extracted enzyme. Insulin activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in rat epididymal fat-pads was not accompanied by any measurable increase in the activity of the phosphatase in extracts of the tissue when either endogenous substrate or (32)P-labelled pig heart substrate was used for assay. The activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in fat-pads by insulin was inhibited by Ruthenium Red (which may inhibit cell and mitochondrial uptake of Ca(2+)) and by MnCl(2) and NiCl(2) (which may inhibit cell uptake of Ca(2+)). It is concluded that Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) are cofactors for pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase and that an increased mitochondrial uptake of Ca(2+) might contribute to the activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase by insulin.
Project description:1. Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase activity in rat epididymal fat-pads was measured by using pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase [32P]phosphate. About 80% was found to be extramitochondrial and therefore probably not directly concerned with the regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity. The extramitochondrial activity was sensitive to activation by Ca2+, but perhaps less sensitive than the mitochondrial activity.
Project description:1. Isolated rat epididymal fat-cell mitochondria showed an inverse relationship between ATP content and pyruvate dehydrogenase activity consistent with competitive inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase by ADP. At constant ATP concentration pyruvate rapidly activated pyruvate dehydrogenase in fat-cell mitochondria, an observation consistent with inhibition of fat-cell pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase by pyruvate. Pyruvate dehydrogenase in fat-cell mitochondria was also activated by nicotinate (100mum) and by extramitochondrial Na(+) (replacing K(+)) but not by ouabain or insulin. 2. In rat epididymal fat-pads incubated in vitro pyruvate dehydrogenase was activated by addition of insulin in the absence of substrate or in the presence of glucose (10mm) or fructose (10mm). Glucose and fructose activated the dehydrogenase in the absence or in the presence of insulin, and pyruvate also activated in the absence of insulin. It is concluded that extracellular glucose, fructose and pyruvate may activate the dehydrogenase by raising intracellular pyruvate and that insulin may activate the dehydrogenase by some other mechanism. 3. Ouabain (300mum) and medium in which K(+) was replaced by Na(+), activated pyruvate dehydrogenase in epididymal fat-pads. Prostaglandin E(1) (1mug/ml), 5-methylpyrazole-3-carboxylate (10mum) and nicotinate (10mum), which are as effective as insulin as inhibitors of lipolysis and which like insulin lower tissue concentration of cyclic AMP (adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate), did not activate pyruvate dehydrogenase. Higher concentrations of prostaglandin E(1) (10mug/ml) and nicotinate (100mum) produced some activation of the dehydrogenase. 4. It is concluded that the activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase by insulin is not due to the antilipolytic effect of the hormone and that the action of insulin in lowering adipose-cell concentrations of cyclic AMP does not afford an obvious explanation for the effect of the hormone on pyruvate dehydrogenase. The possibility that the effects of insulin, ouabain and K(+)-free medium may be mediated by Ca(2+) is discussed.
Project description:1. Monochloroacetate, dichloroacetate, trichloroacetate, difluoroacetate, 2-chloropropionate, 2,2'-dichloropropionate and 3-chloropropionate were inhibitors of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. Dichloroacetate was also shown to inhibit rat heart pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. The inhibition was mainly non-competitive with respect to ATP. The concentration required for 50% inhibition was approx. 100mum for the three chloroacetates, difluoroacetate and 2-chloropropionate and 2,2'-dichloropropionate. Dichloroacetamide was not inhibitory. 2. Dichloroacetate had no significant effect on the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase when this was maximally activated by Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). 3. Dichloroacetate did not increase the catalytic activity of purified pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase. 4. Dichloroacetate, difluoroacetate, 2-chloropropionate and 2,2'-dichloropropionate increased the proportion of the active (dephosphorylated) form of pyruvate dehydrogenase in rat heart mitochondria with 2-oxoglutarate and malate as respiratory substrates. Similar effects of dichloroacetate were shown with kidney and fat-cell mitochondria. Glyoxylate, monochloroacetate and dichloroacetamide were inactive. 5. Dichloroacetate increased the proportion of active pyruvate dehydrogenase in the perfused rat heart, isolated rat diaphragm and rat epididymal fat-pads. Difluoroacetate and dichloroacetamide were also active in the perfused heart, but glyoxylate, monochloroacetate and trichloroacetate were inactive. 6. Injection of dichloroacetate into rats starved overnight led within 60 min to activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in extracts from heart, psoas muscle, adipose tissue, kidney and liver. The blood concentration of lactate fell within 15 min to reach a minimum after 60 min. The blood concentration of glucose fell after 90 min and reached a minimum after 120 min. There was no significant change in plasma glycerol concentration. 7. In epididymal fatpads dichloroacetate inhibited incorporation of (14)C from [U-(14)C]glucose, [U-(14)C]fructose and from [U-(14)C]lactate into CO(2) and glyceride fatty acid. 8. It is concluded that the inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase by dichloroacetate may account for the activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate oxidation which it induces in isolated rat heart and diaphragm muscles, subject to certain assumptions as to the distribution of dichloroacetate across the plasma membrane and the mitochondrial membrane. 9. It is suggested that activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase by dichloroacetate could contribute to its hypoglycaemic effect by interruption of the Cori and alanine cycles. 10. It is suggested that the inhibitory effect of dichloroacetate on fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissue may involve an additional effect or effects of the compound.
Project description:1. The effects of the protein phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and microcystin LR on the regulation by insulin of pyruvate dehydrogenase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase have been studied in rat epididymal fat-pads and isolated cells. These inhibitors both completely blocked the phosphatase activity (against phosphorylase a) present in extracts of epididymal fat-pads, with half-maximal effects in the nanomolar range. 2. Okadaic acid treatment of pads and cells lowered the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase assayed in tissue extracts, both before and after treatment of the extracts with the activator, citrate. Further, okadaic acid treatment abolished the 2-3-fold difference in activity observed between extracts from control and insulin-treated tissues, assayed without prior treatment with citrate. 3. Incubation of pads with [32P]Pi, sufficient to label the intracellular pool of ATP, demonstrated that okadaic acid increased the overall phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase on a number of distinct sites, as judged by two-dimensional mapping of tryptic peptides. These included the 'I-peptide' [Brownsey & Denton (1982) Biochem. J. 202, 77-86], the phosphorylation of which may be associated with the stimulation of the activity of the enzyme by insulin, as well as inhibitory phosphorylation sites. 4. Incubation with 1 microM-okadaic acid had no effect on the basal level of active pyruvate dehydrogenase apparent after tissue extraction, but abolished the 2-3-fold increase in this parameter which was elicited by insulin in the absence of okadaic acid. However, okadaic acid treatment did not affect the persistent increase in active pyruvate dehydrogenase levels which was apparent in mitochondria subsequently isolated from insulin-treated pads and re-incubated with an oxidizable substrate. It is concluded that the effects of okadaic acid are exerted through changes in metabolite concentrations rather than some direct action on the signalling pathway whereby insulin stimulates pyruvate dehydrogenase. 5. Microcystin LR did not mimic the effects of okadaic acid on intact cells and pads described above.
Project description:1. A method is described for extracting separately mitochondrial and extramitochondrial enzymes from fat-cells prepared by collagenase digestion from rat epididymal fat-pads. The following distribution of enzymes has been observed (with the total activities of the enzymes as units/mg of fat-cell DNA at 25 degrees C given in parenthesis). Exclusively mitochondrial enzymes: glutamate dehydrogenase (1.8), NAD-isocitrate dehydrogenase (0.5), citrate synthase (5.2), pyruvate carboxylase (3.0); exclusively extramitochondrial enzymes: glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (5.8), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (5.2), NADP-malate dehydrogenase (11.0), ATP-citrate lyase (5.1); enzymes present in both mitochondrial and extramitochondrial compartments: NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (3.7), NAD-malate dehydrogenase (330), aconitate hydratase (1.1), carnitine acetyltransferase (0.4), acetyl-CoA synthetase (1.0), aspartate aminotransferase (1.7), alanine aminotransferase (6.1). The mean DNA content of eight preparations of fat-cells was 109mug/g dry weight of cells. 2. Mitochondria showing respiratory control ratios of 3-6 with pyruvate, about 3 with succinate and P/O ratios of approaching 3 and 2 respectively have been isolated from fat-cells. From studies of rates of oxygen uptake and of swelling in iso-osmotic solutions of ammonium salts, it is concluded that fat-cell mitochondria are permeable to the monocarboxylic acids, pyruvate and acetate; that in the presence of phosphate they are permeable to malate and succinate and to a lesser extent oxaloacetate but not fumarate; and that in the presence of both malate and phosphate they are permeable to citrate, isocitrate and 2-oxoglutarate. In addition, isolated fat-cell mitochondria have been found to oxidize acetyl l-carnitine and, slowly, l-glycerol 3-phosphate. 3. It is concluded that the major means of transport of acetyl units into the cytoplasm for fatty acid synthesis is as citrate. Extensive transport as glutamate, 2-oxoglutarate and isocitrate, as acetate and as acetyl l-carnitine appears to be ruled out by the low activities of mitochondrial aconitate hydratase, mitochondrial acetyl-CoA hydrolyase and carnitine acetyltransferase respectively. Pathways whereby oxaloacetate generated in the cytoplasm during fatty acid synthesis by ATP-citrate lyase may be returned to mitochondria for further citrate synthesis are discussed. 4. It is also concluded that fat-cells contain pathways that will allow the excess of reducing power formed in the cytoplasm when adipose tissue is incubated in glucose and insulin to be transferred to mitochondria as l-glycerol 3-phosphate or malate. When adipose tissue is incubated in pyruvate alone, reducing power for fatty acid, l-glycerol 3-phosphate and lactate formation may be transferred to the cytoplasm as citrate and malate.
Project description:The sensitivity of rat epididymal-adipose-tissue pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase, NAD+-isocitrate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase to Ca2+ ions was studied both in mitochondrial extracts and within intact coupled mitochondria. It is concluded that all three enzymes may be activated by increases in the intramitochondrial concentration of Ca2+ and that the distribution of Ca2+ across the mitochondrial inner membrane is determined, as in rat heart mitochondria, by the relative activities of a uniporter (which transports Ca2+ into mitochondria and is inhibited by Mg2+ and Ruthenium Red) and an antiporter (which allows Ca2+ to leave mitochondria in exchange for Na+ and is inhibited by diltiazem). Previous studies with incubated fat-cell mitochondria have indicated that the increases in the amount of active non-phosphorylated pyruvate dehydrogenase in rat epididymal tissue exposed to insulin are the result of activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase. In the present studies, no changes in the activity of the phosphatase were found in extracts of mitochondria, and thus it seemed likely that insulin altered the intramitochondrial concentration of some effector of the phosphatase. Incubation of rat epididymal adipose tissue with medium containing a high concentration of CaCl2 (5mM) was found to increase the active form of pyruvate dehydrogenase to much the same extent as insulin. However, the increases caused by high [Ca2+] in the medium were blocked by Ruthenium Red, whereas those caused by insulin were not. Moreover, whereas the increases resulting from both treatments persisted during the preparation of mitochondria and their subsequent incubation in the absence of Na+, only the increases caused by treatment of the tissue with insulin persisted when the mitochondria were incubated in the presence of Na+ under conditions where the mitochondria are largely depleted of Ca2+. It is concluded that insulin does not act by increasing the intramitochondrial concentration of Ca2+. This conclusion was supported by finding no increases in the activities of the other two Ca2+-responsive intramitochondrial enzymes (NAD+-isocitrate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) in mitochondria prepared from insulin-treated tissue compared with controls.
Project description:1. The conversion of inactive (phosphorylated) pyruvate dehydrogenase complex into active (dephosphorylated) complex by pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase is inhibited in heart mitochondria prepared from alloxan-diabetic or 48h-starved rats, in mitochondria prepared from acetate-perfused rat hearts and in mitochondria prepared from normal rat hearts incubated with respiratory substrates for 6 min (as compared with 1 min). 2. This conclusion is based on experiments with isolated intact mitochondria in which the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase reaction was inhibited by pyruvate or ATP depletion (by using oligomycin and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone), and in experiments in which the rate of conversion of inactive complex into active complex by the phosphatase was measured in extracts of mitochondria. The inhibition of the phosphatase reaction was seen with constant concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ (activators of the phosphatase). The phosphatase reaction in these mitochondrial extracts was not inhibited when an excess of exogenous pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate was used as substrate. It is concluded that this inhibition is due to some factor(s) associated with the substrate (pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate complex) and not to inhibition of the phosphatase as such. 3. This conclusion was verified by isolating pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate complex, free of phosphatase, from hearts of control and diabetic rats an from heart mitochondria incubed for 1min (control) or 6min with respiratory substrates. The rates of re-activation of the inactive complexes were then measured with preparations of ox heart or rat heart phosphatase. The rates were lower (relative to controls) with inactive complex from hearts of diabetic rats or from heart mitochondria incubated for 6min with respiratory substrates. 4. The incorporation of 32Pi into inactive complex took 6min to complete in rat heart mitocondria. The extent of incorporation was consistent with three or four sites of phosphorylation in rat heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. 5. It is suggested that phosphorylation of sites additional to an inactivating site may inhibit the conversion of inactive complex into active complex by the phosphatase in heart mitochondria from alloxan-diabetic or 48h-starved rats or in mitochondria incubated for 6min with respiratory substrates.
Project description:The effects of Mg2+ on the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase within intact mitochondria prepared from control and insulin-treated rat epididymal adipose tissue was explored by incubating the mitochondria in medium containing the ionophore A23187. The apparent Ka for Mg2+ was approximately halved in the mitochondria derived from insulin-treated tissue in both the absence and the presence of Ca2+. In this system, the major effect of Ca2+ was also to decrease the apparent Ka for Mg2+, rather than to change the Vmax. of the phosphatase. Damuni, Humphreys & Reed [(1984) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 124, 95-99] have reported that spermine activates ox kidney pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase. Studies were carried out on phosphatase from pig heart and rat epididymal adipose tissue which confirm and extend this observation. The major effect of spermine is shown to be a decrease in the Ka for Mg2+, which is apparent in both the presence and the absence of Ca2+. Spermine did not affect the sensitivity of the phosphatase to Ca2+ at saturating concentrations of Mg2+. Other polyamines tested were not as effective as spermine. No alteration in the maximum activity or Mg2+-sensitivity of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase was apparent in extracts of mitochondria from insulin-treated tissue. The close similarity of the effects of spermine and the changes in kinetic properties of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase within mitochondria from insulin-treated adipose tissue suggests that insulin may activate pyruvate dehydrogenase by increasing the concentration of spermine within the mitochondria. However, it is concluded that insulin is more likely to alter the interaction of the pyruvate dehydrogenase system with some other polybasic intramitochondrial component whose action can be mimicked by spermine.
Project description:1. In epididymal adipose tissue synthesizing fatty acids from fructose in vitro, addition of insulin led to a moderate increase in fructose uptake, to a considerable increase in the flow of fructose carbon atoms to fatty acid, to a decrease in the steady-state concentration of lactate and pyruvate in the medium, and to net uptake of lactate and pyruvate from the medium. It is concluded that insulin accelerates a step in the span pyruvate-->fatty acid. 2. Mitochondria prepared from fat-cells exposed to insulin put out more citrate than non-insulin-treated controls under conditions where the oxaloacetate moiety of citrate was formed from pyruvate by pyruvate carboxylase and under conditions where it was formed from malate. This suggested that insulin treatment of fat-cells led to persistent activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase. 3. Insulin treatment of epididymal fat-pads in vitro increased the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase measured in extracts of the tissue even in the absence of added substrate; the activities of pyruvate carboxylase, citrate synthase, glutamate dehydrogenase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, NADP-malate dehydrogenase and NAD-malate dehydrogenase were not changed by insulin. 4. The effect of insulin on pyruvate dehydrogenase activity was inhibited by adrenaline, adrenocorticotrophic hormone and dibutyryl cyclic AMP (6-N,2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate). The effect of insulin was not reproduced by prostaglandin E(1), which like insulin may lower the tissue concentration of cyclic AMP (adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate) and inhibit lipolysis. 5. Adipose tissue pyruvate dehydrogenase in extracts of mitochondria is almost totally inactivated by incubation with ATP and can then be reactivated by incubation with 10mm-Mg(2+). In this respect its properties are similar to that of pyruvate dehydrogenase from heart and kidney where evidence has been given that inactivation and activation are catalysed by an ATP-dependent kinase and a Mg(2+)-dependent phosphatase. Evidence is given that insulin may act by increasing the proportion of active (dephosphorylated) pyruvate dehydrogenase. 6. Cyclic AMP could not be shown to influence the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase in mitochondria under various conditions of incubation. 7. These results are discussed in relation to the control of fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissue and the role of cyclic AMP in mediating the effects of insulin on pyruvate dehydrogenase.
Project description:Mitochondria from rat epididymal white adipose tissue were made permeable to small molecules by toluene treatment and were used to investigate the effects of Mg2+ and Ca2+ on the re-activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate by endogenous phosphatase. Re-activation of fully phosphorylated enzyme after addition of 0.18 mM-Mg2+ showed a marked lag of 5-10 min before a maximum rate of reactivation was achieved. Increasing the Mg2+ concentration to 1.8 mM (near saturating) or the addition of 100 microM-Ca2+ resulted in loss of the lag phase, which was also greatly diminished if pyruvate dehydrogenase was not fully phosphorylated. It is concluded that, within intact mitochondria, phosphatase activity is highly sensitive to the degree of phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase and that the major effect of Ca2+ may be to overcome the inhibitory effects of sites 2 and 3 on the dephosphorylation of site 1. Apparent K0.5 values for Mg2+ and Ca2+ were determined from the increases in pyruvate dehydrogenase activity observed after 5 min. The K0.5 for Mg2+ was diminished from 0.60 mM at less than 1 nM-Ca2+ to 0.32 mM at 100 microM-Ca2+; at 0.18 mM-Mg2+, the K0.5 for Ca2+ was 0.40 microM. Ca2+ had little or no effect at saturating Mg2+ concentrations. Since effects of Ca2+ are readily observed in intact coupled mitochondria, it follows that Mg2+ concentrations within mitochondria are sub-saturating for pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase and hence less than 0.5 mM.