Effect of glucagon on phenylalanine metabolism and phenylalanine-degrading enzymes in the rat.
ABSTRACT: Glucagon administered subcutaneously to rats for 10 days had no significant effect on liver phenylalanine hydroxylase activity, but induced liver dihydropteridine reductase more than twofold. In rats administered a phenylalanine load orally, glucagon treatment stimulated oxidation and depressed urinary phenylalanine excretion. These responses could not be related to an effect of glucagon on hepatic tyrosine-alpha-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity. Even in rats with phenylalanine hydroxylase activity depressed to 50% of control values by p-chlorophenylalanine administration, glucagon treatment increased the phenylalanine-oxidation rate substantially. Although hepatic phenylalanine-pyruvate aminotransferase was increased tenfold in glucagon-treated rats, glucagon treatment did not increase urinary excretion of phenylalanine transamination products by rats given a phenylalanine load. Glucagon treatment did not affect phenylalanine uptake by the gut or liver, or the liver content of phenylalanine hydroxylase cofactor. It is suggested that dihydropteridine reductase is the rate-limiting enzyme in phenylalanine degradation in the rat, and that glucagon may regulate the rate of oxidative phenylalanine metabolism in vivo by promoting indirectly the maintenance of the phenylalanine hydroxylase cofactor in its active, reduced state.
Project description:Phenylalanine hydroxylase was purified from crude extracts of human livers which show enzyme activity by usine two different methods: (a) affinity chromatography and (b) immunoprecipitation with an antiserum against highly purified monkey liver phenylalanine hydroxylase. Purified human liver phenylalanine hydroxylase has an estimated mol. wt. of 275 000, and subunit mol. wts. of approx. 50 000 and 49 000. These two molecular-weight forms are designated H and L subunits. On two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel under dissociating conditions, enzyme purified by the two methods revealed at least six subunit species, which were resolved into two size classes. Two of these species have a molecular weight corresponding to that of the H subunit, whereas the other four have a molecular weight corresponding to that of the L subunit. This evidence indicates that active phenylalanine hydroxylase purified from human liver is composed of a mixture of sununits which are different in charge and size. None of the subunit species could be detected in crude extracts of livers from two patients with classical phenylketonuria by either the affinity or the immunoprecipitation method. However, they were present in liver from a patient with malignant hyperphenylalaninaemia with normal activity of dihydropteridine reductase.
Project description:1. Tyrosine aminotransferase activity in the liver increased about fourfold after 9h, on exposure of rats to stress of low pressure. 2. The phenylalanine hydroxylase activity increased about 60% on exposure for 24h or more. 3. An environmental pressure decrease of about 0.033 MN/m2 is needed to increase the activity of tyrosine aminotransferase. 4. Adrenalectomy completely abolished the increase in activity of tyrosine aminotransferase obtained on exposure to low pressure. 5. Treatment with cycloheximide or actinomycin D prevented the increase in activity of tyrosine aminotransferase. 6. Treatment with cycloheximide at the early part of exposure to stress prevented the increase in activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase obtained after 24h.
Project description:Flux through, and maximal activities of, key enzymes of phenylalanine and tyrosine degradation were measured in liver cells prepared from adrenalectomized rats and from streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Adrenalectomy decreased the phenylalanine hydroxylase flux/activity ratio; this was restored by steroid treatment in vivo. Changes in the phosphorylation state of the hydroxylase may mediate these effects; there was no significant change in the maximal activity of the hydroxylase. Tyrosine metabolism was enhanced by adrenalectomy; this was not related to any change in maximal activity of the aminotransferase. Steroid treatment increased the maximal activity of the aminotransferase. Both acute (3 days) and chronic (10 days) diabetes were associated with increased metabolism of phenylalanine; insulin treatment in vivo did not reverse these changes. Although elevated hydroxylase protein concentration was a major factor, changes in the enzyme phosphorylation state may contribute to differences in phenylalanine degradation in the acute and chronic diabetic states. Tyrosine metabolism, increased by diabetes, was partially restored to normal by insulin treatment in vivo. These changes can, to a large extent, be interpreted in terms of changes in the maximal activity of the aminotransferase.
Project description:Phenylalanine is transported rapidly into, but is not concentrated by, liver cells. Glucagon increased flux through phenylalanine hydroxylase; a half-maximal response was obtained at 0.7 nM. Under control conditions, 0.2-0.3 mol of phosphate were incorporated per mol of subunit of the hydroxylase at steady state. Glucagon increased this incorporation of phosphate into the hydroxylase to a maximal value of approx. 0.6 mol of phosphate per subunit; a half-maximal response was obtained at 0.3 nM. Glucagon, added simultaneously with [32P]Pi to liver cells, inhibited incorporation of 32P into the enzyme. The effects of glucagon were reproduced with dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Changes in phosphorylation correlated closely with changes in flux through phenylalanine hydroxylase in cell incubations.
Project description:1. Methods are described for monitoring the metabolic flux through phenylalanine hydroxylase, the tyrosine catabolic pathway and phenylalanine: pyruvate transaminase in isolated liver cell incubations. 2. The relationship between hydroxylase flux and phenylalanine concentration is sigmoidal. 3. Glucagon increases hydroxylase activity at low, near-physiological, substrate concentrations only. The hormone does not affect the rate of formation of phenylpyruvate. 4. Experimental diabetes (for 10 days) increases phenylalanine catabolism, and this is further increased by glucagon. 5. These results are discussed in the light of the known mechanisms for control of phenylalanine hydroxylase activity in vitro.
Project description:Liver cells from fed Sprague-Dawley rats metabolized phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan at rates consistent with the known kinetic properties of the first enzymes of each pathway. Starvation of rats for 48 h did not increase the maximal activities of phenylalanine hydroxylase, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase and tyrosine aminotransferase in liver cell extracts, when results were expressed in terms of cellular DNA. Catabolic flux through the first two enzymes was unchanged; that through the aminotransferase was elevated relatively to enzyme activity. This is interpreted in terms of changes in the concentrations of 2-oxoglutarate and glutamate. Cells from tryptophan-treated animals exhibited significant increases in the catabolism of tyrosine and tryptophan, but not of phenylalanine. The activities of tyrosine aminotransferase and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase were also increased, although the changes in flux and enzyme activity did not correspond exactly. These results are discussed with reference to the control of aromatic amino acid catabolism in liver; the role of substrate concentration is emphasized.
Project description:A monoclonal antibody (PH 7), which recognizes the phosphorylated form of phenylalanine hydroxylase from human liver, has been used for the analysis of the enzyme in crude cell extracts from rat. In immunoblot analyses of rat liver cell extracts, the extent of binding of PH 7 closely correlates with the phosphorylation state of phenylalanine hydroxylase, as judged by [32P]Pi incorporation. These observations have made possible the rapid non-radioactive quantification of hormonal effects on phenylalanine hydroxylase phosphorylation state. In particular, the glucagon-dependent phosphorylation of phenylalanine hydroxylase in liver cells was investigated. Epidermal growth factor was shown to modulate this process. In addition, this technique was used to demonstrate, for the first time, that dibutyryl cyclic AMP, unlike the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, stimulates the phosphorylation of phenylalanine hydroxylase in isolated kidney tubules from rat.
Project description:The plasma concentration of phenylalanine and tyrosine decreases in normal rats during the first few postnatal days; subsequently, the concentration of phenylalanine remains more or less constant, whereas that of tyrosine exhibits a high peak on day 13. The basal concentrations of the two amino acids were not altered by injections of thyroxine or cortisol, except in 13-day-old rats, when an injection of cortisol decreased the concentration of tyrosine. In young rats (13-15 days old), treatment with cortisol increased the activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase in the liver (measured in vitro) and accelerated the metabolism of administered phenylalanine: the rate constant of the disappearance of phenylalanine from plasma and the initial increase in tyrosine in plasma correlated quantitatively with the activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase in the liver. In adult rats, the inhibition of this enzyme (attested by assay in vitro) by p-chlorophenylalanine resulted in a proportionate decrease in tyrosine formation from an injection of phenylalanine. However, the quantitative relationship between liver phenylalanine hydroxylase activity and phenylalanine metabolism within the group of young rats was different from that observed among adult rats.
Project description:Chronic (10-day) diabetes was associated with increased metabolic flux through phenylalanine hydroxylase in isolated liver cells. This flux was stimulated by 0.1 microM-glucagon, but not by 10 microM-noradrenaline; 0.1 microM-insulin affected neither basal nor glucagon-stimulated flux. The increased rate of phenylalanine hydroxylation in diabetes was accompanied by parallel increases in enzyme activity (as measured with artificial cofactor) and immunoreactive-enzyme-protein content. In contrast with total protein synthesis, which decreased, phenylalanine hydroxylase synthesis persisted at the control rate in cells from diabetic animals. These findings are discussed in relation to the hormonal regulation of the hydroxylase and the known metabolic consequences of chronic diabetes.
Project description:Tetrahydrobiopterin [(6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-L-biopterin, H(4)biopterin] is one of several cofactors of nitric oxide synthases (EC 220.127.116.11). Here we compared the action of N(5)-substituted derivatives on recombinant rat neuronal nitric oxide synthase with their effects on dihydropteridine reductase (EC 18.104.22.168) and phenylalanine hydroxylase (EC 22.214.171.124),the well-studied classical H(4)biopterin-dependent reactions. H(4)biopterin substituted at N(5) with methyl, hydroxymethyl, formyl and acetyl groups were used. Substitution at N(5) occurs at a position critical to the redox cycle of the cofactor in phenylalanine hydroxylase/dihydropteridine reductase. We also included N(2)'-methyl H(4)biopterin, a derivative substituted at a position not directly involved in redox cycling, as a control. As compared with N(5)-methyl H(4)biopterin, N(5)-formyl H(4)biopterin bound with twice the capacity but stimulated nitric oxide synthase to a lesser extent. Depending on the substituent used, N(5)-substituted derivatives were redox-active: N(5)-methyl- and N(5)-hydroxyl methyl H(4)biopterin, but not N(5)-formyl- and N(5)-acetyl H(4)biopterin, reduced 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol. N(5)-Substituted H(4)biopterin derivatives were not oxidized to products serving as substrates for dihydropteridine reductase and,depending on the substituent, were competitive inhibitors of phenylalanine hydroxylase: N(5)-methyl- and N(5)-hydroxymethyl H(4)biopterin inhibited phenylalanine hydroxylase, whereas N(5)-formyl- and N(5)-acetyl H(4)biopterin had no effect. Our data demonstrate differences in the mechanism of stimulation of phenylalanine hydroxylase and nitric oxide synthase by H(4)biopterin. They are compatible with a novel, non-classical, redox-active contribution of H(4)biopterin to the catalysis of the nitric oxide synthase reaction.