The relationship between vitamin D-stimulated calcium transport and intestinal calcium-binding protein in the chicken.
ABSTRACT: 1. The rapid stimulation of intestinal Ca(2+) transport observed in vitamin D-deficient chicks after receiving 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol has necessitated a re-evaluation of the correlation hitherto observed between this stimulation and the induction of calcium-binding protein synthesis. By 1h after a dose of 125ng of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, Ca(2+) transport is increased. This is at least 2h before calcium-binding protein can be detected immunologically and 1h before synthesis of the protein begins on polyribosomes, and thus the hormone stimulates Ca(2+) transport before calcium-binding-protein biosynthesis is induced. 2. The maximum increase in Ca(2+) transport observed after this dose of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (attained by 8h) is similar to that observed after 1.25-25mug of cholecalciferol, but the stimulation is only short-lived, in contrast with the effect observed after the vitamin. At later times after the hormone, however, when Ca(2+) transport has declined to its basal rate, the cellular content of calcium-binding protein remains elevated. 3. Calcium-binding protein is synthesized on free rather than membrane-bound polyribosomes, which implies that it is an intracellular protein. 4. Rachitic chicks require the presence of dietary calcium for maximum stimulation of calcium-binding protein production by cholecalciferol. 5. These results suggest that calcium-binding protein is an intracellular protein, and that its synthesis may be a consequence of the raised intracellular calcium content of the intestinal epithelial cells resulting from 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-stimulated Ca(2+) transport. We propose that calcium-binding-protein synthesis is necessary for maintaining the stimulated rate of Ca(2+) transport, which is initiated by other factors.
Project description:Stimulation of intestinal calcium transport by the hormone 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol appears to involve RNA transcriptions and the synthesis of new proteins. Although one of these proteins has been identified as calcium-binding protein, no RNA molecules specifically induced by the hormone in the nucleus have been identified. Nuclear RNA from intestine of vitamin D-deficient chicks before and at various time intervals after treatment with the hormone or cholecalciferol was tested for its ability to code for calcium-binding protein in a cell-free system. Calcium-binding-protein mRNA could only just be detected in the intestinal nuclei 2h after dosing with these steroids which is the same time that it was first observed in the polyribosomes. Thus 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol induces the production of new calcium-binding protein by stimulating the formation and rapid release from the nucleus of new mRNA molecules for this protein. Polyribosomal translation of the mRNA continued only as long as it was being synthesized, and the maximum rate of synthesis following a pulse dose of 125ng of the hormone was the same as that observed after prolonged stimulation with cholecalciferol. The possibility that other 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-dependent events may be occurring in the nucleus in the lag period between accumulation of the hormone in the intestine and the appearance of active calcium-binding-protein mRNA, and that these may ultimately control the synthesis of that mRNA, is discussed.
Project description:1. Cholecalciferol, radioactively labelled with both (14)C and (3)H, was administered weekly for 7 weeks to rats that had been depleted of vitamin D for 4 weeks before repletion with the radioactive vitamin. This permitted measurement of the steady-state effect on vitamin D metabolism of low-calcium and low-phosphorus regimens, as compared with a normal mineral intake. These dietary manoeuvres were carried out during the last 3 weeks of repletion. Cholecalciferol, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol were determined in plasma, intestine, kidney and bone. Ca(2+)-binding-protein content was measured in intestine and kidneys of comparable animals. 2. In rats on the low-calcium diets, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol concentration was elevated in plasma, bone, kidney and intestine, and intestinal Ca(2+)-binding protein was increased to over twice the concentration found in the control animals. 3. The low-phosphorus regimens led to a decrease in plasma phosphate and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in all tissues studied, for the latter to the point where it was undetectable in plasma and bone. Intestinal and renal concentrations of Ca(2+)-binding protein were unchanged in the low-phosphate-intake group and decreased in the very-low-phosphate-intake group. 4. It is concluded that in the rat, unlike in the chick, hypophosphataemia is not associated with a stimulation of the production of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or its expression in the synthesis of Ca(2+)-binding protein. Therefore the plasma phosphate concentration does not appear to be directly involved in the regulation of the functional metabolism of vitamin D.
Project description:1. The intranuclear distribution of cholecalciferol and its metabolites was studied in the intestine of rachitic chicks. 2. At high doses of cholecalciferol the nuclei contain the vitamin and its 25-hydroxy metabolite, but over 80% of this is localized on the nuclear membranes. The hormone, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, is found within the cell nuclei irrespective of the intake of cholecalciferol, but significant amounts could not be found with chromatin isolated free of nuclear membranes. 3. 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol is associated in the nucleus with an acidic protein. Since one of the actions of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol is to control the synthesis of mRNA for calcium-binding protein it was to be expected that the hormone would be bound to chromatin, as with the other steroid hormones. It is suggested that the hormone-receptor complex exists as part of an equilibrium mixture of the complex bound to the DNA and in a free form. 4. A protein extract of nuclei was obtained, which when incubated at 4 degrees C for 1h took up the 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. The nature of this binding was studied. 5. There appear to be two nuclear proteins able to bind the hormone one of which is the intestinal nuclear receptor. The binding sites on this protein are saturable with the hormone, have an association constant of 2x10(9)m(-1) and show a high chemical specificity for the 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. The number of nuclear binding sites for the hormone provided by this receptor is similar to the maximum intestinal hormone concentration so far observed. Its sedimentation coefficient is 3.5S, and is very close to that observed for the nuclear protein to which is attached the 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol formed in vivo from vitamin D. 6. The cytoplasmic protein has an association constant of 1x10(9)m(-1)and a sedimentation coefficient of 3.0S, but its relation with the nuclear receptor is not yet clear.
Project description:1,25-Dihydroxy[3H]cholecalciferol was converted into several more-polar metabolites by a cultured pig kidney cell line (LLC PK1). The production of metabolites was stimulated by pretreating the cells with unlabelled 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. A similar profile of metabolites was observed on high-pressure-liquid-chromatographic analysis of an extract from the kidneys of rats dosed intravenously with 1,25-dihydroxy[3H]cholecalciferol. Among the metabolites detected were 1,24,25-trihydroxycholecalciferol, 1,25-dihydroxy-24-oxocholecalciferol, 1,23,25-trihydroxy-24-oxocholecalciferol and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-26,23-lactone. The results are in accord with data reported for intestinal 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol metabolism [Napoli, Pramanik, Royal, Reinhardt & Horst (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 9100-9107]. These data indicate that C-23- and C-24-oxidation of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol are phenomena common to calciferol target tissues, and that regulation of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol homoeostasis is dependent on the rate of its metabolism in addition to the rate of its synthesis.
Project description:The synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH)2D3] and 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [24,25(OH)2D3] from 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D3] has previously been shown to occur in cells isolated from bone. The main findings of the present study are that the enzyme systems which catalyse these syntheses are: (1) active at 'in vitro' substrate concentrations over the range of 2-50 nM; (2) regulatable in a complex way by 1,25(OH)2D3, 24,25(OH)2D3, 25,26-dihydroxycholecalciferol and 25(OH)D3, but not by cholecalciferol ('vitamin D3'); and (3) have relatively short half-lives (approx. 5 h).
Project description:1. Studies were carried out in vitro with the livers of Japanese quail that had been fed from hatching on diets supplying their full requirements for vitamin D. 2. 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol was the major metabolite when liver homogenates of egg-laying female and oestrogen-treated quail of both sexes were incubated with [3H]cholecalciferol. 3. Very little 25-hydroxycholecalciferol was generated from liver homogenates of adult male and immature quail. Instead the cholecalciferol was converted into one or more compounds less polar than 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and into a number of highly polar metabolites, some of which were water-soluble. 4. Oestrogen not only stimulated the 25-hydroxylation of cholecalciferol but also protected both cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol from degradation by the enzymic pathways active in immature and male birds. 5. These actions of oestrogen may be of physiological significance in relation to the high requirements of laying birds for 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol to support the intense metabolism of calcium associated with egg-shell calcification.
Project description:1. A simple technique has been developed to obtain subcellular fractions of chick bone. The method yielded 60-70% of total DNA in the nuclear debris fraction and 80-90% of total (14)C recovered in bone after a dose of radioactive vitamin D. 2. After a dose of [4-(14)C,1,2-(3)H(2)]cholecalciferol (0.5mug) was given to vitamin D-deficient chicks, the time-course of total (14)C radioactivity in the epiphysis, metaphysis and diaphysis of proximal tibiae was measured. The maximum concentrations were reached at 6h, corresponding to a similar peak of radioactivity in blood, decreasing until 24h and indicating the dependence on the circulating (14)C and on the blood supply of the three bone components. 3. The (14)C radioactivity of cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (expressed per mg of DNA) followed the pattern of incorporation of total (14)C radioactivity in all three bone components. The more polar metabolite fraction reached a peak of radioactivity at 6-9h and maintained its concentration over the 24h period studied in all anatomical bone components. 4. After a dose of [4-(14)C,1-(3)H]cholecalciferol (0.5mug) was given to vitamin D-deficient chicks, the subcellular distribution was studied. At 24h after dosing, the nuclear fraction contained 27% and the supernatant fraction had 67% of total (14)C recovered in the bone filtrate. When the (14)C in the residual bone fragments was included, the nuclear fraction contained up to 35% of the total radioactivity in the bone. 5. The subcellular distribution pattern of individual vitamin D metabolites indicated that the purified nuclear fraction concentrated the polar metabolite, which lost (3)H at C-1, so that 77% of the radioactivity could be accounted for by 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. The supernatant fraction contained smaller amounts of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (9%), with 66% of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol forming the major metabolite, corresponding to its concentration found in blood at 24h. 6. The preferential accumulation of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in the nuclear fraction and the overall pattern of other metabolites, found previously in intestinal tissue, suggests a similar mechanism of action in bone to that postulated for the intestinal cell in calcium translocation.
Project description:Specific high-affinity receptors for 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25-(OH)(2)D(3)] have been described recently in broken-cell preparations of several cultured human breast cancer cell lines including the T47 D line. It was necessary to determine whether intact breast cancer cells in culture would bind 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) specifically and whether the next step in the proposed scheme of action, i.e. nuclear translocation, occurred. The following results were obtained. (1) Specific uptake of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) by T47 D cells occurs in intact cells in culture. (2) The rate of uptake is proportional to medium 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) concentration but is slow compared with that of other steroid hormones, e.g., oestradiol, under identical conditions. Even at 0.5nm-1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) in the medium, at least 4h are required to reach maximum compared with less than 1h for oestradiol binding. (3) Estimation of binding characteristics by Scatchard analysis indicates a single class of binding sites with K(d) of 68pm and 11800 binding sites/cell, which are similar results to those obtained with broken-cell preparations. (4) Inclusion of various vitamin D metabolites in the incubation medium decreased specific binding of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) by the intact cells in a manner identical with their effects in the broken-cell preparation and with potencies similar to their potency on Ca(2+) transport and bone resorption in vivo. Order of potency was 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3)>(24R)-1,24,25-trihydroxycholecalciferol >>25-hydroxycholecalciferol>(25R)-24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol >>(25R)-25,26-dihydroxycholecalciferol. (5) In the 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3)-depleted state, 80% of the 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) receptor is found in the cytosol fraction of the cells even when the subcellular fractionation is performed under low-salt conditions. By contrast after incubation with [(3)H]1,25-(OH)(2)D(3), 59% of the specific 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) binding is found in the partially purified nuclei fraction. These data indicate that nuclear translocation of the receptor-hormone complex takes place in the intact T47 D cell. The results also support the hypothesis that the 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) receptor is functional in this cultured breast cancer cell line, which may provide a useful model for further study of the early biochemical events in 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) action.
Project description:Cytosol fractions prepared from the uterine mucosa of egg-laying Japanese Quail were analysed for binding of the metabolites of cholecalciferol. When the uterus was incubated at 37 degrees C with various radioactive metabolites of cholecalciferol, the nuclear fraction incorporated only 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy[3H]cholecalciferol. When the uterus was incubated at 0 degree C with 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy[3H]cholecalciferol, most of the radioactivity was found in the cytosol. Translocation of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy[3H]cholecalciferol from the cytosol to the nucleus was temperature-dependent. The addition of 100-fold excess amounts of unlabelled 1 alpha-25-dihydroxycholecalciferol significantly diminished the nuclear binding of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy[3H]cholecalciferol. The cytosol fraction contained a 3.5 S macromolecule that specifically binds 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy[3H]cholecalciferol. The dissociation constant was 0.39 nM and the maximal binding was 55 fmol/mg of protein. These results strongly suggest that the uterus in egg-laying birds is a target organ or 1 alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol.
Project description:Recent understanding of extrarenal production of calcitriol has led to the use of more vitamin D supplementation in CKD populations. This paper reports the effect of cholecalciferol supplementation on calcium absorption.Paired calcium absorption tests were done before and after 12-13 weeks of 20,000 IU weekly cholecalciferol supplementation in 30 participants with stage 5 CKD on hemodialysis. The study was conducted from April to December of 2011. Calcium absorption was tested with a standardized meal containing 300 mg calcium carbonate intrinsically labeled with (45)Ca; 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were measured.25-Hydroxyvitamin D rose from 14.2 ng/ml (11.5-18.5) at baseline to 49.3 ng/ml (42.3-58.1) at the end of the study (P<0.001). 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D rose from 15.1 (10.5-18.8) pg/ml at baseline to 20.5 (17.0-24.7) pg/ml at the end of the study (P<0.001). The median baseline calcium absorption was 12% (7%-17%) and 12% (7%-16%) at the end of study.Patients with stage 5 CKD on hemodialysis had very low calcium absorption values at baseline, and cholecalciferol supplementation that raised 25(OH)D levels to 50 ng/ml had no effect on calcium absorption.