Topology of transmembrane segments 1-4 in the human chloride/bicarbonate anion exchanger 1 (AE1) by scanning N-glycosylation mutagenesis.
ABSTRACT: Human AE1 (anion exchanger 1), or Band 3, is an abundant membrane glycoprotein found in the plasma membrane of erythrocytes. The physiological role of the protein is to carry out chloride/bicarbonate exchange across the plasma membrane, a process that increases the carbon-dioxide-carrying capacity of blood. To study the topology of TMs (transmembrane segments) 1-4, a series of scanning N-glycosylation mutants were created spanning the region from EC (extracellular loop) 1 to EC2 in full-length AE1. These constructs were expressed in HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney) cells, and their N-glycosylation efficiencies were determined. Unexpectedly, positions within putative TMs 2 and 3 could be efficiently glycosylated. In contrast, the same positions were very poorly glycosylated when present in mutant AE1 with the SAO (Southeast Asian ovalocytosis) deletion (DeltaA400-A408) in TM1. These results suggest that the TM2-3 region of AE1 may become transiently exposed to the endoplasmic reticulum lumen during biosynthesis, and that there is a competition between proper folding of the region into the membrane and N-glycosylation at introduced sites. The SAO deletion disrupts the proper integration of TMs 1-2, probably leaving the region exposed to the cytosol. As a result, engineered N-glycosylation acceptor sites in TM2-3 could not be utilized by the oligosaccharyltransferase in this mutant form of AE1. The properties of TM2-3 suggest that these segments form a re-entrant loop in human AE1.
Project description:The first transmembrane (TM1) helix in the red cell anion exchanger (AE1, Band 3, or SLC4A1) acts as an internal signal anchor that binds the signal recognition particle and directs the nascent polypeptide chain to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane where it moves from the translocon laterally into the lipid bilayer. The sequence N-terminal to TM1 forms an amphipathic helix that lies at the membrane interface and is connected to TM1 by a bend at Pro403. Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO) is a red cell abnormality caused by a nine-amino acid deletion (Ala400-Ala408) at the N-terminus of TM1. Here we demonstrate, by extensive (?4.5 ?s) molecular dynamics simulations of TM1 in a model 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine membrane, that the isolated TM1 peptide is highly dynamic and samples the structure of TM1 seen in the crystal structure of the membrane domain of AE1. The SAO deletion not only removes the proline-induced bend but also causes a "pulling in" of the part of the amphipathic helix into the hydrophobic phase of the bilayer, as well as the C-terminal of the peptide. The dynamics of the SAO peptide very infrequently resembles the structure of TM1 in AE1, demonstrating the disruptive effect the SAO deletion has on AE1 folding. These results provide a precise molecular view of the disposition and dynamics of wild-type and SAO TM1 in a lipid bilayer, an important early biosynthetic intermediate in the insertion of AE1 into the ER membrane, and extend earlier results of cell-free translation experiments.
Project description:Anion exchanger 1 (AE1) is the major erythrocyte membrane protein that mediates chloride/bicarbonate exchange across the erythrocyte membrane facilitating CO? transport by the blood, and anchors the plasma membrane to the spectrin-based cytoskeleton. This multi-protein cytoskeletal complex plays an important role in erythrocyte elasticity and membrane stability. An in-frame AE1 deletion of nine amino acids in the cytoplasmic domain in a proximity to the membrane domain results in a marked increase in membrane rigidity and ovalocytic red cells in the disease Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO). We hypothesized that AE1 has a flexible region connecting the cytoplasmic and membrane domains, which is partially deleted in SAO, thus causing the loss of erythrocyte elasticity. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a new non-denaturing method of AE1 purification from bovine erythrocyte membranes. A three-dimensional (3D) structure of bovine AE1 at 2.4 nm resolution was obtained by negative staining electron microscopy, orthogonal tilt reconstruction and single particle analysis. The cytoplasmic and membrane domains are connected by two parallel linkers. Image classification demonstrated substantial flexibility in the linker region. We propose a mechanism whereby flexibility of the linker region plays a critical role in regulating red cell elasticity.
Project description:The human erythrocyte anion exchanger (AE1, Band 3) contains up to 14 transmembrane segments, with a single site of N-glycosylation at Asn642 in extracellular (EC) loop 4. Scanning and insertional N-glycosylation mutagenesis were used to determine the folding pattern of AE1 in the membrane. Full-length AE1, when expressed in transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 or COS-7 cells, retained a high-mannose oligosaccharide structure. Scanning N-glycosylation mutagenesis of EC loop 4 showed that N-glycosylation acceptor sites (Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr) spaced 12 residues from the ends of adjacent transmembrane segments could be N-glycosylated. An acceptor site introduced at position 743 in intracellular (IC) loop 5 that could be N-glycosylated in a cell-free translation system was not N-glycosylated in transfected cells. Mutations designed to disrupt the folding of this loop enhanced the level of N-glycosylation at Asn743 in vitro. The results suggest that this loop might be transiently exposed to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum during biosynthesis but normally folds rapidly, precluding N-glycosylation. EC loop 4 insertions into positions 428, 484, 754 and 854 in EC loops 1, 2, 6 and 7 respectively were efficiently N-glycosylated, showing that these regions were extracellular. EC loop 4 insertions into positions 731 or 785 were poorly N-glycosylated, which was inconsistent with an extracellular disposition for these regions of AE1. Insertion of EC loop 4 into positions 599 and 820 in IC loops 3 and 6 respectively were not N-glycosylated in cells, which was consistent with a cytosolic disposition for these loops. Inhibitor-affinity chromatography with 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonate (SITS)-Affi-Gel was used to assess whether the AE1 mutants were in a native state. Mutants with insertions at positions 428, 484, 599, 731 and 785 showed impaired inhibitor binding, whereas insertions at positions 754, 820 and 854 retained binding. The results indicate that the folding of the C-terminal region of AE1 is more complex than originally proposed and that this region of the transporter might have a dynamic aspect.
Project description:Human AE1 (anion exchanger 1) is a membrane glycoprotein found in erythrocytes and as a truncated form (kAE1) in the BLM (basolateral membrane) of a-intercalated cells of the distal nephron, where they carry out electroneutral chloride/bicarbonate exchange. SAO (Southeast Asian ovalocytosis) is a dominant inherited haematological condition arising from deletion of Ala400-Ala408 in AE1, resulting in a misfolded and transport-inactive protein present in the ovalocyte membrane. Heterozygotes with SAO are able to acidify their urine, without symptoms of dRTA (distal renal tubular acidosis) that can be associated with mutations in kAE1. We examined the effect of the SAO deletion on stability and trafficking of AE1 and kAE1 in transfected HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney) cells and kAE1 in MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) epithelial cells. In HEK-293 cells, expression levels and stabilities of SAO proteins were significantly reduced, and no mutant protein was detected at the cell surface. The intracellular retention of AE1 SAO in transfected HEK-293 cells suggests that erythroid-specific factors lacking in HEK-293 cells may be required for cell-surface expression. Although misfolded, SAO proteins could form heterodimers with the normal proteins, as well as homodimers. In MDCK cells, kAE1 was localized to the cell surface or the BLM after polarization, while kAE1 SAO was retained intracellularly. When kAE1 SAO was co-expressed with kAE1 in MDCK cells, kAE1 SAO was largely retained intracellularly; however, it also co-localized with kAE1 at the cell surface. We propose that, in the kidney of heterozygous SAO patients, dimers of kAE1 and heterodimers of kAE1 SAO and kAE1 traffic to the BLM of a-intercalated cells, while homodimers of kAE1 SAO are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and are rapidly degraded. This results in sufficient cell-surface expression of kAE1 to maintain adequate bicarbonate reabsorption and proton secretion without dRTA.
Project description:The human erythrocyte anion exchanger (AE)1 (Band 3) contains a single complex N-linked oligosaccharide that is attached to Asn(642) in the fourth extracellular loop of this polytopic membrane protein, while other isoforms (AE2, AE3 and trout AE1) are N-glycosylated on the preceding extracellular loop. Human AE1 expressed in transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 or COS-7 cells contained a high-mannose oligosaccharide. The lack of oligosaccharide processing was not due to retention of AE1 in the endoplasmic reticulum since biotinylation assays showed that approx. 30% of the protein was expressed at the cell surface. Moving the N-glycosylation site to the preceding extracellular loop in an AE1 glycosylation mutant (N555) resulted in processing of the oligosaccharide and production of a complex form of AE1. A double N-glycosylation mutant (N555/N642) contained both a high-mannose and a complex oligosaccharide chain. The complex form of the N555 mutant could be biotinylated showing that this form of the glycoprotein was at the cell surface. Pulse-chase experiments showed that the N555 mutant was efficiently converted from a high-mannose to a complex oligosaccharide with a half-time of approx. 4 h, which reflected the time course of trafficking of AE1 from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane. The turnover of the complex form of the N555 mutant occurred with a half-life of approx. 15 h. The results show that the oligosaccharide attached to the endogenous site in extracellular loop 4 in human AE1 is not processed in HEK-293 or COS-7 cells, while the oligosaccharide attached to the preceding loop is converted into the complex form.
Project description:The red-cell anion exchanger (band 3; AE1) is a multispanning membrane protein that traverses the bilayer up to 14 times and is N-glycosylated at Asn-642. We have shown that the integrity of six different loops are not essential for stilbene disulphonate-sensitive chloride uptake in Xenopus oocytes. We used an N-glycosylation mutagenesis approach to examine the orientation of the N-terminus and the endogenous glycosylation site of each C-terminal fragment by cell-free translation. The fragments initiating in the loops preceding spans 2, 9 and 11 did not insert into the membrane with the expected orientation. Furthermore, N-glycosylation of Asn-642 might facilitate the membrane integration of span 7. The correct integration of spans 2-3 required the presence of the region containing span 4 and that the luminal exposure of the C-terminus of span 7 is increased in the presence of the region including span 6 or span 8. The results suggest the span 8 region is required for the correct folding of spans 9-10, at least in the presence of the span 11-12 region. Our results suggest that there are intramolecular interactions between the regions of transmembrane spans 1 and 2, 2 and 4, 4 and 5, 7 and 8, 8 and 9-10, and 9-10 and 11-12. Spans 1, 4, 5, 6 and 8 might act as a scaffold for the assembly of spans 2-3, 7 and 9-10. This approach might provide a general method for dissecting the interactions between membrane-spanning regions of polytopic membrane proteins.
Project description:Mutations in SLC4A1 that mislocalize its product, the chloride/bicarbonate exchanger AE1, away from its normal position on the basolateral membrane of the ?-intercalated cell cause autosomal dominant distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). We studied a family exhibiting dominant inheritance and defined a mutation (AE1-M909T) that affects the C terminus of AE1, a region rich in potential targeting motifs that are incompletely characterized. Expression of AE1-M909T in Xenopus oocytes confirmed preservation of its anion exchange function. Wild-type GFP-tagged AE1 localized to the basolateral membrane of polarized MDCK cells, but AE1-M909T localized to both the apical and basolateral membranes. Wild-type AE1 trafficked directly to the basolateral membrane without apical passage, whereas AE1-M909T trafficked to both cell surfaces, implying the gain of an apical-targeting signal. We found that AE1-M909T acquired class 1 PDZ ligand activity that the wild type did not possess. In summary, the AE1-M909T mutation illustrates the role of abnormal targeting in dRTA and provides insight into C-terminal motifs that govern normal trafficking of AE1.
Project description:The human erythrocyte anion-exchanger isoform 1 (AE1) is a dimeric membrane protein that exchanges chloride for bicarbonate across the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Crystallographic studies suggest that the transmembrane anion channel lies at the interface between the two monomers, whereas kinetic analysis provides evidence that each monomer contains an anion channel. We have studied the structure-function relationship of residues at the dimeric interface of AE1 by cysteine-directed cross-linking. Single cysteine mutations were introduced in 16 positions of putative loop regions throughout AE1. The ability of these residues to be chemically cross-linked to their partner within the dimeric protein complex was assessed by mobility of the protein on immunoblots. Introduced cysteine residues in extracellular loops (ECs) 1-4 and intracellular loop 1 formed disulphide cross-linked dimers. Treatment with homobifunctional maleimide cross-linkers of different lengths (6, 10 and 16 A; 1 A identical with 0.1 nm) also cross-linked AE1 with introduced cysteines in EC5 and close to the start of transmembrane segment (TM) 1. On the basis of these data, tentative positional constraints of TMs 1-4 and 6 relative to the dimeric interface are proposed. Neither disulphide- nor maleimide-mediated cross-linking perturbed AE1 transport function, suggesting that loop-loop contacts across the dimeric interface are not primarily responsible for allosteric interactions between monomers within the functional dimeric protein complex.
Project description:Red blood cells (RBCs) from individuals with Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO) contain a mutant band 3 protein that causes the formation of unique linear oligomers in the RBC membrane. We used single-particle tracking to measure the lateral diffusion of individual glycophorin C (GPC), band 3, and CD58 proteins in membranes of intact SAO RBCs and normal RBCs (nRBCs). GPC, an integral protein that binds with high affinity to the RBC membrane skeleton, showed oscillatory motion within confinement areas that were smaller in SAO RBCs than in nRBCs. The additional confinement in SAO RBCs could be due to membrane stiffening associated with the SAO phenotype. Band 3 in both SAO RBCs and nRBCs also showed confined motion over short times (ms) and distances (nm), and the area of confinement was smaller in SAO RBCs than in nRBCs. These data presumably reflect the constraints imposed by band 3 oligomerization. Similarly, the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked protein CD58 showed loosely confined diffusion in nRBCs and a substantially higher degree of confinement in SAO RBCs. Restricted protein mobility could contribute to the altered adherence of parasite-infected RBCs to vascular endothelium that is thought to protect individuals with SAO from severe manifestations of malaria.
Project description:The membrane transporter anion exchanger 1 (AE1), or band 3, is a key component in the processes of carbon-dioxide transport in the blood and urinary acidification in the renal collecting duct. In both erythrocytes and the basolateral membrane of the collecting-duct ?-intercalated cells, the role of AE1 is to catalyze a one-for-one exchange of chloride for bicarbonate. After decades of biochemical and functional studies, the structure of the transmembrane region of AE1, which catalyzes the anion-exchange reaction, has finally been determined. Each protomer of the AE1 dimer comprises two repeats with inverted transmembrane topologies, but the structures of these repeats differ. This asymmetry causes the putative substrate-binding site to be exposed only to the extracellular space, consistent with the expectation that anion exchange occurs via an alternating-access mechanism. Here, we hypothesize that the unknown, inward-facing conformation results from inversion of this asymmetry, and we propose a model of this state constructed using repeat-swap homology modeling. By comparing this inward-facing model with the outward-facing experimental structure, we predict that the mechanism of AE1 involves an elevator-like motion of the substrate-binding domain relative to the nearly stationary dimerization domain and to the membrane plane. This hypothesis is in qualitative agreement with a wide range of biochemical and functional data, which we review in detail, and suggests new avenues of experimentation.