The specificity of purified porcine pancreatic elastase.
ABSTRACT: An electrophoretically homogeneous elastase preparation free from tryptic and chymotryptic activities was obtained by chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex and CM-cellulose. This preparation exhibits a narrower specificity towards peptide bonds than that observed by Naughton & Sanger (1961). With oxidized insulin B chain as substrate, the fastest breaks occur between alanine-14 and leucine-15 and between valine-18 and cysteic acid-19. The bond between glycine-23 and phenylalanine-24 is also efficiently hydrolysed. Other bonds hydrolysed are that between valine-12 and glutamic acid-13 and that between serine-9 and histidine-10. Oxidized insulin A chain is hydrolysed only at one of two points, between alanine-8 and serine-9 or between serine-12 and leucine-13, and the rate of hydrolysis is very low.
Project description:1. The preparation of protected dipeptides of the form acetylglycylamino acid amides is described, where the amino acid is phenylalanine, leucine, valine, alanine, S-methylcysteine, S-ethylcysteine, S-benzylcysteine and S-phenylcysteine. 2. Kinetic parameters for the thermolytic hydrolysis of these blocked dipeptides are reported. The rate of hydrolysis was fastest when the amino acid was leucine or phenylalanine, slower when it was S-methylcysteine, valine or S-ethylcysteine, much slower when it was alanine, and negligible for S-phenylcysteine or S-benzylcysteine. 3. The results are compared with those for similar dipeptide derivatives with benzyloxycarbonyl and furylacryloyl blocking groups, which are hydrolysed faster.
Project description:The amino acid sequences around the cysteine residues in the lens protein, gamma-crystallin, were studied. Fraction II of the gamma-crystallin from calf lens (Björk, 1964) was used. The protein was oxidized with performic acid and then hydrolysed with trypsin. Six peptides containing cysteic acid were isolated. One of the peptides contained three residues of cysteic acid and the others contained one residue of cysteic acid. We conclude that there are eight unique residues of cysteic acid in the oxidized protein. Amino acid analysis suggests that there are also eight residues of cysteic acid in the molecule, which thus contains only one polypeptide chain.
Project description:The effects of acute administration of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (cachectin) (TNF-alpha) or of malignant tumour growth (Walker-256 carcinosarcoma) on hepatic availability and uptake of individual amino acids were compared. The results show that, in spite of lowering the hepatic availability of alanine, aspartate, serine, glycine and proline, the cytokine increased both the total amino acid hepatic uptake and the individual uptakes of alanine, glutamate, serine, threonine, proline, lysine and arginine, while decreasing those of leucine, isoleucine and phenylalanine. Tumour burden resulted in an increase in the hepatic availability of glutamine, threonine, glycine, lysine, leucine, isoleucine, valine and phenylalanine. Total liver amino acid uptake was unaffected, whereas the individual uptakes of alanine, threonine and proline were increased and those of glutamate, glutamine, serine and leucine were decreased. When effects of the cytokine are compared with those induced by tumour growth, there are similar increases in net utilization for alanine, proline and leucine, and a 3-fold difference in the increase observed for threonine. Unmatched effects are seen for glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, glycine, lysine, arginine, valine, phenylalanine and serine.
Project description:Two arylamidases (I and II) were purified from human erythrocytes by a procedure that comprised removal of haemoglobin from disrupted cells with CM-Sephadex D-50, followed by treatment of the haemoglobin-free preparation subsequently with DEAE-cellulose, gel-permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-200, gradient solubilization on Celite, isoelectric focusing in a pH gradient from 4 to 6, gel-permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-100 (superfine), and finally affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4B covalently coupled to L-arginine. In preparative-scale purifications, enzymes I and II were separated at the second gel-permeation chromatography. Enzyme II was obtained as a homogeneous protein, as shown by several criteria. Enzyme I hydrolysed, with decreasing rates, the L-amino acid 2-naphtylamides of lysine, arginine, alanine, methionine, phenylalanine and leucine, and the reactions were slightly inhibited by 0.2 M-NaCl. Enzyme II hydrolysed most rapidly the corresponding derivatives of arginine, leucine, valine, methionine, proline and alanine, in that order, and the hydrolyses were strongly dependent on Cl-. The hydrolysis of these substrates proceeded rapidly at physiological Cl- concentration (0.15 M). The molecular weights (by gel filtration) of enzymes I and II were 85 000 and 52 500 respectively. The pH optimum was approx. 7.2 for both enzymes. The isoelectric point of enzyme II was approx. 4.8. Enzyme I was activated by Co2+, which did not affect enzyme II to any noticeable extent. The kinetics of reactions catalysed by enzyme I were characterized by strong substrate inhibition, but enzyme II was not inhibited by high substrate concentrations. The Cl- activated enzyme II also showed endopeptidase activity in hydrolysing bradykinin.
Project description:Subtilisin BPN' hydrolysed N-acetyl-l-3-(2-naphthyl)-alanine methyl ester, N-acetyl-l-leucine methyl ester and N-acetyl-l-valine methyl ester, faster than alpha-chymotrypsin. Of eight ;locked' substrates tested, only methyl 5,6-benzindan-2-carboxylate was hydrolysed faster by subtilisin, whereas the other esters were better substrates for chymotrypsin. Compared with the values for chymotrypsin, the stereospecific ratios during the hydrolysis of the optically active locked substrates by subtilisin were decreased by one and two orders of magnitude for bi- and tri-cyclic substrates respectively. The polar groups adjacent to the alpha-carbon atom of locked substrates did not contribute significantly to the reactivity of the more active optical isomers, but had a detrimental effect on the less active antipodes during hydrolysis by both the enzymes. These studies show that the binding site of subtilisin BPN' is longer and broader than that of alpha-chymotrypsin.
Project description:A partially purified preparation of an alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase was obtained from Acetobacter turbidans A.T.C.C. 9325, which catalyses synthesis of 7-(d-alpha-amino-alpha-phenylacetamido)-3-cephem-3-methyl-4- carboxylic acid (cephalexin) from methyl d-alpha-aminophenylacetate and 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid. The enzyme preparation catalysed both cephalosprin synthesis from 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid and suitable amino acid esters (e.g. methyl d-alpha-aminophenylacetate, l-cysteine methyl ester, glycine ethyl ester, d-alanine methyl ester, methyl dl-alpha-aminoiso-butyrate, l-serine methyl ester, d-leucine methyl ester, l-methionine methyl ester) and the hydrolysis of such esters. The substrate specificity of the enzyme preparation for the hydrolysis closely paralleled the acyl-donor specificity for cephalosporin synthesis, even to the reaction rates. Only alpha-amino acid derivatives could act as acyl donors. The hydrogen atom on the alpha-carbon atom was not always required by acyl donors. The hydrolysis rate was markedly diminished by adding 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid to reaction mixtures, but no effect on the total reaction rate (the hydrolysis rate plus synthesis rate) was observed with various concentrations of 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid. Both the hydrolytic and the synthetic activities of the enzyme preparation were inhibited by high concentrations of some acyl donors (e.g. methyl d-alpha-aminophenylacetate, ethyl d-alpha-aminophenylacetate). The enzyme preparation hydrolysed alpha-amino acid esters much more easily than alpha-amino acid derivatives with an acid-amide bond.
Project description:A diagonal-electrophoresis method for the selective purification of serine phosphate peptides was applied to tryptic, chymotryptic and peptic digests of oxidized ovalbumin. This method is based on the release of the phosphate group bound to serine by treatment with alkaline phosphatase on paper. The identified serine phosphate peptides were purified by paper electrophoresis at pH6.5 and 2.0, dephosphorylation with bacterial alkaline phosphatase, and paper electrophoresis at pH2.0 again, in that order. The presence of two groups of serine phosphate peptides was apparent from the amino acid composition. One group contained no lysine, cysteic acid, proline, leucine or isoleucine (sequence 1) and the other had all those amino acids (sequence 2). Further degradation with subtilisin of those peptides and ;dansyl'-Edman sequence analysis established their partial sequences. The proposed sequences are as follows (with ;SerP' representing serine phosphate): sequence 1, -Ala-Gly-Arg-Glu-Val-Val-Gly-SerP-Ala-Glu-Ala-Gly-Asp-Val-Ala-Ala-Ser-(Val,Glx(2),Ser,Phe)-Arg-; sequence 2, -Asp-Lys-Leu-Pro-Gly-Phe-Gly-Asp-SerP-Ile-Glx-Ala-Glx-CySO(3)H-Gly-(Thr,Ser,Val)-(Asp,His,Val)-. The partial sequence of one of the phosphopeptides, Asp-(Glu,Ile,SerP), reported by Flavin (1954) was used to establish the proposed sequence 2.
Project description:Kynurenine-glyoxylate aminotransferase, alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase and serine-pyruvate aminotransferase were co-purified and crystallized as yellow cubes from human liver particulate fraction. The crystalline enzyme was homogeneous by the criteria of electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, gel filtration, sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation and analytical ultracentrifugation. The molecular weight of the enzyme was calculated as approx. 90000, 89000 and 99000 by the use of gel filtration, analytical ultracentrifugation and sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation respectively, with two identical subunits. The enzyme has a s(20,w) value of 5.23S, an isoelectric point of 8.3 and a pH optimum between 9.0 and 9.5. The enzyme solution showed absorption maxima at 280 and 420nm. The enzyme catalysed transamination between several l-amino acids and pyruvate or glyoxylate. The order of effectiveness of amino acids was alanine>serine>glutamine>glutamate>methionine>kynurenine = phenylalanine = asparagine>valine>histidine>lysine>leucine>isoleucine>arginine>tyrosine = threonine>aspartate, with glyoxylate as amino acceptor. The enzyme was active with glyoxylate, oxaloacetate, hydroxypyruvate, pyruvate, 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyrate and 2-oxobutyrate, but showed little activity with phenylpyruvate, 2-oxoglutarate and 2-oxoadipate, with kynurenine as amino donor. Kynurenine-glyoxylate aminotransferase activity was competitively inhibited by the addition of l-alanine or l-serine. From these results we conclude that kynurenine-glyoxylate aminotransferase, alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase and serine-pyruvate aminotransferase activities of human liver are catalysed by a single protein. Kinetic parameters for the kynurenine-glyoxylate aminotransferase, alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase, serine-pyruvate aminotransferase and alanine-hydroxypyruvate aminotransferase reactions of the enzyme are presented.
Project description:Alanine release by rat diaphragm muscle in vitro is stimulated by glutamate, valine, leucine and glucose. The stimulation by glutamate and valine (but not leucine) is inhibited by 3-mercaptopicolinate. These results suggest a metabolic route involving phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase which directs amino acid carbon skeletons towards pyruvate synthesis for alanine formation.
Project description:The specificity of action of the lysosomal elastase of human neutrophil leucocytes on the oxidized B chain of insulin is similar to that of pig pancreatic elastase, but is more directed towards valine than alanine as the residue contributing the carboxyl group of the cleaved bond. The most susceptible bonds are Val-12-Glu-13 and Val-18-Cys(O3H)-19. Other bonds hydrolysed are Ala-14-Leu-15, Ser-9-His-10 and Cys, (O3H3)-7-Gly-8. Tables listing amino acid composition, N-terminal residue, and yields of isolated peptides have been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50 075 (8 pages) at the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1977) 161, 1.