Characterization of purified human liver acid beta-D-galactosidases A2 and A3.
ABSTRACT: 1. Human liver acid beta-galactosidase A2 and A3 were isolated by chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B, Sepharose 6B, and Sepharose 4B-6-aminohexyl 1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside. beta-Galactosidase A2 and A3 were purified to final specific activities of 45.5 and 20.6 mumol/min per mg respectively with 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-galactopyranoside as substrate. 2. Form A2 had a mol.wt. of 150000 +/- 15000 (gel filtration) and appeared as a single band of protein (mol.wt 65000 +/- 1000) on electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. 3. Form A3 had a mol.wt. (gel filtration) of 660000 +/- 66000. On electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate, form A3 appeared as a major band of protein (72% of total) of mol.wt. 65000 +/- 1000 and minor protein bands of mol.wt. 44000 +/- 1000 and 26,000 +/- 1000 and 22000 +/- 1000. 4. Gel-filtration chromatography of purified beta-galactosidase A3 generated approximately equal amounts of forms A3 and A2. beta-Galactosidase A1 was not detected by gel-filtration chromatography of partially or highly purified preparations of forms A2 and A3. 5. Both forms A2 and A3 had identical isoelectric points of 4.42 +/- 0.02. The data suggest that forms A2 and A3 are dimeric and multimeric forms of beta-galactosidase A1. 6. Amino acid analysis of beta-galactosidase A2 gave a ratio of acidic to basic amino acids of 2.6:1. 7. beta-Galactosidase A2 contained 7.5% carbohydrate by weight and sialic acid, D-galactose, D-glucosamine and D-mannose were present in the molar proportions 1.1:1.0:1.7:2.7.
Project description:Carboxymethylated beta-galactosidase from Escherichia coli was dissociated at 100 degrees C to form carboxymethylated fragments A and B. The mol.wts. of carboxymethylated fragments A and B were determined by gel filtration to be 64300 and 22400 respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of carboxymethylated fragments A and B that had been pretreated with 2-mercaptoethanol and sodium dodecyl sulphate yielded mol.wts. of 64000 and 22100 respectively. Carboxymethylated fragments A and B had arginine as their C-terminal amino acid. When a crude extract of E. coli M15 was filtered through a column of Sepharose 6B, it was found that carboxymethylated fragment B could restore beta-galactosidase activity when added to fractions having mol.wts. estimated to be 123000, 262000 and 506000. These fractions are referred to as ;complementable fractions'. Similarly, it was found that carboxymethylated fragment A could restore enzyme activity to tractions having mol.wts. estimated to be 63000, 253000 and 506000. Estimates of the molecular weights of the beta-galactosidase activity obtained by restoration with carboxymethylated fragments A and B were made by filtering the active enzyme through another column of Sepharose 6B. The enzyme obtained by complementation with carboxymethylated fragment B, i.e. the complemented enzyme, had mol.wt. 525000, and that obtained with carboxymethylated fragment A had mol.wts. of 525000, 646000 and 2000000. The latter finding suggests that multiple forms of complemented beta-galactosidase can exist.
Project description:At low ionic strength and pH 6.0 human liver acid beta-galactosidase exists in two aggregation states, monomeric and multimeric. These species can be separated on wheat-germ lectin-Sepharose, Cellogel electrophoresis and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200, and are not normally interconvertible. On re-application of either form to wheat-germ lectin-Sepharose the equilibrium is re-established and the two forms are interconverted.
Project description:Three major acidic proteins of bovine seminal plasma, BSP-A1, BSP-A2 and BSP-A3, were purified to homogeneity, by employing fast protein liquid chromatography, gel filtration and h.p.l.c. The proteins were purified on the basis of their stimulatory effect on the basal release of gonadotropins by rat anterior-pituitary cells in culture. All three proteins migrated as distinct single bands in the presence or absence of 2-mercaptoethanol in SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Their Mr values were estimated to be between 15,000 and 16,500 by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Similar Mr estimates were obtained when they were subjected to gel filtration on a calibrated column of Sephadex G-75 equilibrated in 0.05 M-acetic acid, pH 3.0. However, BSP-A1 and BSP-A2 were eluted as aggregated molecules (Mr 60,000-120,000) during gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 equilibrated in 0.05 M-NH4HCO3, pH 8.5, or phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, containing 0.15 M-NaCl. In the presence of 8 M-urea both BSP-A1 and BSP-A2 were eluted at positions corresponding to Mr values of 17,000-20,000. BSP-A1 and BSP-A2 had an identical amino acid composition, which differed largely from that of BSP-A3. All three proteins contained aspartic acid as the N-terminal residue, and cysteine was identified as the C-terminal residue. BSP-A1 and BSP-A2 are glycoproteins containing galactosamine, sialic acid and neutral sugars, but BSP-A3 did not contain any covalently attached sugars. Whereas BSP-A2 and BSP-A3 were eluted unadsorbed, BSP-A1 bound to wheat-germ lectin-Sepharose 6MB and could be eluted by the competing sugar N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Treatment of BSP-A1 and BSP-A2 with trypsin resulted in complete loss of gonadotropin-release activity, but BSP-A3 retained full activity. Antibody raised against BSP-A1 did not cross-react with BSP-A3, or vice versa. All these properties indicated marked structural differences between BSP-A3 and BSP-A1 (or BSP-A2). On the basis of amino acid composition it was concluded that BSP-A1, BSP-A2 and BSP-A3 are the same as the gonadostatins [Esch, Ling, Bohlen, Ying & Guillemin (1983) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 113, 861-867].
Project description:1. Free and total activities of beta-glucosidase, beta-galactosidase, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase and beta-glucuronidase have been determined fluorimetrically in five subcellular fractions of rat kidney. 2. The beta-glucosidase activity appeared in the soluble fraction, beta-glucuronidase had the distribution pattern of a lysosomal enzyme, and both beta-galactosidase and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase had bimodal distributions. 3. Two types of beta-galactosidase activity were found: a sedimentable type, having optimum pH3.7, mol.wt. about 80000 and slow electrophoretic mobility at pH7.0 in starch gel; and a soluble type of much faster mobility, having optimum pH5.5-6.5 and mol.wt. about 40000. 4. Evidence is presented that the beta-glucosidase and the soluble type of beta-galactosidase are the same enzyme. 5. Most of the N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase activity was in the lysosome-rich fractions, but a significant proportion occurred in the microsomal fraction in a non-latent form. 6. The use of beta-galactosidase and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase as lysosomal marker enzymes is complicated by the possible presence of multiple forms, but this limitation does not apply to beta-glucuronidase in the rat kidney.
Project description:Lysosomal neuraminidase (sialidase; EC 126.96.36.199) and beta-galactosidase (EC 188.8.131.52), together with a carboxypeptidase, the so-called 'protective protein', were co-purified from the human placenta by affinity chromatography on a concanavalin A-Sepharose column followed by a thiogalactoside-agarose affinity column for beta-galactosidase. Analysis of the purified material by gel-filtration h.p.l.c. revealed three distinct molecular forms, all with high beta-galactosidase specific activity, but only the largest one expressed neuraminidase activity. Rechromatography of each individual species separately indicated that all three are in fact part of an equilibrium system (the neuraminidase-beta-galactosidase-carboxypeptidase complex or NGC-complex) and that these species undergo slow conversion into one another through dissociation and association of protomeric components. Each species was sufficiently stable for the determination of their hydrodynamic properties by gel-filtration h.p.l.c. and sedimentation velocity. The largest species had an apparent sedimentation coefficient S20.w, of 18.8 S and a Stokes' radius of 8.5 nm, giving a molecular mass of 679 kDa and a fractional ratio, f/f min, of 1.47. The latter value indicates that the macromolecule is asymmetric or highly hydrated. This large species is composed of four types of polypeptide chains of molecular mass 66 kDa (neuraminidase), 63 kDa (beta-galactosidase), 32 kDa and 20 kDa (carboxypeptidase heterodimer). The 32 kDa and 20 kDa protomers are linked together by a disulphide bridge. Glycopeptidase F digestion of the NGC-complex transformed the diffuse 66-63 kDa band on the SDS gel into two close but sharp bands at 58 and 56 kDa. The two smaller species which were separated on the h.p.l.c. column correspond to tetrameric and dimeric forms of the 66-63 kDa protomers and express exclusively beta-galactosidase activity. Treatment of the NGC-complex with increasing concentrations of guanidinium hydrochloride up to 1.5 M also resulted in dissociation of the complex into the same smaller species mentioned above plus two protomers of molecular mass around 60 and 50 kDa. A model of the largest molecular species as a hexamer of the 66-63 kDa protomers associated to five carboxypeptidase heterodimers (32 kDa and 20 kDa) is proposed
Project description:1. A method is described for following continuously the action of beta-galactosidase on 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-galactoside at pH 4.5, in which 4-methylumbelliferone production is measured at fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths of 324 and 444nm respectively. 2. Initial-rate studies show that the presence of salt activates beta-galactosidase up to 100 mM, but is inhibitory above that concentration. The enzyme is very unstable at 37 degrees C and low ionic strength, but stability increases with ionic strength. 3. The stability of the enzyme at 37 degrees C decreases markedly with rising pH in the range 5.9--8.0. 4. Gel-filtration patterns demonstrate that there is a marked tendency to polymerization with increasing ionic strength. The gel-filtration pattern shows decreasing amounts of dimer with increasing pH. 5. The correlation between activity, stability and molecular form of beta-galactosidase is discussed. It is suggested that the dimeric form of the enzyme is the most stable and active form. The implications of this finding for the assay of beta-galactosidase under physiological conditions for prenatal diagnosis are discussed. 6. Evidence for the possible occurrence of a 36 000-mol.wt. from of beta-galactosidase is presented. 7. A computer program for the calculation of initial rates has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50114 (4 pages) at the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1981) 193, 5.
Project description:1. The chromatography of rat small-intestinal beta-galactosidase activities on gel-filtration and ion-exchange columns has been studied. Five different substrates were used to measure beta-galactosidase activity (lactose, phenyl beta-galactoside, o-nitrophenyl beta-galactoside, p-nitrophenyl beta-galactoside and 6-bromo-2-naphthyl beta-galactoside) and the activity was measured at one acid and one more neutral pH value. 2. By gel filtration one acid beta-galactosidase, hydrolysing lactose and the hetero-beta-galactosides at about the same rate, and one more neutral beta-galactosidase, hydrolysing lactose much more rapidly than the hetero-beta-galactosides, were separated. 3. By ion-exchange chromatography the acid enzyme was fractionated into two components. These may be individual enzymes or different forms of the same enzyme.
Project description:beta-Glucanase present in cell-free extracts from Candida utilis was isolated and purified 562-fold by procedures that include adsorption on DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and filtration through columns of Sephadex G-50, G-100 and G-200, Bio-Gel P-10, and Concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B. The purified enzyme appeared homogeneous on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and in ultracentrifugation studies (S20,w = 1.74S). The enzyme behaved as an acidic glycoprotein (pI4.1) with 68% carbohydrate and a high content of acidic amino acids. The mol.wt. was estimated to be 20000 from gel filtration and polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and 36000 from sedimentation experiments. Studies on the hydrolysis of different substrates showed that the enzyme is an unspecific beta-glucanase able to break down both (1 leads to 3)-eta- and (1 leads to 6)-beta-linkages by an exo-splitting mechanism. Glucono-delta-lactone, Zn2+ and Hg2+ inhibited the enzyme activity.
Project description:The lectin from Datura stramonium (thorn-apple; Solanaceae) has been purified by affinity chromatography and shown to be a glycoprotein containing about 40% (w/w) of carbohydrate. The most abundant amino acids are hydroxyproline, cystine, glycine and serine. Results obtained by gel filtration in 6m-guanidinium chloride on Sepharose 4B suggest that it has a subunit mol.wt. of about 30000 and that it probably associates into dimers. The lectin is inhibited specifically by chitin oligosaccharides and bacterial-cell-wall oligosaccharides, but only weakly by N-acetylglucosamine. Glycopeptides from soya-bean (Glycine max) lectin and fetuin are also strong inhibitors of Datura lectin, indicating that it interacts with internal N-acetylglucosamine residues. Its specificity is similar to, but not identical with, that of potato (Solanum tuberosum) lectin. After prolonged proteolytic digestion of reduced and S-carboxymethylated or S-aminoethylated derivatives of the lectin, glycopeptides of mol.wt. of about 18000 were isolated. The glycopeptides contained all the carbohydrate and hydroxyproline of the original glycoprotein, and lesser amounts of serine, S-carboxymethylcysteine and other amino acids. The arabinose residues of the glycoprotein are present as beta-l-arabinofuranosides linked to the polypeptide chain through the hydroxyproline residues, and can be removed by mild acid treatment; the ratio of arabinose to hydroxyproline is 3.4:1. Some of the serine residues of the polypeptide chain are substituted with one or two alpha-galactopyranoside residues, most of which can be removed by the action of alpha-galactosidase. The galactose residues are more easily removed from the acid-treated glycopeptide (from which arabinose has been removed) than from the complete glycopeptide, indicating a steric hindrance of the galactosidase action by the adjacent chains of arabinosides. There is a slow release of galactose residues by a process of beta-elimination in 0.5m-NaOH (pH13.7) from the complete glycopeptide, and a fairly rapid release of galactose by this process from the acid-treated glycopeptide, which lacks arabinose. This is probably due to the inhibitory effect of the negative charge on the adjacent arabinofuranoside residues. The similarities and differences between the lectins from Datura and potato are discussed, as are their structural resemblance to glycopeptides that have been isolated from plant cell walls.
Project description:Aspergillus fumigatus (Fresenius), IMI 246651, A.T.C.C. 46324, produces two beta-glucosidase enzymes, cotton-solubilizing activity, xylanase and endoglucanase enzymes which can be separated by gel-filtration chromatography. The major endoglucanase does not bind to concanavalin A-Sepharose and does not stain with periodic acid/Schiff reagent. It is homogeneous on polyacrylamide isoelectric focusing (pI = 7.1) and has a mol.wt. of 12500 by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The endoglucanase produces glucose and a mixture of oligosaccharides from cellulose; the purified enzyme has a small dextranase activity. It is stable at 50 degrees C and pH 6.