A rapid method, using octadecasilyl-silica, for the extraction of certain peptides from tissues.
ABSTRACT: Peptides can be recovered from tissues by homogenization in a carefully selected extraction medium followed by adsorption from the supernatant on a small bed of octadecasilyl-silica. Recoveries of corticotropins and somatostatin added to a variety of tissues were quantitative, and the peptides undamaged as determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography.
Project description:In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15-150 mg) is collected in 2?ml homogenization tubes. 500??l BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24?frozen samples at a time in less than 60?seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500??l heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500??l 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500??l heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method.
Project description:Peptides can be adsorbed on octadecasilyl-silica from large volumes of aqueous solution and eluted with aqueous solvent mixtures containing methanol or acetonitrile. These properties may be used for the extraction and purification of peptide fragments in plasma samples collected from rats. After intravenous injection of Synacthen [corticotropin-(1-24)-tetracosapeptide], it was shown that within 2 min the main circulating products were intact peptide and its sulphoxide. In addition, a number of fragments indicative of cleavage at the N- and C-termini were present. Most of the products formed from Synacthen have low biological activity. Somatostatin was rapidly cleaved in vivo and in vitro to a single product, which probably retains biological activity. The absence of other circulating products suggests that somatostatin is only inactivated once it leaves the circulation.
Project description:Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) is the most commonly sample preparation procedure used by forensic toxicologists in China for screening drugs in whole human blood. It extracts numerous substances from blood including targeted drugs and interfering substances, specifically triglycerides (TG). With increasing prevalence of hyperlipidemia, the influences of TG on LLE and on subsequent analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) may become a major issue for forensic laboratories. This study aims to elucidate the influences of TG on LLE and to provide possible solutions to this problem. Nineteen commonly encountered drugs in forensic cases were spiked to human whole blood with different TG concentrations. Diethyl ether, ethyl acetate/hexane mixed solutions, chlorobutane and several other frequently used solvents were tested for the extraction of drugs from spiked whole blood. The supernatant organic layer was evaporated to dryness and reconstituted with methanol. The resultant products were analyzed by GC-MS, and the extraction recovery was calculated. LLE with diethyl ether, ethyl acetate/hexane (9:1) and chlorobutane all possessed effective and reliable extraction recoveries for blood sample with low TG concentrations (0.63-6.85 mmol/L). At high TG concentrations, diethyl ether produced a highly turbid substance that could not be further analyzed using GC-MS. Extraction recoveries drastically dropped for ethyl acetate/hexane (9:1) mixture at high TG concentrations, while chlorobutane experienced minimal drops in extraction recoveries. In conclusion, TG levels in whole blood noticeably influence drug recovery to variable extents depending on the LLE solvent. Chlorobutane showed minimal influences from TG content in whole blood and thus is the recommended LLE solvent for forensic drug extraction.
Project description:1. Tissue activities, intracellular distribution as well as selected kinetic and molecular properties of succinyl-CoA-3-oxo acid CoA transferase (EC 22.214.171.124), which is an initiator of ketone body usage, were examined in rat kidney, heart, brain, skeletal muscle and liver. 2. The activities of the transferase in these tissues are similar to reported values and are somewhat affected by the homogenization medium. Higher recoveries of activity are obtained when a phosphate buffer is used during the homogenization; Tris solutions containing sucrose and mannitol lead to only slightly lower recoveries, but can be used in studies to determine the subcellular localization of the transferase activity. 3. A close correlation was observed between the relative activities of citrate synthase (a mitochondrial marker enzyme) and CoA transferase in the cytoplasmic, particulate and mitochondrial fractions from the five tissues. 4. The K(m) values for acetoacetate (measured in two different ways), the ratio of V(max.) values for the two enzyme-catalysed half-reactions, and succinate product inhibition are quite similar for the enzyme from each tissue. 5. The enzymes are also similar in molecular weight (with an approx. mol.wt. of 100000 as determined by gel filtration). All show an active band in isoelectric-focusing studies with pI 7.6, except for the enzyme from heart (pI 6.8). 6. The results demonstrate a mitochondrial origin for CoA transferase in these rat tissues and support the proposition that CoA transferase is a ketolytic enzyme, i.e. an enzyme uniquely involved in the complete oxidation of ketone bodies. The structural and functional similarities of these transferases suggest that factors other than differences in K(m) values account for differences in the utilization of ketone bodies by various tissues.
Project description:Human-driven environmental change has increased the occurrence of harmful cyanobacteria blooms in aquatic ecosystems. Concomitantly, exposure to microcystin (MC), a cyanobacterial toxin that can accumulate in animals, edible plants, and agricultural soils, has become a growing public health concern. For accurate estimation of health risks and timely monitoring, availability of reliable detection methods is imperative. Nonetheless, quantitative analysis of MCs in many types of biological and environmental samples has proven challenging because matrix interferences can hinder sample preparation and extraction procedures, leading to poor MC recovery. Herein, controlled experiments were conducted to enhance the use of ultra-performance liquid-chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) to recover MC-LR and MC-RR at a range of concentrations in seafood (fish), vegetables (lettuce), and environmental (soil) matrices. Although these experiments offer insight into detailed technical aspects of the MC homogenization and extraction process (i.e., sonication duration and centrifugation speed during homogenization; elution solvent to use during the final extraction), they centered on identifying the best (1) solvent system to use during homogenization (2-3 tested per matrix) and (2) single-phase extraction (SPE) column type (3 tested) to use for the final extraction. The best procedure consisted of the following, regardless of sample type: centrifugation speed?=?4200?×?g; elution volume?=?8?mL; elution solvent?=?80% methanol; and SPE column type?=?hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB), with carbon also being satisfactory for fish. For sonication, 2?min, 5?min, and 10?min were optimal for fish, lettuce, and soil matrices, respectively. Using the recommended HLB column, the solvent systems that led to the highest recovery of MCs were methanol:water:butanol for fish, methanol:water for lettuce, and EDTA-Na4P2O7 for soils. Given that the recommended procedures resulted in average MC-LR and MC-RR recoveries that ranged 93 to 98%, their adoption for the preparation of samples with complex matrices before UPLC-MS/MS analysis is encouraged.
Project description:1. The cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity-ratio assay was investigated by comparing histone and a synthetic peptide, malantide [Malencik & Anderson (1983) Anal. Biochem. 132, 32-40], as substrates. 2. In several tissues the activity ratio was higher when assayed with histone as the substrate; this result was obtained in control tissues and also in those incubated with agents known to increase cyclic AMP. The effect of these agents to increase the activity ratio was more clearly demonstrated with malantide. 3. The higher activity ratios observed with histone are due to: (a) measurement of phosphorylation not catalysed by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase; (b) activation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase by histone during the assay. 4. When tissues were homogenized in buffers without NACl, lower activity ratios were found, owing to the catalytic subunit being artifactually removed from the supernatant. 5. We conclude that the measured activity ratio more faithfully reflects that in the tissue when NaCl is included in the homogenization buffer and malantide is used in the assay. This was confirmed in experiments where cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase was added to the tissue before homogenization, and no dissociation of the exogenous enzyme was observed.
Project description:The concept of delivering nanoformulations to desired tissues by means of targeting membrane receptors of high local abundance by ligands anchored to the nanocarrier has gained a lot of attention over the last decade. Currently, there is no unanimous opinion on whether surface functionalization of nanocarriers by targeting ligands translates into any real benefit in terms of pharmacokinetics or treatment outcomes. Having examined the published nanocarriers designed to engage with somatostatin receptors, we realized that in the majority of cases targetability claims were not supported by solid evidence of targeting ligand-targeted receptor coupling, which is the very crux of a targetability concept. Here, we present an approach to characterize targetability of mesoporous silica-based nanocarriers functionalized with ligands of somatostatin receptors. The targetability proof in our case comes from a functional assay based on a genetically-encoded cAMP probe, which allows for real-time capture of receptor activation in living cells, triggered by targeting ligands on nanoparticles. We elaborate on the development and validation of the assay, highlighting the power of proper functional tests in the characterization pipeline of targeted nanoformulations.
Project description:An alkaline 5'-nucleotidase with properties similar to those of membrane-bound 5'-nucleotidase was recovered in soluble form in the postmicrosomal supernatant fraction (cytosol) of rat liver. The enzyme seems to constitute a quantitatively distinct fraction, since the activity in postmicrosomal supernatants was increased by a further 10% by additional homogenization of livers. Lysosomal acid phosphatase activity increased similarly, whereas other membrane-bound marker enzymes alkaline phosphatase, phosphodiesterase I and glucose-6-phosphatase showed no increase when homogenization of liver tissue was continued. Gel-permeation chromatography and pH-dependence studies indicated that enzyme activity in the supernatant fraction with 0.3 mM-UMP or -AMP as substrate at pH 8.1 was about 85 or 100% specific respectively. In regenerating liver the enzyme recovered in soluble form showed decreased specific activity, in contrast with alkaline phosphatase measured for comparison. The nucleotidase activity per mg of cytosolic protein was 2.1 nmol/min with AMP as substrate. The total activity measured in the postmicrosomal supernatant was 1.5% of the homogenate activity measured in the presence of detergent.
Project description:Accurate profiling of lipidomes relies upon the quantitative and unbiased recovery of lipid species from analyzed cells, fluids, or tissues and is usually achieved by two-phase extraction with chloroform. We demonstrated that methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) extraction allows faster and cleaner lipid recovery and is well suited for automated shotgun profiling. Because of MTBE's low density, lipid-containing organic phase forms the upper layer during phase separation, which simplifies its collection and minimizes dripping losses. Nonextractable matrix forms a dense pellet at the bottom of the extraction tube and is easily removed by centrifugation. Rigorous testing demonstrated that the MTBE protocol delivers similar or better recoveries of species of most all major lipid classes compared with the "gold-standard" Folch or Bligh and Dyer recipes.
Project description:Background:Mechanistic understanding of tendon molecular and cellular biology is crucial toward furthering our abilities to design new therapies for tendon and ligament injuries and disease. Recent transcriptomic and epigenomic studies in the field have harnessed the power of mouse genetics to reveal new insights into tendon biology. However, many mouse studies pool tendon tissues or use amplification methods to perform RNA analysis, which can significantly increase the experimental costs and limit the ability to detect changes in expression of low copy transcripts. Methods:Single Achilles tendons were harvested from uninjured, contralateral injured, and wild type mice between three and five months of age, and RNA was extracted. RNA Integrity Number (RIN) and concentration were determined, and RT-qPCR gene expression analysis was performed. Results:After testing several RNA extraction approaches on single adult mouse Achilles tendons, we developed a protocol that was successful at obtaining high RIN and sufficient concentrations suitable for RNA analysis. We found that the RNA quality was sensitive to the time between tendon harvest and homogenization, and the RNA quality and concentration was dependent on the duration of homogenization. Using this method, we demonstrate that analysis of Scx gene expression in single mouse tendons reduces the biological variation caused by pooling tendons from multiple mice. We also show successful use of this approach to analyze Sox9 and Col1a2 gene expression changes in injured compared with uninjured control tendons. Discussion:Our work presents a robust, cost-effective, and straightforward method to extract high quality RNA from a single adult mouse Achilles tendon at sufficient amounts for RT-qPCR as well as RNA-seq. We show this can reduce variation and decrease the overall costs associated with experiments. This approach can also be applied to other skeletal tissues, as well as precious human samples.