Oxidation of glycine by Phaseolus leghaemoglobin with associated catabolic reactions at the haem.
ABSTRACT: Leghaemoglobin from the root nodules of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) reacts in alkaline glycine solutions as a glycine oxidase in a reaction that may also be regarded as a coupled oxidation. Leghaemoglobin is reduced to the ferrous form by glycinate, the oxygen complex is formed, and finally the haem is attacked to yield a green reaction product. Glycine is simultaneously oxidized to glyoxylate, and hydrogen peroxide is generated. The initial velocity of the formation of the green product is proportional to the concentrations of leghaemoglobin and glycine, and the optimum pH for the reaction is 10.2. The green product is not formed if carbon monoxide, azide of imidazole is bound to the haem, whereas oxidation of glycine to glyoxylate is not inhibited by azide and not essentially by carbon monoxide. Haem breakdown is activated by digestion of leghaemoglobin by carboxypeptidase, and partly inhibited by catalase and superoxide dismutase.
Project description:1. Leghaemoglobins from soya-bean (Glycine max) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root nodules were purified by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose phosphate columns at pH8.0 and pH5.8, to avoid the relatively low pH (5.2) commonly used to purify these proteins. 2. E.p.r. (electron-paramagnetic-resonance) spectra of the fluoride, azide, hydroxide and cyanide complexes of these ferric leghaemoglobins were very similar to the spectra of the corresponding myoglobin derivatives, indicating that the immediate environment of the iron in leghaemoglobin and myoglobin is similar, an imidazole moiety of histidine being the proximal ligand to the haem iron [cf. Appleby, Blumberg, Peisach, Wittenberg & Wittenberg (1976) J. Biol. Chem.251, 6090-6096]. 3. E.p.r. spectra of the acid-metleghaemoglobins showed prominent high-spin features very near g=6 and g=2 and, unlike myoglobin, small low-spin absorptions near g=2.26, 2.72 and 3.14. The width of the g=6 absorption derivative at 10-20K was about 4-4.5mT, similar to the value for acid-methaemoglobin. In contrast, a recently published (Appleby et al., 1976) spectrum of acid-metleghaemoglobin a had less high-spin character and a much broader absorption derivative around g=6. 4. E.p.r. spectra of ferric leghaemoglobin nicotinate and imidazole complexes suggest that the low-spin absorption near g=3.14 can be attributed to a trace of ferric leghaemoglobin nicotinate, and those near g=2.26 and 2.72 are from an endogenous dihistidyl haemichrome. 5. A large e.p.r. signal at g=2 in all samples of crude leghaemoglobin was shown to be from nitrosyl-leghaemoglobin. A soya-bean sample contained 27+/-3% of the latter. A previously unidentified form of soya-bean ferrous leghaemoglobin a was shown to be its nitrosyl derivative. If this is not an artifact, and occurs in the root nodule, the nitrosyl radical may interfere with the function of leghaemoglobin.
Project description:The coupled oxidation of leghaemoglobins with O(2) and ascorbate yielded oxyleghaemoglobin in the first reaction step, and the second step was the degradation of haem characterized by an A(675) increase. Leghaemoglobins were degraded to biliverdin isomers specifically, depending on the structure of the protein. The main leghaemoglobin components of Glycine (soya bean) and Phaseolus (kidney bean) were degraded to biliverdin mixtures containing about 50% of the beta-form, about 30% of the alpha-form and about 20% of the delta-isomer, whereas the leghaemoglobin I components of Vicia (broad bean) and Pisum (pea) were degraded almost exclusively to the beta-isomer, with traces of the alpha-isomer. The amino acid sequences of Glycine and Phaseolus leghaemoglobins resemble each other, as do those of Vicia and Pisum. The site specificity of bile-pigment formation from leghaemoglobins can be tentatively explained by specific differences in the amino acid sequences at those regions of the polypeptide chain that are in the vicinity of the appropriate methine bridges. The ligand-binding site in different leghaemoglobins may be outlined on the basis of the present results, supposing that the haem is degraded when a reduction product of haem-bound O(2) reacts with a methine bridge of the haem, and that the bridge specificity is regulated by hindering amino acid residues that determine the location of the bound O(2). The residue phenylalanine-CD1 appears to be further away from the haem plane or in a markedly more flexible position in leghaemoglobins than in mammalian globins. The haem-bound oxygen atom B, in Fe-O(A)-O(B), seems to be free to rotate in all directions except that of the gamma-bridge in Glycine and Phaseolus leghaemoglobins, but its position in Vicia and Pisum leghaemoglobin I might be restricted to the direction of the beta-methine bridge.
Project description:GSH is able to reduce soybean (Glycine max) ferryl-leghaemoglobin [Lb(IV)] formed by the reaction of ferric or ferrous Lb with H2O2; in both cases, ferric Lb is obtained and GSH is incapable of reducing ferric Lb to ferrous Lb. Furthermore, the addition of GSH before H2O2 to ferric Lb prevents side reactions which lead to a species whose spectrum differs markedly from that of Lb(IV). These reactions are likely to occur in vivo, as high GSH concentrations have been detected in soybean nodules. The GSH-dependent reduction of Lb(IV) is associated with the oxidation of GSH to GSSG. E.s.r. experiments show that the glutathione thiyl radical (GS.) is formed during this reaction. In the case of ferric Lb, both ferryl Lb and a globin-derived radical previously described appear to be involved in the formation of GS.. Both of these processes may be protective and can help account for the exclusive presence of ferrous (oxygenated or not) Lb in functioning nodules.
Project description:1. The finding that the plant is the genetic determinant of leghaemoglobin production in legume nodules was further tested by inoculating snake beans with two strains of Rhizobium selected to give large genetic differences. Carbohydrate requirement patterns, immunological techniques and DNA base ratio determinations were used to demonstrate genetic differences between the two rhizobial strains. 2. Partially purified preparations of the haemoglobins from the nodules produced by the two strains showed no differences when examined by electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing or ion-exchange chromatography. 3. Two different leghaemoglobins from each type of nodule were separated by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. One of these was isolated in the Fe(3+) form and accounted for two-thirds of the total leghaemoglobin. When it was examined in the analytical ultracentrifuge and by amino acid analysis, this major component did not vary with the inoculant rhizobial strain. The molecule had an s(20,w) of 1.88S, a diffusion coefficient of 10.7x10(-7)cm(2).s(-1) and a mol. wt. of 16700. 4. These results strongly support the hypothesis that the mRNA for leghaemoglobin is transcribed from plant DNA.
Project description:The estimate of the molecular weight of leghaemoglobin by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis is about 20% too low. This is due to an anomalously high limiting relative mobility. Leghaemoglobin binds 1.4 g of sodium dodecyl sulphate/g of protein with a concomitant decrease in the helical content from 71-72% to 49-51%.
Project description:The major photorespiratory pathway in higher plants is distributed over chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. In this pathway, glycolate oxidation takes place in peroxisomes. It was previously suggested that a mitochondrial glycolate dehydrogenase (GlcDH) that was conserved from green algae lacking leaf-type peroxisomes contributes to photorespiration in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, the identification of two Arabidopsis mitochondrial alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferases (ALAATs) that link glycolate oxidation to glycine formation are described. By this reaction, the mitochondrial side pathway produces glycine from glyoxylate that can be used in the glycine decarboxylase (GCD) reaction of the major pathway. RNA interference (RNAi) suppression of mitochondrial ALAAT did not result in major changes in metabolite pools under standard conditions or enhanced photorespiratroy flux, respectively. However, RNAi lines showed reduced photorespiratory CO(2) release and a lower CO(2) compensation point. Mitochondria isolated from RNAi lines are incapable of converting glycolate to CO(2), whereas simultaneous overexpression of GlcDH and ALAATs in transiently transformed tobacco leaves enhances glycolate conversion. Furthermore, analyses of rice mitochondria suggest that the side pathway for glycolate oxidation and glycine formation is conserved in monocotyledoneous plants. It is concluded that the photorespiratory pathway from green algae has been functionally conserved in higher plants.
Project description:1. Static titrations reveal an exact stoicheiometry between various haem derivatives and apoperoxidase prepared from one isoenzyme of the horseradish enzyme. 2. Carbon monoxide-protohaem reacts rapidly with apoperoxidase and the kinetics can be accounted for by a mechanism already applied to the reaction of carbon monoxide-haem derivatives with apomyoglobin and apohaemoglobin. 3. According to this mechanism a complex is formed first whose combination and dissociation velocity constants are 5x10(8)m(-1)sec.(-1) and 10(3)sec.(-1) at pH9.1 and 20 degrees . The complex is converted into carbon monoxide-haemoprotein in a first-order process with a rate constant of 235sec.(-1) for peroxidase and 364sec.(-1) for myoglobin at pH9.1 and 20 degrees . 4. The effects of pH and temperature were examined. The activation energy for the process of complex-isomerization is about 13kcal./mole. 5. The similarity in the kinetics of the reactions of carbon monoxide-haem with apoperoxidase and with apomyoglobin suggests structural similarities at the haem-binding sites of the two proteins.
Project description:1. Micrococcus denitrificans utilized glycollate as sole carbon source for aerobic growth. Glyoxylate was utilized less well, and though glycine alone did not support growth it enhanced growth on glyoxylate. 2. During growth on glycollate, (14)C was incorporated from [2-(14)C]glycollate into glycine and thence into aspartate, malate and glutamate. No phosphoglycerate was labelled at the earliest times. 3. Glyoxylate was the first product of glycollate utilization, and glycollate oxidase was inducibly formed on transfer of the organism to glycollate-containing media. 4. Extracts of glycollate-grown M. denitrificans contained negligible glyoxylate-carboligase activity and only low tartronate semialdehyde-reductase activity. 5. erythro-beta-Hydroxyaspartate is a key intermediate in glyoxylate utilization by this organism. Enzymes catalysing (a) the synthesis of erythro-beta-hydroxyaspartate from glyoxylate and glycine, and (b) the conversion of erythro-beta-hydroxyaspartate into oxaloacetate, were inducibly formed during growth on glycollate and on other substrates yielding glyoxylate. Methods for the assay of these enzymes were developed. 6. It is concluded that in M. denitrificans the biosynthesis of cell materials from glycollate is accomplished by the ;beta-hydroxyaspartate pathway', a novel metabolic route that may also perform a catabolic role in glyoxylate oxidation.
Project description:A gene encoding leghaemoglobin a from soybean has been constructed and the soluble recombinant protein expressed in E. coli. The integrity of the recombinant protein has been assessed by a range of spectroscopic techniques. Electrospray mass spectrometry of the protein indicates that the molecular mass of the protein corresponds to the predicted amino acid sequence. Circular dichroism spectra of the ferric derivative and UV-visible spectra of various ferric and ferrous derivatives (pH 6.99, mu = 0.10 M, 25.0 degrees C) are consistent with published data for the wild-type protein. For the ferric derivative, UV-visible (298 and 77 K) and EPR (10 K) spectra indicate the existence of a thermal equilibrium between high- and low-spin forms. Titration of the protein (0.10 M NaCl, mu = 0.10 M, 25.0 degrees C) between pHs 6.68 and 10.35 indicate formation (pKa = 8.3+/-0.03) of a 6-coordinate, hydroxide-bound form of the protein at high pH. All of the above data are consistent with the behaviour of the wild-type protein.
Project description:The two laboratory reactions focus on teaching several concepts associated with green chemistry. Each uses a commercial, nontoxic, and biodegradable surfactant, TPGS-750-M, to promote organic reactions within the lipophilic cores of nanoscale micelles in water. These experiments are based on work by K. Barry Sharpless (an azide-alkyne "click" reaction) and Robert Grubbs (an olefin cross-metathesis reaction); both are suitable for an undergraduate organic laboratory. The copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne [3+2] cycloaddition of benzyl azide and 4-tolylacetylene is very rapid: the triazole product is readily isolated by filtration and is characterized by thin-layer chromatography and melting point analysis. The ruthenium-catalyzed olefin cross-metathesis reaction of benzyl acrylate with 1-hexene is readily monitored by thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The metathesis experiment comparatively evaluates the efficacy of a TPGS-750-M/water medium relative to a traditional reaction performed in dichloromethane (a common solvent used for olefin metathesis).