Sodium ion-coupled uptake of taurocholate by intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles.
ABSTRACT: The uptake of taurocholate was studied in membrane vesicles isolated from brush borders of hamster jejunum and ileum. When an extra- to intra-vesicular gradient of Na+ ions was present ileal vesicles took up 10 times more taurocholate than did jejunal vesicles. Accumulation of taurocholate by ileal vesicles was transient and was due to transport of this bile salt into an osmotically active intravesicular space rather than simple binding. Uptake of taurocholate was specifically dependent on Na+ ions; NaCl and Na2SO4 were capable of supporting accumulation, whereas KCl, LiCl and mannitol were not. Na+-coupled uptake of taurocholate into ileal vesicles was inhibited by other trihydroxy bile salts, by preloading the vesicles with Na+ and by simultaneous flow of glucose into the vesicles. Similarly, vesicular uptake of glucose was inhibited by simultaneous uptake of taurocholate. These results demonstrated that brush-border membrane vesicles prepared from ileum possess an Na+-coupled co-transport system for taurocholate that is similar to the active bile-salt transport system present in the intact ileum.
Project description:Uptake of taurocholate into brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from rat small intestine by a Ca(2+) -precipitation method was investigated by using a rapid-filtration technique. Uptake of taurocholate by ileal brush-border membranes consisted of three phenomena: binding to the outside of the vesicles, transfer across the vesicle membrane and binding to the intravesicular compartment. The transport of taurocholate across the brush-border membranes was stimulated in the presence of Na(+) compared with the presence of K(+); stimulation was about 11-fold in the presence of a NaCl gradient (Na(o)>Na(i)), where the subscripts refer to ;outside' and ;inside' respectively, and 4-fold under equilibrium conditions for Na(+) (Na(o)=Na(i)). In the presence of a Na(+) gradient a typical ;overshoot' phenomenon was observed. Membranes preloaded with unlabelled taurocholate showed an accelerated entry of labelled taurocholate (tracer exchange) in the presence of Na(+) compared with the presence of K(+). The stimulation by Na(+) was observed only in membrane preparations from the ileum. Addition of monactin, an ionophore for univalent cations, decreased the Na(+)-gradient-driven taurocholate uptake. The Na(+)-dependent taurocholate transport showed saturation kinetics and the phenomenon of counterflow and was inhibited by glycocholate. Other cations such as Li(+), Rb(+) and Cs(+) could not replace Na(+) in its stimulatory action. When the electrical potential difference across the vesicle membrane was altered by establishing different diffusion potentials (anion replacement; K(+) gradient+/-valinomycin) a more-negative potential inside stimulated Na(+)-dependent taurocholate transport. These data demonstrate the presence of a rheogenic (potential sensitive) Na(+)-taurocholate co-transport system in ileal brush-border membranes and support the hypothesis that the reabsorption of bile acids in the ileum is a secondary active uptake.
Project description:The functional-unit molecular size of the Na+/bile acid cotransport system and the apparent target size of the bile-acid-binding proteins in brush-border membrane vesicles from rabbit ileum were determined by radiation inactivation with high-energy electrons. The size of the functional transporting unit for Na(+)-dependent taurocholate uptake was determined to 451 +/- 35 kDa, whereas an apparent molecular mass of 434 +/- 39 kDa was measured for the Na(+)-dependent D-glucose transport system. Proteins of 93 kDa and 14 kDa were identified as putative protein components of the ileal Na+/bile acid cotransporter in the rabbit ileum, whereas a protein of 87 kDa may be involved in passive intestinal bile acid uptake. Photoaffinity labelling with 3- and 7-azi-derivatives of taurocholate revealed a target size of 229 +/- 10 kDa for the 93 kDa protein, and 132 +/- 23 kDa for the 14 kDa protein. These findings indicate that the ileal Na+/bile acid co-transport system is in its functional state a protein complex composed of several subunits. The functional molecular sizes for Na(+)-dependent transport activity and the bile-acid-binding proteins suggest that the Na+/bile acid co-transporter from rabbit ileum is a homotetramer (AB)4 composed of four AB subunits, where A represents the integral 93 kDa and B the peripheral 14 kDa brush-border membrane protein.
Project description:The Na+/bile salt co-transporter of the pig ileal brush border membrane has been expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Injection of pig ileal poly (A)+ RNA into oocytes resulted in the functional expression of an Na(+)-gradient-stimulated taurocholate uptake within 2-5 days. The expressed Na(+)-dependent taurocholate uptake exhibited saturation kinetics (apparent Km of 48 microM), and displayed similar competitive substrate inhibition by taurodeoxycholate as the native brush border Na+/bile salt co-transporter studied in pig ileal brush border membrane vesicles. Interestingly, injection of pig proximal and mid intestinal poly (A)+ RNA into oocytes also resulted in the expression of the Na+/bile salt co-transporter, though the Na(+)-dependent transport of bile salts does not occur in brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) isolated from pig proximal and mid intestine. This suggests that the mRNA coding for the co-transporter is present in the enterocytes lining the whole length of the small intestine, but that the function is only expressed in the brush border of the distal small intestine. The transport of D-glucose into BBMV, and the transport of methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (a non-metabolizable hexose derivative) into oocytes were used throughout the study as methods of confirming the integrity of vesicles and oocytes.
Project description:Photoaffinity labelling of brush border membrane vesicles from rabbit ileum with radiolabelled 3,3-azo and 7,7-azo derivatives of taurocholate identified integral membrane proteins of molecular masses 93 and 46 kDa, as well as a 14 kDa peripheral membrane protein, as components of the ileal Na+/bile acid transport system [Kramer, Girbig, Gutjahr, Kowalewski, Jouvenal, Müller, Tripier and Wess (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 18035-18046]. Differential photoaffinity labelling in the presence of non-radiolabelled bile acid derivatives led, as expected, to a concentration-dependent decrease in the extent of labelling of the 93 and 46 kDa transmembrane proteins, which are the monomeric and dimeric forms of the ileal bile acid transporter protein. The extent of labelling of the 14 kDa ileal lipid-binding protein (ILBP), however, increased on the addition of unlabelled bile acids, the increase being dependent on the structure of the bile acid added. The possibility of artifacts was excluded by photoaffinity labelling experiments in the frozen state as well as by model calculations. The experimental results suggest that the binding of bile acids to ILBP can increase the affinity of ILBP for bile acids. These results would be in accordance with a substrate-load modification of transport activity and a positive-feedback regulation mechanism for active uptake of bile acid in the ileum.
Project description:D-Glucose transport was investigated in isolated brush-border membrane vesicles from human small intestine. Characteristics of D-glucose transport from the jejunum were compared with that in the mid and terminal ileum. Jejunal and mid-ileal D-glucose transport was Na+-dependent and electrogenic. The transient overshoot of jejunal D-glucose transport was significantly greater than corresponding values in mid-ileum. The terminal ileum did not exhibit Na+-dependent D-glucose transport, but did exhibit Na+-dependent taurocholate transport. Na+-glucose co-transport activity as measured by tracer-exchange experiments was greatest in the jejunum, and diminished aborally. We conclude that D-glucose transport in man is Na+-dependent and electrogenic in the proximal intestine and directly related to the activity of D-glucose-Na+ transporters present in the brush-border membranes. D-Glucose transport in the terminal ileum resembles colonic transport of D-glucose.
Project description:Sodium-dependent bile acid transport in the rat ileum is abruptly expressed at weaning. Degenerate oligonucleotides, based on amino acid sequence identities between the rat liver and hamster ileal transporters, were used to amplify a rat ileal probe. A 1.2-kb cDNA clone, which contains the full coding region (348 amino acids, 38 kD), was isolated by hybridization screening. In vitro translation yielded a 38-kD protein which glycosylated to 48 kD. Sodium-dependent uptake of taurocholate was observed in oocytes injected with cRNA. Northern blot analysis revealed a 5.0-kb mRNA in ileum, kidney, and cecum. A 48-kD protein was detected in ileal brush border membranes and localized to the apical border of villus ileal enterocytes. mRNA and protein expression, which were negligible before weaning, increased dramatically at weaning. Nuclear transcription rates for the transporter increased 15-fold between postnatal days 7 and 28. The apparent molecular weight of the transporter also increased between days 19 and 28. In summary, the developmental regulation of the rat ileal sodium-dependent bile acid cotransporter is characterized by transcriptionally regulated increases in mRNA and protein levels at the time of weaning with changes in apparent molecular weight of the protein after weaning.
Project description:Uptake of SO(4) (2-) into brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from rat kindey cortex by a Ca(2+)-precipitation method was investigated by using a rapid-filtration technique. Uptake of SO(4) (2-) by the vesicles was osmotically sensitive and represented transport into an intra-vesicular space. Transport of SO(4) (2-) by brush-border membranes was stimulated in the presence of Na(+), compared with the presence of K(+) or other univalent cations. A typical ;overshoot' phenomenon was observed in the presence of an NaCl gradient (100mm-Na(+) outside/zero mm-Na(+) inside). Radioactive-SO(4) (2-) exchange was faster in the presence of Na(+) than in the presence of K(+). Addition of gramicidin-D, an ionophore for univalent cations, decreased the Na(+)-gradient-driven SO(4) (2-) uptake. SO(4) (2-) uptake was only saturable in the presence of Na(+). Counter-transport of Na(+)-dependent SO(4) (2-) transport was shown with MoO(4) (2-) and S(2)O(3) (2-), but not with PO(4) (2-). Changing the electrical potential difference across the vesicle membrane by establishing different diffusion potentials (anion replacement; K(+) gradient+/-valinomycin) was not able to alter Na(+)-dependent SO(4) (2-) uptake. The experiments indicate the presence of an electroneutral Na(+)/SO(4) (2-)-co-transport system in brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from rat kidney cortex.
Project description:Primary bile acid malabsorption (PBAM) is an idiopathic intestinal disorder associated with congenital diarrhea, steatorrhea, interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, and reduced plasma cholesterol levels. The molecular basis of PBAM is unknown, and several conflicting mechanisms have been postulated. In this study, we cloned the human ileal Na+/bile acid cotransporter gene (SLC10A2) and employed single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis to screen for PBAM-associated mutations. Four polymorphisms were identified and sequenced in a family with congenital PBAM. One allele encoded an A171S missense mutation and a mutated donor splice site for exon 3. The other allele encoded two missense mutations at conserved amino acid positions, L243P and T262M. In transfected COS cells, the L243P, T262M, and double mutant (L243P/T262M) did not affect transporter protein expression or trafficking to the plasma membrane; however, transport of taurocholate and other bile acids was abolished. In contrast, the A171S mutation had no effect on taurocholate uptake. The dysfunctional mutations were not detected in 104 unaffected control subjects, whereas the A171S was present in 28% of that population. These findings establish that SLC10A2 mutations can cause PBAM and underscore the ileal Na+/bile acid cotransporter's role in intestinal reclamation of bile acids.
Project description:The apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (Asbt) is responsible for transport across the intestinal brush border membrane; however, the carrier(s) responsible for basolateral bile acid export into the portal circulation remains to be determined. Although the heteromeric organic solute transporter Ostalpha-Ostbeta exhibits many properties predicted for a candidate intestinal basolateral bile acid transporter, the in vivo functions of Ostalpha-Ostbeta have not been investigated. To determine the role of Ostalpha-Ostbeta in intestinal bile acid absorption, the Ostalpha gene was disrupted by homologous recombination in mice. Ostalpha(-/-) mice were physically indistinguishable from wild-type mice. In everted gut sac experiments, transileal transport of taurocholate was reduced by >80% in Ostalpha(-/-) vs. wild-type mice; the residual taurocholate transport was further reduced to near-background levels in gut sacs prepared from Ostalpha(-/-)Mrp3(-/-) mice. The bile acid pool size was significantly reduced (>65%) in Ostalpha(-/-) mice, but fecal bile acid excretion was not elevated. The decreased pool size in Ostalpha(-/-) mice resulted from reduced hepatic Cyp7a1 expression that was inversely correlated with ileal expression of fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15). These data indicate that Ostalpha-Ostbeta is essential for intestinal bile acid transport in mice. Unlike a block in intestinal apical bile acid uptake, genetic ablation of basolateral bile acid export disrupts the classical homeostatic control of hepatic bile acid biosynthesis.
Project description:Many of the transporters involved in the transport of bile acids in the enterohepatic circulation have been characterized. The basolateral bile-acid transporter of ileocytes and cholangiocytes remains an exception. It has been suggested that rat multidrug resistance protein 3 (Mrp3) fulfills this function. Here we analyse bile-salt transport by human MRP3. Membrane vesicles from insect ( Spodoptera frugiperda ) cells expressing MRP3 show time-dependent uptake of glycocholate and taurocholate. Furthermore, sulphated bile salts were high-affinity competitive inhibitors of etoposide glucuronide transport by MRP3 (IC50 approximately 10 microM). Taurochenodeoxycholate, taurocholate and glycocholate inhibited transport at higher concentrations (IC50 approximately 100, 250 and 500 microM respectively). We used mouse fibroblast-like cell lines derived from mice with disrupted Mdr1a, Mdr1b and Mrp1 genes to generate transfectants that express the murine apical Na+-dependent bile-salt transporter (Asbt) and MRP3. Uptake of glycocholate by these cells is Na+-dependent, with a K(m) and V(max) of 29+/-7 microM and 660 +/- 63 pmol/min per mg of protein respectively and is inhibited by several organic-aniontransport inhibitors. Expression of MRP3 in these cells limits the accumulation of glycocholate and increases the efflux from cells preloaded with taurocholate or glycocholate. In conclusion, we find that MRP3 transports both taurocholate and glycocholate, albeit with low affinity, in contrast with the high-affinity transport by rat Mrp3. Our results suggest that MRP3 is unlikely to be the principal basolateral bile-acid transporter of ileocytes and cholangiocytes, but that it may have a role in the removal of bile acids from the liver in cholestasis.