No strict coupling of vitamin K1 (2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone)-dependent carboxylation and vitamin K1 epoxidation in detergent-solubilized microsomal fractions from rat liver.
ABSTRACT: NAD(P)H dehydrogenase ('DT-diaphorase', EC 18.104.22.168) and vitamin K epoxidase were removed by affinity chromatography from detergent-solubilized microsomal fractions. Thereby the microsomal fractions normally carrying out vitamin K1-dependent carboxylation of the microsomal precursor proteins of the prothrombin complex were inactivated. Purified NAD(P)H dehydrogenase added to this system restored carboxylation in the presence of vitamin K1 (2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) plus NADH. Vitamin K1 hydroquinone (2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinol) had no effect, in contrast with its effect in the intact system, where it can substitute for vitamin K1 plus NADH. The ability of NAD(P)H dehydrogenase to restore carboxylation in a system without vitamin K epoxidase activity shows that there is no obligatory coupling of the vitamin K1-dependent carboxylation with vitamin K1 epoxidation. These results suggest that the form of vitamin K1 that is active in the carboxylation reaction can be produced independently in two reactions: by NAD(P)H dehydrogenase in the reduction of the quinone and by vitamin K epoxidase in the epoxidation of the hydroquinone.
Project description:A simple three-step method was established for the purification of NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone) ('DT-diaphorase', EC 22.214.171.124) from rat liver by affinity chromatography with a recovery of above 50%. The final enzyme preparation was purified about 750-fold and was electrophoretically homogeneous. Gel filtration showed that the enzyme had a mol.wt. of about 55 000, and one molecule of FAD was found per 55 000 mol.wt. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis gave a mol.wt. of about 27 000. Two N-terminal amino acids, asparagine/aspartic acid and glutamine/glutamic acid, were found in about equal yield, suggesting the presence of two non-identical polypeptide chains in the enzyme. NAD(P)H dehydrogenase was selectively removed by this affinity-chromatographic method from a microsomal carboxylation system. The system, which was solubilized by detergent and is dependent on vitamin K (2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthaquinone or analogues with other side chains), lost its activity on the removal of the enzyme. The activity can be completely restored to the system by adding purified cytoplasmic NAD(P)H dehydrogenase or by using the quinol form of vitamin K1 (2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthaquinol).
Project description:The antidotal effect of vitamin K in overcoming poisoning by coumarin anticoagulant drugs is mediated by a vitamin K-reducing enzyme of the endoplasmic reticulum [Wallin & Martin (1987) Biochem. J. 241, 389-396]. With microsomes obtained from human liver biopsies, we have investigated the localization and the transverse orientation of this enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum and compared its orientation to that of the other enzymes of the vitamin K-dependent carboxylation system. All enzymes were protected by the microsomal membrane and thus appear to have a luminal orientation in the endoplasmic reticulum, consistent with their role in the vitamin K-dependent modification of secretory glycoproteins. Separation of rough and smooth microsomes showed that vitamin K-dependent carboxylase activity was 6-fold higher in rough than in smooth microsomes. Vitamin K1 reduction by the coumarin-drug-sensitive (pathway I) and -insensitive (pathway II) enzymes of the vitamin K-dependent carboxylation system was the same in rough and smooth microsomes. The data suggest a close association between the pathway I and II enzymes in the endoplasmic reticulum. These pathways may be partial reactions of multienzyme complex which carries out the various activities associated with the vitamin K-dependent carboxylation system.
Project description:An osteoblast-like human osteosarcoma cell line (U2-OS) has been shown to possess a vitamin K-dependent carboxylation system which is similar to the system in human HepG2 cells and in liver and lung from the rat. In an 'in vitro' system prepared from these cells, vitamin K1 was shown to overcome warfarin inhibition of gamma-carboxylation carried out by the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase. The data suggest that osteoblasts, the cells involved in synthesis of vitamin K-dependent proteins in bone, can use vitamin K1 as an antidote to warfarin poisoning if enough vitamin K1 can accumulate in the tissue. Five precursors of vitamin K-dependent proteins were identified in osteosarcoma and HepG2 cells respectively. In microsomes (microsomal fractions) from the osteosarcoma cells these precursors revealed apparent molecular masses of 85, 78, 56, 35 and 31 kDa. When osteosarcoma cells were cultured in the presence of warfarin, vitamin K-dependent 14C-labelling of the 78 kDa precursor was enhanced. Selective 14C-labelling of one precursor was also demonstrated in microsomes from HepG2 cells and from rat lung after warfarin treatment. In HepG2 cells this precursor was identified as the precursor of (clotting) Factor X. This unique 14C-labelling pattern of precursors of vitamin K-dependent proteins in microsomes from different cells and tissues reflects a new mechanism underlying the action of warfarin.
Project description:Vitamin K serves as an essential co-factor in the ?-carboxylation of glutamate to ?-carboxyglutamate (GLA), a post-translational modification mediated by gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) and vitamin K oxidoreductases (VKORC1 or VKORC1L1). While both phylloquinone (K1) and menaquinone (K2) support the synthesis of GLA-modified proteins, studies assessing K1 and/or K2 effects in cancer cells have reported minimal effects of K1 and anti-proliferative or pro-apoptotic effects of K2. qPCR results indicated highest expression of GGCX, VKORC1, and VKORC1L1 in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines, Hs578T, MDA-MB-231 and SUM159PT, and in advanced stage disease. To assess differential effects of vitamin K, TNBC cells were cultured in media supplemented with K1 or K2. K1 treatment increased cell growth, and enhanced stemness and GLA-modified protein expression in TNBC lysates. Alternatively, lysates from cells exposed to vehicle, K2, or the VKOR antagonist, warfarin, did not express GLA-modified proteins. Further, K2 exposure reduced stemness and elicited anti-proliferative effects. These studies show that TNBC cells express a functional vitamin K pathway and that K1 and K2 exert distinct phenotypic effects. Clarification of the mechanisms by which K1 and K2 induce these effects may lead to relevant therapeutic strategies for manipulating this pathway in TNBC patients.
Project description:The oxidation of phylloquinone to the 2,3-epoxide (by phylloquinone epoxidase) was studied in liver from control and warfarin-resistant rats. The reaction requires microsomal fraction, soluble protein, a heat-stable soluble factor and O(2). It is not inhibited by CO or CN(-). Epoxidase activity was stimulated if plasma prothrombin was lowered either by anticoagulants or the absence of vitamin K. The activity of the enzyme rapidly returned to normal values after the administration of vitamin K to hypoprothrombinaemic rats. These differences in the activity of the enzyme occur in the microsomal fraction and not the cytosol. A thrombin-generating polypeptide that accumulates in microsomal fraction of hypothrombinaemic rats correlated directly with epoxidase activity. These data support the view that enzymic interconversion of phylloquinone and its 2,3-epoxide participates in the biological activity of vitamin K.
Project description:Vitamin K acts as a cofactor and is required for post-translational ?-carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDP). The current recommended daily intake (RDI) of vitamin K in most countries has been established based on normal coagulation requirements. Vitamin K1 and menaquinone (MK)-4 has been shown to decrease osteocalcin (OC) ?-carboxylation at RDI levels. Among the several vitamin K homologs, only MK-7 (vitamin K2) can promote ?-carboxylation of extrahepatic VKDPs, OC, and the matrix Gla protein at a nutritional dose around RDI. MK-7 has higher efficacy due to its higher bioavailability and longer half-life than other vitamin K homologs. As vitamin K1, MK-4, and MK-7 have distinct bioactivities, their RDIs should be established based on their relative activities. MK-7 increases bone mineral density and promotes bone quality and strength. Collagen production, and thus, bone quality may be affected by MK-7 or MK-4 converted from MK-7. In this review, we comprehensively discuss the various properties of MK-7.
Project description:This study investigated the potential of vitamin K1 as a novel lens aldose reductase inhibitor in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic cataract model. A single, intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (35?mg/kg) resulted in hyperglycemia, activation of lens aldose reductase 2 (ALR2) and accumulation of sorbitol in eye lens which could have contributed to diabetic cataract formation. However, when diabetic rats were treated with vitamin K1 (5?mg/kg, sc, twice a week) it resulted in lowering of blood glucose and inhibition of lens aldose reductase activity because of which there was a corresponding decrease in lens sorbitol accumulation. These results suggest that vitamin K1 is a potent inhibitor of lens aldose reductase enzyme and we made an attempt to understand the nature of this inhibition using crude lens homogenate as well as recombinant human aldose reductase enzyme. Our results from protein docking and spectrofluorimetric analyses clearly show that vitamin K1 is a potent inhibitor of ALR2 and this inhibition is primarily mediated by the blockage of DL-glyceraldehyde binding to ALR2. At the same time docking also suggests that vitamin K1 overlaps at the NADPH binding site of ALR2, which probably shows that vitamin K1 could possibly bind both these sites in the enzyme. Another deduction that we can derive from the experiments performed with pure protein is that ALR2 has three levels of affinity, first for NADPH, second for vitamin K1 and third for the substrate DL-glyceraldehyde. This was evident based on the dose-dependency experiments performed with both NADPH and DL-glyceraldehyde. Overall, our study shows the potential of vitamin K1 as an ALR2 inhibitor which primarily blocks enzyme activity by inhibiting substrate interaction of the enzyme. Further structural studies are needed to fully comprehend the exact nature of binding and inhibition of ALR2 by vitamin K1 that could open up possibilities of its therapeutic application.
Project description:Currently, there are few guidelines for the use of vitamin K1 in the maintenance treatment of long-acting anticoagulant rodenticide (LAAR) poisonings. We explored factors in the treatment of LAAR poisoning during the maintenance period in order to suggest feasible treatment models.Data from 24 cases of anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning in our hospital were collected from January 2013 to May 2016. The patients' sex, age, coagulation function, total time from poisoning to treatment with vitamin K1 (prehospital time), vitamin K1 sustained treatment time (VKSTT), anticoagulant rodenticide category, and specific poison dosage were collected. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between vitamin K1 dosage and other factors during the maintenance period.Only VKSTT (partial regression coefficient -1.133, 0.59, P?=?0.035) had an obvious influence on the therapeutic dose of vitamin K1 required during the maintenance period.After an initial pulse therapy, the bleeding and coagulation functions were stabilized, and the patients were subsequently treated with vitamin K1 during the maintenance period. Over time, the maintenance dose of vitamin K1 (10-120?mg/d, intravenous drip) was gradually decreased and was not related to toxicant concentration.
Project description:2-methyl-6-phytyl-1, 4-benzoquinol methyltransferase (MPBQ-MT) is a vital enzyme catalyzing a key methylation step in both ?/?-tocopherol and plastoquinone biosynthetic pathway. In this study, the gene encoding MPBQ-MT was isolated from lettuce (Lactuca sativa) by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), named LsMT. Overexpression of LsMT in lettuce brought about a significant increase of ?- and ?-tocopherol contents with a reduction of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) content, suggesting a competition for a common substrate phytyl diphosphate (PDP) between the two biosynthetic pathways. Besides, overexpression of LsMT significantly increased plastoquinone (PQ) level. The increase of tocopherol and plastoquinone levels by LsMT overexpression conduced to the improvement of plants' tolerance and photosynthesis under high light stress, by directing excessive light energy toward photosynthetic production rather than toward generation of more photooxidative damage. These findings suggest that the role and function of MPBQ-MT can be further explored for enhancing vitamin E value, strengthening photosynthesis and phototolerance under high light in plants.