Cloning and expression in vitro of human xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase.
ABSTRACT: To study the expression of human xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase (hXDH/XO), we cloned the cDNA covering its complete coding sequence and characterized it by translation in vitro in rabbit reticulocyte lysates and by transient expression in COS-1 cells. Two specific protein products with approximate molecular masses of 150 and 130 kDa were detected in both expression systems. These products are compatible with the molecular sizes of XDH/XO, and these peptides also showed immunoreactivity with polyclonal anti-hXDH antibodies. Significant XDH/XO enzyme activity (277 +/- 54 pmol/min per mg of protein) was measured in lysates of transfected COS cells, whereas in control transfections the activities were below the detection limit of our assay (0.2 pmol/min per mg of protein). The COS cells expressed the enzyme predominantly (89.8 +/- 0.3%) in the dehydrogenase form.
Project description:Mammalian xanthine oxidoreductases, which catalyze the last two steps in the formation of urate, are synthesized as the dehydrogenase form xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) but can be readily converted to the oxidase form xanthine oxidase (XO) by oxidation of sulfhydryl residues or by proteolysis. Here, we present the crystal structure of the dimeric (M(r), 290,000) bovine milk XDH at 2.1-A resolution and XO at 2.5-A resolution and describe the major changes that occur on the proteolytic transformation of XDH to the XO form. Each molecule is composed of an N-terminal 20-kDa domain containing two iron sulfur centers, a central 40-kDa flavin adenine dinucleotide domain, and a C-terminal 85-kDa molybdopterin-binding domain with the four redox centers aligned in an almost linear fashion. Cleavage of surface-exposed loops of XDH causes major structural rearrangement of another loop close to the flavin ring (Gln 423Lys 433). This movement partially blocks access of the NAD substrate to the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor and changes the electrostatic environment of the active site, reflecting the switch of substrate specificity observed for the two forms of this enzyme.
Project description:Xanthine oxidoreductase has been implicated in cancer. Nonetheless, the role played by its two convertible forms, xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and oxidase (XO) during tumorigenesis is not understood. Here we produce XDH-stable and XO-locked knock-in (ki) mice to address this question. After tumor transfer, XO ki mice show strongly increased tumor growth compared to wild type (WT) and XDH ki mice. Hematopoietic XO expression is responsible for this effect. After macrophage depletion, tumor growth is reduced. Adoptive transfer of XO-ki macrophages in WT mice increases tumor growth. In vitro, XO ki macrophages produce higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsible for the increased Tregs observed in the tumors. Blocking ROS in vivo slows down tumor growth. Collectively, these results indicate that the balance of XO/XDH plays an important role in immune surveillance of tumor development. Strategies that inhibit the XO form specifically may be valuable in controlling cancer growth.
Project description:Inflammation and ischemia--reperfusion tissue injury are important pathophysiologic processes with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations; the enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase (XDH/XO) is thought to play a key role in ischemia--reperfusion injury. Recent studies have shown the transcriptional regulation of XDH/XO by cytokines (Dupont et al., 1992, J. Clin. Invest. 89, 197-202). In the present study, the 5' structure of the XDH/XO gene and characterization of its promoter are undertaken providing an initial step to further elucidate the regulatory mechanism(s) of this enzyme. XDH/XO cDNA from rat bone marrow macrophage has been isolated and used to screen a rat genomic library in order to identify and characterize the promoter of the XDH/XO gene. By Southern analysis, XDH/XO was found to be a single copy gene in the rat genome. Primer extension, RNase protection, and anchor-PCR studies indicate the presence of multiple start sites within a 65 bp window located some 20-85 bp upstream of the translation initiator (ATG). Functional studies of the sequences up to 116 nt upstream of the translational start site, which encompasses the several transcriptional start sites, indicate that this region is sufficient to drive the expression of a luciferase reporter gene and is presumed to represent the promoter. Neither a TATA box nor a GC-rich region are present in close proximity to any of the transcriptional start sites; however, sequences with homology to known initiator elements are found within this 116 bp fragment. Several possible regulatory elements, including a NF-IL6 motif, are also located upstream of the transcriptional start site. This study represents the first description of the XDH/XO promoter from a vertebrate system.
Project description:In mammals, xanthine oxidoreductase can exist as xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XO). The two enzymes possess common redox active cofactors, which form an electron transfer (ET) pathway terminated by a flavin cofactor. In spite of identical protein primary structures, the redox potential difference between XDH and XO for the flavin semiquinone/hydroquinone pair (E(sq/hq)) is ~170 mV, a striking difference. The former greatly prefers NAD(+) as ultimate substrate for ET from the iron-sulfur cluster FeS-II via flavin while the latter only accepts dioxygen. In XDH (without NAD(+)), however, the redox potential of the electron donor FeS-II is 180 mV higher than that for the acceptor flavin, yielding an energetically uphill ET. On the basis of new 1.65, 2.3, 1.9, and 2.2 Å resolution crystal structures for XDH, XO, the NAD(+)- and NADH-complexed XDH, E(sq/hq) were calculated to better understand how the enzyme activates an ET from FeS-II to flavin. The majority of the E(sq/hq) difference between XDH and XO originates from a conformational change in the loop at positions 423-433 near the flavin binding site, causing the differences in stability of the semiquinone state. There was no large conformational change observed in response to NAD(+) binding at XDH. Instead, the positive charge of the NAD(+) ring, deprotonation of Asp429, and capping of the bulk surface of the flavin by the NAD(+) molecule all contribute to altering E(sq/hq) upon NAD(+) binding to XDH.
Project description:Anticancer agent 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) has been in use since 1953 for the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite being available for 60 years, several aspects of 6MP drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics in humans are unknown. Molybdoflavoenzymes such as aldehyde oxidase (AO) and xanthine oxidase (XO) have previously been implicated in the metabolism of this drug. In this study, we investigated the in vitro metabolism of 6MP to 6-thiouric acid (6TUA) in pooled human liver cytosol. We discovered that 6MP is metabolized to 6TUA through sequential metabolism via the 6-thioxanthine (6TX) intermediate. The role of human AO and XO in the metabolism of 6MP was established using the specific inhibitors raloxifene and febuxostat. Both AO and XO were involved in the metabolism of the 6TX intermediate, whereas only XO was responsible for the conversion of 6TX to 6TUA. These findings were further confirmed using purified human AO and Escherichia coli lysate containing expressed recombinant human XO. Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), which belongs to the family of xanthine oxidoreductases and preferentially reduces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), was shown to contribute to the overall production of the 6TX intermediate as well as the final product 6TUA in the presence of NAD(+) in human liver cytosol. In conclusion, we present evidence that three enzymes, AO, XO, and XDH, contribute to the production of 6TX intermediate, whereas only XO and XDH are involved in the conversion of 6TX to 6TUA in pooled HLC.
Project description:The enzyme xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is an important source of oxygen free radicals and related postischemic injury. Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), the major form of XOR in tissues, can be converted to xanthine oxidase (XO) by oxidation of sulfhydryl residues or by proteolysis. The conversion of XDH to XO has been assumed to be required for radical generation and tissue injury. It is also possible that XDH could generate significant quantities of superoxide, •O??, for cellular signaling or injury; however, this possibility and its potential ramifications have not been previously considered. To unambiguously determine if XDH can be a significant source of •O??, experiments were performed to measure and characterize •O²? generation using XDH from chicken liver that is locked in the dehydrogenase conformation. Electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping experiments with 5-(diethoxyphosphoryl)-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide demonstrated that XDH in the presence of xanthine produces significant amounts of •O??. NAD? and NADH inhibited the generation of •O?? from XDH in a dose-dependent manner, with NAD? exhibiting stronger inhibition than NADH at low physiological concentrations. Decreased amounts of NAD? and NADH, which occur during and following tissue ischemia, enhanced the generation of •O?? from XDH in the presence of xanthine. It was observed that XDH-mediated oxygen radical generation markedly depressed Ca²?-ATPase activity of isolated sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles from cardiac muscle, and this was modulated by NAD? and NADH. Thus, XDH can be an important redox-regulated source of •O?? generation in ischemic tissue, and conversion to XO is not required to activate radical formation and subsequent tissue injury.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) existing in two interconvertible forms, xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XO), catabolises xanthine to uric acid that is further broken down to antioxidative agent allantoin. XOR also produces free radicals serving as second messenger and microbicidal agent. Large variation in the XO activity has been observed among various species. Both hypo and hyper activity of XOR leads to pathophysiological conditions. Given the important nutritional role of buffalo milk in human health especially in south Asia, it is crucial to understand the functional properties of buffalo XOR and the underlying structural basis of variations in comparison to other species. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Buffalo XO activity of 0.75 U/mg was almost half of cattle XO activity. Enzymatic efficiency (k cat/K m) of 0.11 sec(-1) µM(-1) of buffalo XO was 8-10 times smaller than that of cattle XO. Buffalo XOR also showed lower antibacterial activity than cattle XOR. A CD value (??430 nm) of 46,000 M(-1) cm(-1) suggested occupancy of 77.4% at Fe/S I centre. Buffalo XOR contained 0.31 molybdenum atom/subunit of which 48% existed in active sulfo form. The active form of XO in buffalo was only 16% in comparison to ?30% in cattle. Sequencing revealed 97.4% similarity between buffalo and cattle XOR. FAD domain was least conserved, while metal binding domains (Fe/S and Molybdenum) were highly conserved. Homology modelling of buffalo XOR showed several variations occurring in clusters, especially close to FAD binding pocket which could affect NAD(+) entry in the FAD centre. The difference in XO activity seems to be originating from cofactor deficiency, especially molybdenum. CONCLUSION: A major fraction of buffalo milk XOR exists in a catalytically inactive form due to high content of demolybdo and desulfo forms. Lower Fe/S content and structural factors might be contributing to lower enzymatic efficiency of buffalo XOR in a minor way.
Project description:The natural compound Alternol was shown to induce profound oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death preferentially in cancer cells. In this study, a comprehensive investigation was conducted to understand the mechanism for Alternol-induced ROS accumulation responsible for apoptotic cell death. Our data revealed that Alternol treatment moderately increased mitochondrial superoxide formation rate, but it was significantly lower than the total ROS positive cell population. Pre-treatment with mitochondria-specific anti-oxidant MitoQ, NOX or NOS specific inhibitors had no protective effect on Alternol-induced ROS accumulation and cell death. However, XDH/XO inhibition by specific small chemical inhibitors or gene silencing reduced total ROS levels and protected cells from apoptosis induced by Alternol. Further analysis revealed that Alternol treatment significantly enhanced XDH oxidative activity and induced a strong protein oxidation-related damage in malignant but not benign cells. Interestingly, benign cells exerted a strong spike in anti-oxidant SOD and catalase activities compared to malignant cells after Alternol treatment. Cell-based protein-ligand engagement and in-silicon docking analysis showed that Alternol interacts with XDH protein on the catalytic domain with two amino acid residues away from its substrate binding sites. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Alternol treatment enhances XDH oxidative activity, leading to ROS-dependent apoptotic cell death.
Project description:Rhodobacter capsulatus xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is composed of two subunits, XDHA and XDHB. Immediately downstream of xdhB, a third gene was identified, designated xdhC, which is cotranscribed with xdhAB. Interposon mutagenesis revealed that the xdhC gene product is required for XDH activity. However, XDHC is not a subunit of active XDH, which forms an alpha2beta2 heterotetramer in R. capsulatus. It was shown that XDHC neither is a transcriptional regulator for xdh gene expression nor influences XDH stability. To analyze the function of XDHC for XDH in R. capsulatus, inactive XDH was purified from an xdhC mutant strain. Analysis of the molybdenum cofactor content of this enzyme demonstrated that in the absence of XDHC, no molybdopterin cofactor MPT is present in the XDHAB tetramer. In contrast, absorption spectra of inactive XDH isolated from the xdhC mutant revealed the presence of iron-sulfur clusters and flavin adenine dinucleotide, demonstrating that XDHC is not required for the insertion of these cofactors. The absence of MPT from XDH isolated from an xdhC mutant indicates that XDHC either acts as a specific MPT insertase or might be a specific chaperone facilitating the insertion of MPT and/or folding of XDH during or after cofactor insertion.
Project description:In situ hybridization was used to localize xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) mRNA in horse skeletal muscle. Capillary endothelial cells were found to express XDH, but muscle cells did not give any signal. The digoxigenin-labelled probe was produced by PCR with primers based on the cDNA sequence of mouse XDH and horse lung cDNAs. A 4.3 kb mRNA was detected in a Northern blot.