Mechanism of bile salt-induced mucin secretion by cultured dog gallbladder epithelial cells.
ABSTRACT: 1. Hypersecretion of gallbladder mucin has been proposed to be a pathogenic factor in cholesterol gallstone formation. Using cultured gallbladder epithelial cells, we demonstrated that bile salts regulate mucin secretion by the gallbladder epithelium. In the present study we have investigated whether established second messenger pathways are involved in bile salt-induced mucin secretion. 2. The effect of activators and inhibitors on mucin secretion was studied by measuring the secretion of [3H]N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-labelled glycoproteins. Intracellular cAMP content of the cells was measured using a radioimmunoassay. 3. Incubation of the cells with 10 mM taurocholate did not increase the intracellular cAMP content (25.7 versus control 22.8 pmol of cAMP/mg of protein). No stimulation of mucin secretion was observed after incubation with 1-100 microM concentrations of the calcium ionophores ionomycin and A23187. The stimulatory effect of 10 mM tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC) on mucin secretion could not be inhibited by the addition of EDTA. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by 1 microgram/ml phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) caused an increase in mucin secretion (342% versus control 100%), comparable with the effect of 40 mM TUDC. The effect of 10 ng/ml PMA could partially be inhibited by a concentration of 2 microM of the PKC inhibitor staurosporin. Staurosporin had no inhibitory effect on mucin secretion induced by TUDC. 4. In gallbladder epithelial cells bile salts do not stimulate mucin secretion via one of the classical signal transduction pathways. We hypothesize that bile salts act on mucin secretion via a direct interaction with the apical membrane.
Project description:1. Bile salts stimulate mucin secretion by the gallbladder epithelium. We have investigated whether this stimulatory effect is due to a detergent effect of bile salts. 2. The bile salts taurocholic acid (TC) and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDC) and the detergents Triton X-100 (12.5-400 microM) and Tween-20 (0.1-3.2 mM) were applied to monolayers of cultured dog gallbladder epithelial cells. Mucin secretion was studied by measuring the secretion of [3H]N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-labelled glycoproteins. We also attempted to alter the fluidity of the apical membrane of the cells through extraction of cholesterol with beta-cyclodextrin (2.5-15 mM). The effect on TUDC-induced mucin secretion was studied. Cell viability was assessed by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage or 51Cr release. 3. In contrast with the bile salts, the detergents were not able to cause an increase in mucin secretion without causing concomitant cell lysis. Concentrations of detergent that increased mucin release (>100 microM Triton X-100, >0.8 mM Tween-20), caused increased LDH release. Incubation with beta-cyclodextrin resulted in effective extraction of cholesterol without causing an increase in 51Cr release. However, no effect of the presumed altered membrane fluidity on TUDC (10 mM)-induced mucin secretion was observed. 4. The stimulatory effect of bile salts on mucin secretion by gallbladder epithelial cells is not affected by the fluidity of the apical membrane of the cells and also cannot be mimicked by other detergents. We conclude that the ability of bile salts to cause mucin secretion by the gallbladder epithelium is not determined by their detergent properties.
Project description:Glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC) and taurolithocholate (TLC) are hepatotoxic and cholestatic bile salts, whereas tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC) is cytoprotective and anticholestatic. Yet they all act, in part, through phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase(PI3K)-dependent mechanisms ("PI3K-paradox"). Hepatocytes express three catalytic PI3K Class I isoforms (p110?/?/?), specific functions of which, in liver, are unclear. In other cell types, p110? is associated with detrimental effects. To shed light on the PI3K enigma, we determined whether hydrophobic and hydrophilic bile salts differentially activate distinct p110 isoforms in hepatocytes, and whether p110? mediates bile salt-induced hepatocyte cell death.Isoform-specific PI3K activity assays were established to determine isoform activation by bile salts in rat hepatocytes. Activation of Akt and JNK was determined by immunoblotting. Following stimulation with hydrophobic bile salts, hepatocellular apoptosis was determined morphologically after Hoechst staining and by analysis of caspase-3/-7 activity or caspase-3 cleavage. Activity or expression of PI3K p110? was inhibited pharmacologically (AS604850) or by knock-down using specific siRNA.All bile salts tested activated p110?, while p110? was activated by TUDC and GCDC. Intriguingly, only hydrophobic bile salts activated p110?. Inhibition of p110? attenuated GCDC-induced Akt- and JNK-activation, but did not alter TUDC- or cAMP-induced Akt-signaling in rat hepatocytes. Inhibition or knock-down of p110? markedly attenuated hydrophobic bile salt-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma cell lines but did not alter Fas-, tumor necrosis factor ?- and etoposide-induced apoptosis. Depletion of Ca(++) prevented GCDC-induced toxicity in rat hepatocytes but did not affect GCDC-induced Akt- and JNK-activation.PI3K p110? is activated by hydrophobic, but not hydrophilic bile salts. Bile salt-induced hepatocyte apoptosis is partly mediated via a PI3K p110? dependent signaling pathway, potentially involving JNK.
Project description:Isolated perfused rat livers were used to study the effects of taurochenodeoxycholate (TCDC) and tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC) upon some aspects of biliary composition. After depletion of the endogenous bile salt pool of the liver, introduction of either bile salt brought about increases in bile flow, bile salt output and biliary phospholipid output. Taurochenodeoxycholate needed a lower biliary concentration to produce phospholipid output than did tauroursodeoxycholate. TCDC perfusion caused a substantial output of plasma-membrane enzymes (5'-nucleotidase and alkaline phosphodiesterase) into the bile, whereas TUDC caused little output of either enzyme; this may represent a characteristic difference between the effects of the two bile salts on the hepatobiliary system. The results from TUDC perfusion indicate also that much of the output of biliary phospholipid promoted by bile salts, may be independent of the output of plasma-membrane enzymes promoted by bile salts.
Project description:The increasing prevalence of cholesterol gallstone disease places an economic burden on the healthcare system. To identify novel therapeutics, we assessed the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in combination with UDCA in a mouse model of cholesterol gallstones. Gallstone dissolution, gallbladder wall thickness, mucin gene expression in the gallbladder, and levels of phospholipids, cholesterol, and bile acids in bile and serum were analysed. RNA was extracted from the liver for mRNA sequencing and gene expression profiling. Combination treatment resulted in greater gallstone dissolution compared with the control group, and PUFA and combination treatments reduced the thickness of the gallbladder wall. Expression levels of mucin genes were significantly lower in the UDCA, PUFA, and combination groups. Transcriptome analyses revealed that combination treatment modulated hepatic lipid metabolism. The PUFA and combination groups showed elevated bile phospholipid and bile acid levels and a lower cholesterol saturation index. Combination treatment with PUFA and UDCA dissolves cholesterol gallstones in mice by decreasing mucin production, increasing levels of phospholipids and bile acids in bile, and decreasing cholesterol saturation. Further studies of the therapeutic effects of combination PUFA and UDCA treatment in patients with cholesterol gallstones are warranted.
Project description:Biliary lipids are a family of four dissimilar molecular species consisting of a mixture of bile salts (substituted cholanoic acids), phospholipids, mostly (>96%) diacylphosphatidylcholines, unesterified cholesterol, and bilirubin conjugates known trivially as lipopigments. The primary pathophysiological defect in cholesterol gallstone disease is hypersecretion of hepatic cholesterol into bile with less frequent hyposecretion of bile salts and/or phospholipids. Several other gallbladder abnormalities contribute and include hypomotility, immune-mediated inflammation, hypersecretion of gelling mucins, and accelerated phase transitions; there is also reduced intestinal motility that augments "secondary" bile salt synthesis by the anaerobic microflora. Cholesterol nucleation is initiated when unilamellar vesicles of cholesterol plus biliary phospholipids fuse to form multilamellar vesicles. From these "plate-like" cholesterol monohydrate crystals, the building blocks of macroscopic stones are nucleated heterogeneously by mucin gel. Multiple Lith gene loci have been identified in inbred mice, paving the way for discovery of an ever-increasing number of LITH genes in humans. Because of the frequency of the metabolic syndrome today, insulin resistance and LITH genes all interact with a number of environmental cholelithogenic factors to cause the gallstone phenotype. This review summarizes current concepts of the physical-chemical state of biliary lipids in health and in lithogenic bile and outlines the molecular, genetic, hepatic, and cholecystic factors that underlie the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones.
Project description:The T84 colonic adenocarcinoma cell line, which has been used extensively as a model for studies of epithelial chloride secretion, also produces mucin and secretes it in culture. Electron microscopy of fixed sections of cultured cells, along with Immunogold labelling with an antibody to human small intestine (SI) mucin, revealed the presence of goblet-like cells with mucin-containing secretory granules. The mucin was of high molecular mass, had an amino acid composition similar to that of purified human SI and colonic mucins, and competed effectively with SI mucin for binding to the anti-(SI mucin) antibody. A sensitive solid-phase immunoassay specific for intestinal mucins was developed and used to measure mucin secretion by T84 cells. Cultures were treated for 30 min at 37 degrees C with a number of agents known to cause chloride secretion by T84 cell monolayers and the amount of mucin appearing in the medium was measured. Carbachol (1 mM), A23187 (10 microM), prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) (1 microM) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) (0.1 microM) all stimulated mucin release, but histamine (1 mM) had no effect. Whereas VIP is reported to stimulate chloride secretion more strongly than carbachol, it was less effective than carbachol in stimulating mucin secretion. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) (0.1-10 microM) also stimulated mucin release strongly, implicating a responsive protein-kinase C-dependent pathway. Additive secretory responses were obtained with combined stimulation by VIP (10 nM-1 microM) and carbachol (1 mM). Responses to stimulation with A23187 (1-10 microM) together with PMA (10 nM-10 microM) suggest that cytosolic Ca2+ concentration is a modulator of PMA activity.
Project description:The role of endogenous prostaglandin production in phorbol diester-induced myocardial atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion was investigated in cultured spontaneously beating ventricular rat cardiomyocytes. Incubation of cells with 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 0.1 microM) led to a rapid response in ANP release, a response accompanied by increases in cellular prostacyclin (PGI2) production, cyclic AMP (cAMP) formation and spontaneous contraction frequency. Although PMA-induced ANP secretion exhibited the pharmacological profile of a protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated event, the response was abolished in the presence of the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors indomethacin (10 microM) and diclofenac (1 microM), indicating that endogenous prostaglandin production is responsible for PMA-induced ANP secretion in this system. Confirming this, PMA-induced ANP secretion was strongly correlated with endogenous formation of 6-oxo-prostaglandin F1 alpha (r = 0.93, P < 0.0005, n = 11), and exogenously applied PGI2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) elicited simultaneous increases in cAMP formation, contraction frequency and ANP secretion in these cells. Furthermore, PMA-induced cAMP formation was abolished in the presence of either diclofenac or indomethacin, whereas the cAMP-elevating agent forskolin (0.1 microM) mimicked the secretory and chronotropic effect of PMA in these cells. A role for cAMP in PMA-induced ANP secretion was also apparent insofar as PMA-induced ANP release was substantially decreased in the presence of the Rp-diastereomer of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphorothioate (Rp-cAMPS; 10 microM), whereas the cAMP-mimetic agent dibutyryl cAMP (10 microM) provoked a rapid increase in ANP secretion in this system. Finally, the Ca(2+)-channel antagonist nifedipine (0.1 microM) severely decreased PGI2-, PGE2- and PMA-induced ANP secretion without affecting PGF2 alpha-induced peptide release, suggesting that PGI2 and/or PGE2, but not PGF2 alpha, are the prostanoids involved in PMA-induced ANP release. Taken together, these results suggest that PKC activation induces ANP secretion in spontaneously beating rat ventricular cardiomyocytes via an autocrine pathway involving increased PGI2 and/or PGE2 formation, a response leading to the activation of a myocardial adenylate cyclase and, subsequently, to that of a nifedipine-sensitive Ca2+ channel.
Project description:Mucocele formation is characterized by secretion of abnormally thick mucus by the gallbladder epithelium of dogs that may cause obstruction of the bile duct or rupture of the gallbladder. The disease is increasingly recognized and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. The cause of gallbladder mucocele formation in dogs is unknown. There is a strong breed predisposition and affected dogs have a high incidence of concurrent endocrinopathy or hyperlipidemia. These observations suggest a significant influence of both genetic and metabolic factors on disease pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated a theory that mucocele formation is associated with a syndrome of metabolic disruption. We surmised that a global, untargeted metabolomics approach could provide unique insight into the systemic pathogenesis of gallbladder mucocele formation and identify specific compounds as candidate biomarkers or treatment targets. Moreover, concurrent examination of the serum and hepatic duct bile metabolome would enable the construction of mechanism-based theories or identification of specific compounds responsible for altered function of the gallbladder epithelium. Abnormalities observed in dogs with gallbladder mucocele formation, including a 33-fold decrease in serum adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), lower quantities of precursors required for synthesis of energy transporting nucleotides, and increases in citric acid cycle intermediates, suggest excess metabolic energy and a carbon surplus. Altered quantities of compounds involved in protein translation and RNA turnover, together with accumulation of gamma-glutamylated and N-acetylated amino acids in serum suggest abnormal regulation of protein and amino acid metabolism. Increases in lathosterol and 7?-hydroxycholesterol suggest a primary increase in cholesterol synthesis and diversion to bile acid formation. A number of specific biomarker compounds were identified for their ability to distinguish between control dogs and those that formed a gallbladder mucocele. Particularly noteworthy was a significant decrease in quantity of biologically active compounds that stimulate biliary ductal fluid secretion including adenosine, cAMP, taurolithocholic acid, and taurocholic acid. These findings support the presence of significant metabolic disruption in dogs with mucocele formation. A targeted, quantitative analysis of the identified serum biomarkers is warranted to determine their utility for diagnosis of this disease. Finally, repletion of compounds whose biological activity normally promotes biliary ductal secretion should be examined for any therapeutic impact for resolution or prevention of mucocele formation.
Project description:Hepatobiliary disease causes significant morbidity in people with cystic fibrosis (CF), yet this problem remains understudied. We previously found that newborn CF pigs have microgallbladders with significant luminal obstruction in the absence of infection and consistent inflammation. In this study, we sought to better understand the early pathogenesis of CF pig gallbladder disease. We hypothesized that loss of CFTR would impair gallbladder epithelium anion/liquid secretion and increase mucin production. CFTR was expressed apically in non-CF pig gallbladder epithelium but was absent in CF. CF pig gallbladders lacked cAMP-stimulated anion transport. Using a novel gallbladder epithelial organoid model, we found that Cl<sup>-</sup> or HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> was sufficient for non-CF organoid swelling. This response was absent for non-CF organoids in Cl<sup>-</sup>/HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>-free conditions and in CF. Single-cell RNA-sequencing revealed a single epithelial cell type in non-CF gallbladders that coexpressed CFTR, MUC5AC, and MUC5B. Despite CF gallbladders having increased luminal MUC5AC and MUC5B accumulation, there was no significant difference in the epithelial expression of gel-forming mucins between non-CF and CF pig gallbladders. In conclusion, these data suggest that loss of CFTR-mediated anion transport and fluid secretion contribute to microgallbladder development and luminal mucus accumulation in CF.
Project description:Colchicine, a drug which interferes with microtubular function, has no effect on the secretion of taurodehydrocholate into bile; it is therefore suggested that bile salts are unlikely to be packaged in vesicles during cellular transit from sinusoidal to canalicular membranes. Colchicine greatly reduces the secretion of phospholipid and cholesterol into bile; it is suggested that this is due to an interruption in the supply of vesicles bringing lipids to repair the canalicular membrane during bile salt output. In the absence of the protective effect of a continuous supply of repair vesicles, micelleforming bile salts damage the canalicular membrane; the increased concentration of plasma membrane enzymes in bile and the increased aspartate aminotransferase activity in plasma and bile are evidence of this damage. Damage to the canalicular membrane may also be an explanation for the reduction in taurocholate transport and the taurocholate-induced cholestasis which are seen with colchicine-treated livers. Such membrane damage is not observed in colchicine-treated livers during the secretion of the non-micelle forming bile salt, taurodehydrocholate.