Dual mechanism for cAMP-dependent modulation of Ca2+ signalling in articular chondrocytes.
ABSTRACT: The ability of cAMP to modulate the actions of Ca(2+)-mobilizing agonists was studied in single Fura-2-loaded pig articular chondrocytes in primary culture. Forskolin and 8-Br-cAMP increased both the frequency and amplitude of Ca2+ oscillations induced by ATP, and, in unstimulated cells, induced single Ca2+ transients or even Ca2+ oscillations. The cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor H89 totally prevented the effect of cAMP-elevating agents on Ca2+ signalling. Forskolin and 8-Br-cAMP promptly increased the rate of Mn2+ quenching, when administered in the presence of ATP, suggesting a potentiation of receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx. In Ca(2+)-free medium, ATP-induced Ca2+ oscillations decreased and stopped after a few cycles: subsequent ATP additions temporarily resumed the activity, an effect that could be mimicked by forskolin. The same agent induced single Ca2+ transients in 42% of the cell population maintained in Ca(2+)-free medium. Thapsigargin prevented Ca2+ responses to both ATP and forskolin. The results indicate a dual mechanism for cAMP-induced potentiation of Ca2+ signalling in articular chondrocytes: an increase of receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx and a positive modulation of intracellular Ca2+ release.
Project description:Single aequorin-injected hepatocytes respond to agonists acting via the phosphoinositide signalling pathway by the generation of oscillations in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]free). The duration of [Ca2+]free transients is characteristic of the stimulating agonist. We have previously reported that ADP and ATP, which are believed to act through a single P(2y)-purinoceptor species, induce very different oscillatory [Ca2+]free responses in the majority of hepatocytes. We have interpreted these data as evidence for two separate Ca(2+)-mobilizing purinoceptors for these nucleotides. We show here that the elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP concentration, by the co-application of either dibutyryl cyclic AMP or 7 beta-desacetyl-7 beta-[gamma-(N-methylpiperazino)butyryl]- forskolin (L858051), exerts different modulatory effects on [Ca2+]free oscillations induced by ADP and ATP in single rat hepatocytes. Elevated intracellular cyclic AMP levels enhance the frequency and peak [Ca2+]free of transients induced by ADP. In contrast, the elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP levels in hepatocytes producing [Ca2+]free oscillations in response to ATP stimulates either an increase in the duration of transients or a sustained rise in [Ca2+]free. The data illustrate a further difference between the oscillatory [Ca2+]free responses of hepatocytes to ADP and ATP, thus further arguing against ADP and ATP acting via a single purinoceptor species.
Project description:We have examined the mechanisms of cAMP-induced gallbladder relaxation by recording isometric tension and membrane potential in the intact tissue, and global intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) and F-actin content in isolated myocytes. Both the phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, IBMX (100 microM) and the adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin (2 microM) caused decreases in basal tone that exhibited similar kinetics. IBMX and forskolin both caused concentration dependent, right-downward shifts in the concentration-response curves of KCl and cholecystokinin (CCK). IBMX and forskolin elicited a membrane hyperpolarization that was almost completely inhibited by the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (K(ATP)) channel blocker, glibenclamide (10 microM). IBMX also induced an increase in large-conductance Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) (BK) channel currents, although the simultaneous blockade of BK and K(ATP) channels did not block IBMX- and forskolin-induced relaxations. Ca(2+) influx activated by L-type Ca(2+) channel activation or store depletion was also impaired by IBMX and forskolin, indicating a general impairment in Ca(2+) entry mechanisms. IBMX also decreases [Ca(2+)](i) transients activated by CCK and 3,6-Di-O-Bt-IP(4)-PM, a membrane permeable analog of inositol triphosphate, indicating an impairment in Ca(2+) release through IP(3) receptors. Ionomycin-induced [Ca(2+)](i) transients were not altered by IBMX, but the contractile effects of the Ca(2+) ionophore were reduced in the presence of IBMX, suggesting that cAMP can decrease Ca(2+) sensitivity of the contractile apparatus. A depolymerization of the thin filament could be reason for this change, as forskolin induced a decrease in F-actin content. In conclusion, these findings suggest that multiple, redundant intracellular processes are affected by cAMP to induce gallbladder relaxation.
Project description:Diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P3-triphosphate (Ap3A) and diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) induce distinctive patterns of [Ca2+]i oscillations in single rat hepatocytes. We show here that [Ca2+]i oscillations induced by Ap3A and ADP are indistinguishable and that [Ca2+]i oscillations induced by Ap4A closely resemble those induced by ATP. These similarities embrace the following: (1) ADP and Ap3A invariably induce [Ca2+]i transients of short duration (approx. 9 s). Ap4A, like ATP, can induce, depending upon the individual cell, either transients of short duration (approx. 9 s), transients of much longer duration or a mixture of short and long transients within a single response. We show here that the pattern of oscillations induced by Ap4A is similar to that induced by ATP in the same hepatocyte. (2) Elevated intracellular cyclic AMP concentration modulates Ap3A-induced transients, like ADP-induced transients, through an increase in both the peak [Ca2+]i and the frequency of the transients. In contrast, Ap4A-induced transients, like ATP-induced transients, develop an increased duration or a sustained rise in [Ca2+]i, with no rise in peak [Ca2+]i. (3) Ap3A-induced transients, like ADP-induced transients, are abolished by low concentrations of the phorbol ester 4 beta-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDB; 5-10 nM), whereas long Ap4A-induced transients, like long ATP-induced transients, are refractory to high concentrations of PDB (100 nM). We propose that the [Ca2+]i oscillations induced in rat hepatocytes by Ap3A are mediated by the same purinoceptor that mediates the effects of ADP, whereas the oscillations induced by Ap4A are mediated by the same purinoceptor(s) that mediate the effects of ATP.
Project description:Single rat hepatocytes microinjected with aequorin generate oscillations in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) when stimulated with agonists acting through the phosphoinositide signalling pathway. The duration of these transients has been shown to be characteristic of the stimulating agonist, so that transients of very different duration can be induced in the same individual hepatocyte by different agonists. In a previous study we have shown that ADP and ATP, which are believed to act through a single P2y-purinoceptor species, elicit very different [Ca2+]i responses in most of the hepatocytes. We have interpreted this as evidence for two Ca(2+)-mobilizing purinoceptors. The methylated derivative of ATP, adenosine 5'-[alpha beta-methylene]-triphosphate (pp[CH2]pA), is only a weak P2y-purinoceptor agonist. When 100 microM pp[CH2]pA was supplied to aequorin-injected hepatocytes, there was no effect on [Ca2+]i. However, 25 microM pp[CH2]pA co-supplied with ATP causes a potentiation of the [Ca2+]i response in most of the hepatocytes. The effect was specific for ATP-induced transients; [Ca2+]i transients induced by other agonists, and importantly by ADP, were not affected by addition of pp[CH2]pA. This further illustrates differences in the actions of ADP and ATP, strengthening the argument for separate receptors for these nucleotides.
Project description:Many cells generate oscillations in cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration ('free Ca') when stimulated with Ca-mobilizing hormones. The frequency of repetitive free-Ca transients in a rat hepatocyte is a function of hormone concentration and can be depressed by phorbol esters. We show here that the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors staurosporine and sphingosine can reverse the effects of phorbol dibutyrate on the frequency of free-Ca transients induced by phenylephrine or vasopressin. An important feature of the hepatocyte free-Ca oscillator is that the transient's time course, particularly the rate of fall of free Ca from peak to resting, depends on the species of agonist, and is measurably different for phenylephrine, vasopressin, angiotensin II or ATP. We show here that the rate of fall of free Ca in transients induced by phenylephrine or vasopressin is markedly decreased after treatment of the cells with a PKC inhibitor. A receptor-controlled oscillator model is discussed, in which PKC provides negative feedback during the falling phase of free-Ca transients.
Project description:Previously it has been shown that injecting a cytosolic sperm protein factor into mammalian eggs induces sustained repetitive transients of cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), or [Ca2+]i oscillations [Swann (1990) Development 110, 1295-1302]. These sperm-factor (SF)-induced [Ca2+]i oscillations are similar to those seen at fertilization. Here we demonstrate that injecting the same cytosolic extracts of mammalian sperm into single rat hepatocytes induces a series of [Ca2+]i oscillations, as measured by aequorin luminescence. SF injection into hepatocytes induced [Ca2+]i oscillations that were of longer duration, lower frequency and greater amplitude than those seen with the Ins (1,4,5)P3-generating agonist phenylephrine. The SF-induced [Ca2+]i responses appeared to be due to internal release of Ca2+, since transients could occur in Ca(2+)-free media. Addition of the phorbol ester phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) at low concentrations did not inhibit the SF-induced [Ca2+]i oscillations; high concentrations of PDBu led to a sustained increase in [Ca2+]i concentrations. These data demonstrate that sperm contain a protein factor capable of inducing a characteristic series of [Ca2+]i oscillations in a somatic cell, the hepatocyte. Along with previous observations in dorsal root ganglion neurons, the data suggest a widespread efficacy of the factor in triggering Ca2+ oscillations.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying spontaneous contractions in the mouse renal pelvis, regulated by calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Spontaneous contractions, action potentials and Ca2+ transients in typical and atypical smooth muscle cells (TSMCs and ATSMCs) within the renal pelvis wall were recorded separately using tension and intracellular microelectrode recording techniques and Fluo-4 Ca2+ imaging. Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic studies were also carried out. KEY RESULTS: Bundles of CGRP containing transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1-positive sensory nerves were situated near both TSMCs and ATSMCs. Nerve stimulation reduced the frequency but augmented the amplitude and duration of spontaneous phasic contractions, action potentials and Ca2+ transients in TSMCs. CGRP and agents increasing internal cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) mimicked the nerve-mediated modulation of TSMC activity and suppressed ATSMCs Ca2+ transients. Membrane hyperpolarization induced by CGRP or cAMP stimulators was blocked by glibenclamide, while their negative chronotropic effects were less affected. Glibenclamide enhanced TSMC Ca2+ transients but inhibited ATSMC Ca2+ transients, while both 5-hydroxydecanoate and diazoxide, a blocker and opener of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channels, respectively, reduced the Ca2+ transient frequency in both TSMCs and ATSMCs. Inhibition of mitochondrial function blocked ATSMCs Ca2+ transients and inhibited spontaneous excitation of TSMCs. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The negative chronotropic effects of CGRP result primarily from suppression of ATSMC Ca2+ transients rather than opening of plasmalemmal ATP-sensitive K+ channels in TSMCs. The positive inotropic effects of CGRP may derive from activation of TSMC L-type Ca2+ channels. Mitochondrial Ca2+ handling in ATSMCs also plays a critical role in generating Ca2+ transients.
Project description:The effects of raising cyclic AMP levels, by forskolin stimulation, beta-adrenoceptor activation or cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibition, on inositol phospholipid hydrolysis and increases in intracellular free [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) elicited by a range of agonists have been investigated in the hamster vas deferens smooth-muscle cell line DDT1MF-2. Isoprenaline (log [EC50 (M)] = -7.7 +/- 0.2), forskolin and the type IV cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram elicited significant increases in the accumulation of cyclic [3H]AMP. Pretreatment with forskolin (10 microM) attenuated histamine (100 microM)- and N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; 300 nM)-induced release of intracellular Ca2+, observed when cells are stimulated in Ca(2+)-free buffer containing 0.1 mM EGTA. Forskolin had no effect on ATP (100 microM)- or bradykinin (1 microM)-stimulated release of intracellular Ca2+. Histamine-induced intracellular Ca2+ release was also inhibited by pretreatment with rolipram (100 microM) or the membrane-permeant cyclic AMP analogue (Sp)-adenosine 3',5'-monophosphothioate (100 microM). Isoprenaline (1 microM) pretreatment (in the presence of 10 microM rolipram, a concentration which on its own did not decrease the histamine response) attenuated histamine-induced intracellular Ca2+ release. Forskolin inhibited histamine (100 microM)- and CPA (100 nM) stimulated accumulation of [3H]-inositol phosphates, but was without effect on ATP or bradykinin responses. Addition of forskolin (in the presence of 100 microM rolipram) after the cells had been stimulated with histamine (in experiments initiated in Ca(2+)-free buffer) inhibited the rise in [Ca2+]i observed when extracellular Ca2+ (2 mM) was re-applied (owing to receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx). Finally, the refilling of intracellular Ca2+ stores (after receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx is blocked by mepyramine) can be demonstrated in the presence of raised cyclic AMP levels.
Project description:Shear stress is known to stimulate an intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) response in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). [Ca(2+)]i is a key second messenger for signaling that leads to vasodilation and EC survival. Although it is accepted that the shear-induced [Ca(2+)]i response is, in part, due to Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the role of mitochondria (second largest Ca(2+) store) is unknown. We hypothesized that the mitochondria play a role in regulating [Ca(2+)]i in sheared ECs. Cultured ECs, loaded with a Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorophore, were exposed to physiological levels of shear stress. Shear stress elicited [Ca(2+)]i transients in a percentage of cells with a fraction of them displaying oscillations. Peak magnitudes, percentage of oscillating ECs, and oscillation frequencies depended on the shear level. [Ca(2+)]i transients/oscillations were present when experiments were conducted in Ca(2+)-free solution (plus lanthanum) but absent when ECs were treated with a phospholipase C inhibitor, suggesting that the ER inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor is responsible for the [Ca(2+)]i response. Either a mitochondrial uncoupler or an electron transport chain inhibitor, but not a mitochondrial ATP synthase inhibitor, prevented the occurrence of transients and especially inhibited the oscillations. Knockdown of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter also inhibited the shear-induced [Ca(2+)]i transients/oscillations compared with controls. Hence, EC mitochondria, through Ca(2+) uptake/release, regulate the temporal profile of shear-induced ER Ca(2+) release. [Ca(2+)]i oscillation frequencies detected were within the range for activation of mechanoresponsive kinases and transcription factors, suggesting that dysfunctional EC mitochondria may contribute to cardiovascular disease by deregulating the shear-induced [Ca(2+)]i response.
Project description:Chondrocytes are effectively involved in the pathophysiological processes of inflammation in joints. They form cellular processes in the superficial layer of the articular cartilage and form gap junction coupled syncytium to facilitate cell-to-cell communication. However, very little is known about their physiological cellular identity and communication. The aim with the present work is to evaluate the physiological behavior after stimulation with the inflammatory inducers interleukin-1? and lipopolysaccharide. The cytoskeleton integrity and intracellular Ca2+ release were assessed as indicators of inflammatory state. Cytoskeleton integrity was analyzed through cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and actin labeling with an Alexa 488-conjugated phalloidin probe. Ca2+ responses were assessed through the Ca2+ sensitive fluorophore Fura-2/AM. Western blot analyses of several inflammatory markers were performed. The results show reorganization of the actin filaments. Glutamate, 5-hydoxytryptamine, and ATP evoked intracellular Ca2+ release changed from single peaks to oscillations after inflammatory induction in the chondrocytes. The expression of toll-like receptor 4, the glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT-1, and the matrix metalloproteinase-13 increased. This work demonstrates that chondrocytes are a key part in conditions that lead to inflammation in the cartilage. The inflammatory inducers modulate the cytoskeleton, the Ca2+ signaling, and several inflammatory parameters. In conclusion, our data show that the cellular responses to inflammatory insults from healthy and inflammatory chondrocytes resemble those previously observed in astrocyte and cardiac fibroblasts networks.