Proteinases are isoform-specific regulators of the binding of transforming growth factor beta to alpha 2-macroglobulin.
ABSTRACT: alpha 2-Macroglobulin (alpha 2M) regulates growth and gene expression in many cell types by binding and neutralizing transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). In this study we characterized the effects of the serine proteinase, plasmin, on the interaction of alpha 2M with TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2. Binding of both TGF-beta isoforms to purified alpha 2M-plasmin complex was primarily non-covalent and reversible. The binding affinity of alpha 2M for TGF-beta 1 was increased by plasmin; the Kd values were 320 and 84 nM for native alpha 2M and alpha 2M-plasmin respectively. In contrast the affinity of alpha 2M for TGF-beta 2 was decreased by plasmin; the Kd values were 14 and 80 nM for native alpha 2M and alpha 2M-plasmin respectively. Thrombin decreased the affinity of alpha 2M for TGF-beta 2 in a similar manner to plasmin. In assays of DNA synthesis in fetal bovine heart endothelial cells, native alpha 2M neutralized the activity of exogenously added TGF-beta 2, whereas alpha 2M-plasmin, at equivalent concentrations, had almost no effect. Native alpha 2M and methylamine-modified alpha 2M increased platelet-derived growth factor alpha-receptor expression in vascular smooth-muscle cells, an activity attributed to the neutralization of autocrine TGF-beta activity, whereas alpha 2M-plasmin was less effective at the same concentration. These studies demonstrate that the effects of proteinases on the cytokine-binding and cytokine-neutralizing activities of alpha 2M are cytokine-dependent. By reacting with alpha 2M, proteinases might regulate not only the availability of cytokines in the extracellular spaces but also the composition of the cytokine milieu.
Project description:Human alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) is a proteinase inhibitor and carrier of certain growth factors, including transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1). The constitutively synthesized homologue of human alpha 2M in the adult rat is alpha 1M. Rat alpha 2M is an acute-phase reactant, expressed at high levels in experimental trauma, pregnancy and in certain pathological conditions. The physiological role of rat alpha 2M is not known. In this investigation, we demonstrated that rat alpha 1M and rat alpha 2M bind TGF-beta 1. The equilibrium dissociation constants (KD) for the binding of TGF-beta 1 to the native forms of alpha 1M and alpha 2M were 257 and 109 nM respectively. alpha 1M underwent conformational change when it reacted with methylamine. The resulting product bound TGF-beta 1 with higher affinity (32 nM). Methylamine-treated rat alpha 2M did not undergo conformational change and did not bind TGF-beta 1 with increased affinity. Previous studies suggest that the native conformation may be the principal form responsible for the cytokine-carrier activity of alpha 2M in plasma and serum-supplemented cell culture medium. To confirm that native rat alpha 2M is a more efficient TGF-beta 1 carrier than native alpha 1M, fetal bovine heart endothelial cell (FBHE) proliferation assays were performed. TGF-beta 1 (5 pM) inhibited FBHE proliferation, and native alpha 2M (0.3 microM) counteracted this activity whereas alpha 1M (0.3 microM) had almost no effect. Rat alpha 2M underwent conformational change when it reacted with plasmin incorporating 1.1 mol of plasmin/mol. alpha 2M-plasmin bound TGF-beta 1; the KD (61 nM) was lower (P < 0.01) than that determined for the native alpha 2M-TGF-beta 1 interaction. These studies demonstrate that both rat alpha-macroglobulins are carriers of TGF-beta 1. The native form of rat alpha 2M probably has a predominant role, compared with native alpha 1M, as a TGF-beta 1 carrier in the plasma during the acute-phase response.
Project description:The binding of 125I-labelled transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) to human alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) was studied by native PAGE and autoradiography. TGF-beta 1 bound preferentially to alpha 2M-methylamine and minimally, if at all, to native alpha 2M. Preparations of alpha 2M-proteinase complex were generated by incubating a standard concentration of alpha 2M (0.4 microM) with different concentrations of trypsin, chymotrypsin or neutrophil elastase (0.04-2.0 microM). The 125I-TGF-beta 1-binding activity depended on the initial ratio of active proteinase to alpha 2M, or r value, used to form the alpha 2M-proteinase complex. With all three proteinases, r values of 2 or greater yielded preparations with unchanged or decreased TGF-beta 1-binding activity relative to native alpha 2M. By contrast, r values near 1 yielded preparations with significantly increased TGF-beta 1-binding activity. The results of [3H]thymidine-incorporation studies performed in mouse keratinocytes were consistent with the 125I-TGF-beta-binding experiments. alpha 2M-trypsin and alpha 2M-chymotrypsin prepared at an r value of 1.0 counteracted the activity of TGF-beta 1, whereas the equivalent complexes prepared at an r value of 3.0 had no effect. As determined by SDS/PAGE, 125I-TGF-beta 1 binding to alpha 2M-methylamine was at least 80% non-covalent. Reaction of alpha 2M-methylamine with iodoacetamide or 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) decreased the percentage of covalent binding but had no effect on total binding. Neuraminidase treatment had no effect on the binding of 125I-TGF-beta 1 to alpha 2M-methylamine. Cleavage of the 'bait regions' in alpha 2M-methylamine by prolonged treatment with trypsin also had no effect. These studies suggest that TGF-beta 1 binding to alpha 2M is enhanced by conformational change in the proteinase inhibitor resulting from reaction with proteinase or amine. If both proteinase-binding sites in a single alpha 2M molecule are occupied, TGF-beta 1-binding activity is decreased or perhaps eliminated.
Project description:alpha 2-Macroglobulin (alpha 2M) undergoes a major conformational change when reacting with proteinases or primary amines. This conformational change has been referred to as the 'slow' to 'fast' transformation based on the increase in alpha 2M mobility shown by non-denaturing PAGE. Previous studies demonstrated that many cytokines, including transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and interleukin-1 beta, bind preferentially or exclusively to alpha 2M which has undergone conformational change. In this study, we demonstrate that platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) also binds preferentially to conformationally transformed alpha 2M (alpha 2M-methylamine, alpha 2M-trypsin) in vitro. Purified 125I-PDGF-BB-alpha 2M-methylamine complex cleared rapidly from the circulation of mice via the alpha 2M receptor/low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related protein (alpha 2M-R/LRP). In order to determine whether PDGF-BB or TGF-beta 1 binds to native alpha 2M, we defined the native conformation by lack of interaction with alpha 2M-R/LRP instead of electrophoretic mobility. 125I-PDGF-BB was incubated with 4.3 microM native alpha 2M and 0.47 microM alpha 2M-methylamine. The 125I-PDGF-BB distributed evenly between slow-form and fast-form alpha 2M without shifting the electrophoretic mobility of either species. When the mixed preparation was injected intravenously in mice, 125I-PDGF-BB-fast-form-alpha 2M cleared rapidly and selectively from the circulation; 125I-PDGF-BB which was bound to slow-form alpha 2M was stable in the blood (apparently not recognized by alpha 2M-R/LRP). Therefore, while conformationally transformed alpha 2M binds PDGF-BB preferentially in vitro, non-alpha 2M-R/LRP-recognized alpha 2M binds PDGF-BB as well. Binding of 125I-PDGF-BB and 125I-TGF-beta 1 to alpha 2M was demonstrated in vivo by injecting the free growth factors intravenously into mice. Plasma samples which were subjected to non-denaturing PAGE and autoradiography demonstrated binding of both growth factors exclusively to the slow-form of alpha 2M. Therefore, under normal physiological conditions, native alpha 2M (non-alpha 2M-R/LRP-recognized) is the primary form of the proteinase inhibitor functioning as a carrier of PDGF-BB and TGF-beta 1 in the blood.
Project description:These studies demonstrate relatively rapid association of plasmin with thrombospondin and the effects of this interaction on plasmin activity towards D-Val-L-Leu-L-Lys p-nitroanilide hydrochloride (S-2251) and the proteinase inhibitors alpha 2-antiplasmin (alpha 2AP) and alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M). Binding of plasmin to thrombospondin reached an apparent reversible equilibrium within 3 min at 22 degrees C. The amidase activity of bound plasmin was inhibited. An analysis of S-2251 hydrolysis indicated that thrombospondin is a linear mixed-type plasmin inhibitor. The dissociation constant (KD) for the binding of plasmin to thrombospondin was 0.5 microM, assuming one plasmin binding site per thrombospondin homotrimer. Plasmin and miniplasmin slowly cleaved thrombospondin, yielding products which were comparable with those generated by other proteinases. Tranexamic acid inhibited the digestion of thrombospondin by plasmin and miniplasmin, suggesting an important role for the kringle-5 domain in this process. When plasmin was incubated first with thrombospondin and then with alpha 2AP, plasmin that was apparently bound to thrombospondin reacted with alpha 2AP at a decreased rate; however, within 20 min, all of the plasmin was recovered in complex with alpha 2AP. Similar results were obtained with alpha 2M. Transfer of plasmin from thrombospondin to alpha 2AP or alpha 2M probably required plasmin-thrombospondin-complex dissociation. A low level of reaction of alpha 2AP with thrombospondin-associated plasmin could not be ruled out. These results demonstrate that the activity of plasmin, when bound to thrombospondin, is greatly diminished or eliminated. The plasmin-thrombospondin complex, which is formed within 3 min, is fully reversible and the associated plasmin is in a latent form protected from proteinase inhibitors. Therefore, thrombospondin may regulate plasmin activity in a manner which is distinct from conventional proteinase inhibitors and other extracellular-matrix proteins.
Project description:Although it is known that most of the plasma proteinase inhibitors form complexes with proteinases that are not dissociated by SDS (sodium dodecyl sulphate), there has been disagreement as to whether this is true for alpha 2M (alpha 2-macroglobulin). We have examined the stability to SDS with reduction of complexes between alpha 2M and several 125I-labelled proteinases (trypsin, plasmin, leucocyte elastase, pancreatic elastase and papain) by gel electrophoresis. For each enzyme, some molecules were separated from the denatured alpha 2M chains, but amounts ranging from 8.3% (papain) to 61.2% (trypsin) were bound with a stability indicative of a covalent link. Proteolytic activity was essential for the covalent binding to occur, and the proteinase molecules became attached to the larger of the two proteolytic derivatives (apparent mol.wt. 111 000) of the alpha 2M subunit. We take this to mean that cleavage of the proteinase-susceptible site sometimes leads to covalent-bond formation between alpha 2M and proteinase. Whatever the nature of this bond, it does not involve the active site of the proteinase, as bound serine-proteinase molecules retain the ability to react with the active-site-directed reagent [3H]Dip-F (di-isopropyl phosphorofluoridate). Our conclusion is that the ability to form covalent links is not essential for the inhibitory capacity of alpha 2M. It may, however, help to stabilize the complexes against dissociation or proteolysis.
Project description:Human alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) was eluted as a single nondispersed peak from a TSK-G4000SW size exclusion chromatography column equilibrated in 20 mM-sodium phosphate/100 mM-NaCl, pH 7.2 (PBS). The void volume and total accessible volume of the column were 6.08 ml and 14.42 ml. The elution volume (Ve) of native alpha 2M was 9.20 +/- 0.04 ml. The Ve was altered minimally by changing the ionic strength or adding ethanol to the equilibration buffer. Ternary alpha 2M-trypsin, containing 2 mol of proteinase/mol of inhibitor, and alpha 2M-methylamine failed to be eluted in well-defined peaks when the column was equilibrated in PBS. The majority of either preparation was recovered slowly at Ve values greater than 14.5 ml, reflecting significant nonideal interactions with the support structure. Addition of 10% ethanol or increased ionic strength in the equilibration buffer independently caused either form of reacted alpha 2M to be eluted in a distinct peak at decreased Ve, suggesting that the nonideal interactions included hydrophobic and electrostatic adsorption. When the equilibration buffer was 80 mM-sodium phosphate/320 mM-NaCl, pH 7.2, partial resolution of ternary alpha 2M-trypsin and alpha 2M-methylamine was obtained with a single column run. The Ve values of ternary alpha 2M-trypsin and alpha 2M-methylamine in this buffer were 13.15 +/- 0.08 ml and 11.94 +/- 0.14 ml, respectively. The Ve of native alpha 2M was 8.84 +/- 0.03 ml. The resolving capacity of TSK-G4000SW was exploited to purify native alpha 2M rapidly and efficiently from solutions that contained significant amounts of either ternary alpha 2M-trypsin or binary alpha 2M-trypsin (1 mol of proteinase/mol of inhibitor). This purification was complete within the limits of sensitivity of denaturing and nondenaturing polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. alpha 2M-plasmin was well resolved from native alpha 2M. The Ve of alpha 2M-plasmin was 12.88 +/- 0.32 ml in 80 mM-sodium phosphate/320 mM-NaCl, pH 7.2. A number of procedures were used to prepare solutions with up to 90% binary alpha 2M-trypsin. The Ve of binary alpha 2M-trypsin in these various solutions was intermediate between the values of native alpha 2M and ternary alpha 2M-trypsin. The conformations of binary and ternary complex, as reflected by mobility in nondenaturing electrophoresis, were identical, confirming previous results. Finally, in the binary alpha 2M-trypsin complex, the single trypsin cleaved more than two, and as many as all four alpha 2M subunits.
Project description:Plasmin regulates the activity and distribution of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and other growth factors. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of plasmin on cellular receptors for TGF-beta. AKR-2B fibroblasts were affinity-labelled with 125I-TGF-beta 1 and 125I-TGF-beta 2, demonstrating betaglycan, the type-I TGF-beta receptor and the type-II TGF-beta receptor. Treatment of TGF-beta-affinity-labelled cells with plasmin (10-100 nM) for 1 h profoundly and selectively decreased recovery of TGF-beta-betaglycan complex. The type-I and type-II receptors were not plasmin substrates. A radiolabelled complex with an apparent mass of 60 kDa was detected by SDS/PAGE in both the medium and cell extracts of plasmin-treated affinity-labelled cells. In order to demonstrate that plasmin cleavage of betaglycan did not require prior exposure of the betaglycan to cross-linking agent, AKR-2B cells were treated with plasmin first and then affinity-labelled. Markedly decreased TGF-beta binding to cellular betaglycan was observed. Although plasmin treatment of AKR-2B cells decreased overall binding of 125I-TGF-beta 1 and 125I-TGF-beta 2, the rate at which the cells degraded bound 125I-TGF-beta at 37 degrees C was not changed. AKR-2B cells treated with plasmin demonstrated slightly increased [3H]thymidine incorporation; the plasmin-treated cells retained their ability to respond to TGF-beta. Conditioned medium from plasmin-treated AKR-2B cells contained increased amounts of active TGF-beta as determined in Mv 1 Lu epithelial-cell-proliferation assays. Specific cleavage of betaglycan represents a novel mechanism whereby plasmin may regulate the assortment of receptors available for TGF-beta. In addition, plasmin may facilitate transfer of active TGF-beta between neighbouring cells by releasing the active growth factor from the cell surface.
Project description:Streptokinase-human plasmin complex (Sk-hPm) reacted rapidly with purified mouse alpha 2-macroglobulin (m alpha 2M) in vitro at 37 degrees C. Approx. 98% of the plasmin in Sk-hPm bound covalently to at least one m alpha 2M subunit. Most of the streptokinase dissociated (95%). The rate of Sk-hPm inactivation clearly depended on the m alpha 2M concentration. With 1.2 microM-m alpha 2M, 50% of the Sk-hPm (0.02 microM) reacted in less than 50 s. A double-reciprocal plot comparing pseudo-first-order rate constants (kapp.) and m alpha 2M concentration yielded a second-order rate constant of 2.3 x 10(4) M-1.s-1 (r = 0.97). This value is an approximation, since Sk-hPm preparations are heterogeneous. Sk-hPm reacted with human alpha 2M (h alpha 2M), forming alpha 2M-plasmin complex (98% covalent). More than 99% of the streptokinase dissociated. The rate of reaction of Sk-hPm with h alpha 2M did not clearly depend on inhibitor concentration. The kapp. values determined with 0.6-1.2 microM-h alpha 2M were decreased 10-20-fold compared with m alpha 2M. In order to study the effect of Sk-hPm heterogeneity on the reaction with alpha 2M, the proteinase was incubated for various amounts of time at 37 degrees C before addition of inhibitor. The enzyme amidase activity was maximal within 5 min; however, reaction of Sk-hPm with m alpha 2M or h alpha 2M was most extensive after 20 min and 2 h respectively. After incubation for more than 1 h, Sk-hPm acquired fibrinogenolytic activity, suggesting plasmin dissociation. Therefore the enhanced reaction of h alpha 2M with 'older' Sk-hPm preparations may have resulted in part from dissociated plasmin or 'plasmin-like' species. By contrast, the reaction of Sk-hPm with m alpha 2M was most rapid when the proteinase preparation was free of plasmin, indicating direct reaction of Sk-hPm with m alpha 2M as the only major mechanism. Finally, streptokinase-cat plasminogen complex reacted more extensively with m alpha 2M than with h alpha 2M, suggesting that m alpha 2M may be a superior inhibitor with this class of plasminogen activators in general.
Project description:Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), a regulator of cell growth and differentiation, is secreted by most cultured cells in latent form (L-TGF-beta). Activation of L-TGF-beta can be achieved by various physico-chemical treatments, including acidification, alkalinization, heating and chaotropic agents. Proposed physiological activators include proteinases and glycosidases, which, however, only lead to limited activation (15-20% of the total TGF-beta activity after acidic activation). In the present study L-TGF-beta 1 partially purified from human platelets was not activated by treatment with neuraminidase or the proteinases plasmin, endoproteinase Arg-C, elastase and chymotrypsin. The mechanism of activation of L-TGF-beta was further assessed by using the human glioblastoma cell line 308, which releases biologically active TGF-beta 2. Factor(s) secreted by 308 glioblastoma cells were found to be able to activate partially purified L-TGF-beta 1 from human platelets. Our finding may prove to constitute a physiologically relevant mechanism for the activation of latent forms of TGF-beta in vivo.
Project description:The kinetics of plasmin inhibition by alpha 2-antiplasmin (alpha 2AP), alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) and leupeptin were studied in the presence of fibrin monomer (Fn) and CNBr fragments of fibrinogen (Fg-CNBr). Active plasmin was detected in continuous and discontinuous assays using the chromogenic substrate D-Val-L-Leu-L-Lys p-nitroanilide hydrochloride (S-2251). The two 'fibrin-like' preparations functioned as hyperbolic mixed-type inhibitors of S-2251 hydrolysis. The dissociation constants (KF) for the binding of plasmin to Fn and Fg-CNBr were 22 nM and 17 nM respectively. Fn and Fg-CNBr inhibited the reaction of plasmin with alpha 2AP: the extent of inhibition depended on the fibrin concentration. In the presence of 800 nM-Fn or 800 nM-Fg-CNBr, the experimental second-order rate constant (K"app.) was decreased from 2.4 x 10(7) M-1.s-1 to 1.2 x 10(6) and 5.3 x 10(5) M-1.s-1 respectively. The effect of Fn and Fg-CNBr on the rate of plasmin inhibition by alpha 2M was even greater. The k"app. value was decreased from 4.0 x 10(5) M-1.s-1 to 8.0 x 10(2) and 1.3 x 10(3) M-1.s-1 in the presence of 800 nM-Fn and -Fg-CNBr respectively. By contrast, the fibrin preparations caused only a small change in the rate of plasmin inhibition by leupeptin. The maximum change in k"app. was 3-fold. All plasmin inhibition curves were linear, suggesting that free and fibrin-bound forms of plasmin remained in equilibrium during the course of reaction with proteinase inhibitors. Fn and Fg-CNBr had no effect on the reaction of miniplasmin with S-2251, alpha 2AP or alpha 2M. When 125I-plasmin was incubated with Fg-CNBr and then allowed to react with a premixed solution of alpha 2AP and alpha 2M, the Fg-CNBr did not significantly change the percentage of plasmin bound to alpha 2AP. These experiments demonstrate that the reaction of plasmin with alpha 2M is inhibited by the non-covalent binding of plasmin to fibrin. We propose that plasmin bound to the surface of a clot is protected from inhibition by alpha 2M as well as by alpha 2AP.