Thrombin activation of human platelets dissociates a complex containing gelsolin and actin from phosphatidylinositide-specific phospholipase Cgamma1.
ABSTRACT: We have examined the association of two cytoskeleton proteins, gelsolin and actin, with phosphatidylinositide-specific phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1) in resting and thrombin-stimulated human platelets. In unstimulated platelets, gelsolin, actin and PLCgamma1 were immunoprecipitated as a complex by a polyclonal antibody to PLCgamma1. The association of gelsolin and actin was specific for PLCgamma1 because immunoprecipitates of PLCs beta2, beta3, gamma2 and delta1, which are also expressed in human platelets, did not contain detectable gelsolin or actin. Activation with thrombin resulted in platelet aggregation and the dissociation of gelsolin and actin from PLCgamma1. Inhibition of thrombin-induced platelet aggregation blocked the dissociation of gelsolin and actin from PLCgamma1. After stimulation with thrombin, PLCgamma1 activity in immunoprecipitates was increased 2-3-fold. This elevation in PLCgamma1 activity in response to thrombin activation was not observed when platelet aggregation was blocked. Although PLCgamma1 is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to many agonists, we could not detect, by Western analysis with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCgamma1 immunoprecipitated from thrombin-stimulated platelets. These results demonstrate that PLCgamma1 is associated with gelsolin and actin in resting platelets, and that thrombin-induced platelet aggregation results in the dissociation of PLCgamma1 from gelsolin and actin, and the stimulation of PLCgamma1 activity.
Project description:Protein kinase A (PKA) activation by cAMP phosphorylates multiple target proteins in numerous platelet inhibitory pathways that have a very important role in maintaining circulating platelets in a resting state. Here we show that in thrombin- and collagen-stimulated platelets, PKA is activated by cAMP-independent mechanisms involving dissociation of the catalytic subunit of PKA (PKAc) from an NFkappaB-IkappaBalpha-PKAc complex. We demonstrate mRNA and protein expression for most of the NFkappaB family members in platelets. From resting platelets, PKAc was co-immunoprecipitated with IkappaBalpha, and conversely, IkappaBalpha was also co-immunoprecipitated with PKAc. This interaction was significantly reduced in thrombin- and collagen-stimulated platelets. Stimulation of platelets with thrombin- or collagen-activated IKK, at least partly by PI3 kinase-dependent pathways, leading to phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, disruption of an IkappaBalpha-PKAc complex, and release of free, active PKAc, which phosphorylated VASP and other PKA substrates. IKK inhibitor inhibited thrombin-stimulated IkBalpha phosphorylation, PKA-IkBalpha dissociation, and VASP phosphorylation, and potentiated integrin alphaIIbbeta3 activation and the early phase of platelet aggregation. We conclude that thrombin and collagen not only cause platelet activation but also appear to fine-tune this response by initiating downstream NFkappaB-dependent PKAc activation, as a novel feedback inhibitory signaling mechanism for preventing undesired platelet activation.
Project description:Membrane glycoproteins that mediate platelet-platelet interactions were investigated by identifying those associated with the cytoskeletal structures from aggregated platelets. The cytoskeletal structures from washed platelets, thrombin-activated platelets (platelets incubated with thrombin in the presence of mM EDTA to prevent aggregation) and thrombin- aggregated platelets (platelets activated in the presence of mM Ca(++) were prepared by first treating platelet suspensions with 1 percent Triton X-100 and 5 mM EGTA and then isolating the insoluble residue by centrifugation. The readily identifiable structures in electron micrographs of the residue from washed platelets had the shape and dimensions of actin filaments. Analysis of this residue from washed platelets had the shape and dimensions of actin filaments. Analysis of this residue by SDS gel electrophoresis showed that it consisted primarily of three proteins: actin (mol wt = 43,000), myosin (mol wt = 200,000) and a high molecular weight polypeptide (mol wt = 255,000) which had properties indentical to actin-binding protein (filamin). When platelets are activated with thrombin in the presence of EDTA to prevent aggregation, there was a marked increase in the amount of insoluble precipitate in the subsequent Triton extraction. Transmission electron microscopy showed that this residue not only contained the random array of actin filaments as seen above, but also organized structures from individual platelets which appeared as balls of electron-dense filamentous material approximately 1mum in diameter. SDS polyacrylamide gel analysis of the Triton residue of activated platelets showed that this preparation contained more actin, myosin and actin-binding protein than that from washed platelets plus polypeptides with mol wt of 56,000 and 90,000 and other minor polypeptides. Thus, thrombin activation appeared to increase polymerization of actin in association with other cytoskeletal proteins into structures that are observable after Triton extraction. The cytoskeletal structures from thrombin-aggregated platelets were similar to those from thrombin-activated platelets, except that the structural elements from individual platelets remained aggregated rather than randomly dispersed in the actin filaments. This suggested that the membrane components that mediate the direct interaction of platelets were in Triton residue from aggregated platelets. Only a small percentage of the membrane surface proteins and glycoproteins were found in the cytoskeletal structures from either washed platelets or thrombin-activated platelets. In contrast, the aggregated cytoskeletal structures from thrombin-aggregated platelets contained membrane glycoproteins IIb (26 percent of the total in pre-extracted platelets) and III (14 percent), suggesting that one or both of these glycoproteins participate in the direct interaction of platelets during aggregation.
Project description:Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is the first enzyme regulating de novo lipid synthesis via the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA into malonyl-CoA. The inhibition of its activity decreases lipogenesis and, in parallel, increases the acetyl-CoA content, which serves as a substrate for protein acetylation. Several findings support a role for acetylation signaling in coordinating signaling systems that drive platelet cytoskeletal changes and aggregation. Therefore, we investigated the impact of ACC inhibition on tubulin acetylation and platelet functions. Human platelets were incubated 2 h with CP640.186, a pharmacological ACC inhibitor, prior to thrombin stimulation. We have herein demonstrated that CP640.186 treatment does not affect overall platelet lipid content, yet it is associated with increased tubulin acetylation levels, both at the basal state and after thrombin stimulation. This resulted in impaired platelet aggregation. Similar results were obtained using human platelets that were pretreated with tubacin, an inhibitor of tubulin deacetylase HDAC6. In addition, both ACC and HDAC6 inhibitions block key platelet cytoskeleton signaling events, including Rac1 GTPase activation and the phosphorylation of its downstream effector, p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2). However, neither CP640.186 nor tubacin affects thrombin-induced actin cytoskeleton remodeling, while ACC inhibition results in decreased thrombin-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. We conclude that when using washed human platelets, ACC inhibition limits tubulin deacetylation upon thrombin stimulation, which in turn impairs platelet aggregation. The mechanism involves a downregulation of the Rac1/PAK2 pathway, being independent of actin cytoskeleton.
Project description:Platelets are small anucleate blood cells involved in haemostasis. Platelet activation, caused by agonists such as thrombin or by contact with the extracellular matrix, leads to platelet adhesion, aggregation, and coagulation. Activated platelets undergo shape changes, adhere, and spread at the site of injury to form a blood clot. We investigated the morphology and morphological dynamics of human platelets after complete spreading using fast scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM). In contrast to unstimulated platelets, thrombin-stimulated platelets showed increased morphological activity after spreading and exhibited dynamic morphological changes in the form of wave-like movements of the lamellipodium and dynamic protrusions on the platelet body. The increase in morphological activity was dependent on thrombin concentration. No increase in activity was observed following exposure to other activation agonists or during contact-induced activation. Inhibition of actin polymerization and inhibition of dynein significantly decreased the activity of thrombin-stimulated platelets. Our data suggest that these morphological dynamics after spreading are thrombin-specific and might play a role in coagulation and blood clot formation.
Project description:PtdIns(4,5)P2 production by the enzyme PtdIns4P 5-kinase C (PIPkin C) was examined in thrombin-stimulated human platelets. Thrombin caused a rapid, transient 2-3-fold increase in PIPkin activity and a transient net dephosphorylation of the enzyme. PIPkin C was phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues in unstimulated platelets; no evidence for tyrosine phosphorylation was found. The phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid promoted PIPkin C hyperphosphorylation and a concomitant marked inhibition of its activity in immunoprecipitates. Activity was restored by treatment with alkaline phosphatase, suggesting the existence of an inhibitory phosphorylation site. In support of this idea, alkaline phosphatase treatment of PIPkin C immunoprecipitated from unstimulated platelets caused a modest (1.6-fold) but significant activation of the enzyme. However, alkaline phosphatase treatment of PIPkin C immunoprecipitated from thrombin-stimulated platelets caused a decrease in activity to approximately the same levels, suggesting that the phosphorylation of PIPkin C also contributes to the observed stimulation. Two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping of immunoprecipitated PIPkin C revealed that the enzyme is multiply phosphorylated and that, whereas some phosphopeptides are indeed lost on stimulation, consistent with the net dephosphorylation of the enzyme, at least two novel sites become phosphorylated. This suggests that thrombin causes complex changes in the phosphorylation state of PIPkin C, one consequence of which is its activation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Platelets contact each other at the site of vascular injury to stop bleeding. One negative regulator of platelet aggregation is Disabled-2 (Dab2), which is released to the extracellular surface upon platelet activation. Dab2 inhibits platelet aggregation through its phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain by competing with fibrinogen for alphaIIbbeta3 integrin receptor binding by an unknown mechanism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Using protein-lipid overlay and liposome-binding assays, we identified that the N-terminal region of Dab2, including its PTB domain (N-PTB), specifically interacts with sulfatides. Moreover, we determined that such interaction is mediated by two conserved basic motifs with a dissociation constant (K(d)) of 0.6 microM as estimated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. In addition, liposome-binding assays combined with mass spectroscopy studies revealed that thrombin, a strong platelet agonist, cleaved N-PTB at a site located between the basic motifs, a region that becomes protected from thrombin cleavage when bound to sulfatides. Sulfatides on the platelet surface interact with coagulation proteins, playing a major role in haemostasis. Our results show that sulfatides recruit N-PTB to the platelet surface, sequestering it from integrin receptor binding during platelet activation. This is a transient recruitment that follows N-PTB internalization by an actin-dependent process. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Our experimental data support a model where two pools of Dab2 co-exist at the platelet surface, in both sulfatide- and integrin receptor-bound states, and their balance controls the extent of the clotting response.
Project description:In human platelets, thrombin not only stimulates the phosphorylation of pleckstrin (P47) and of myosin P-light chains, but also induces the dephosphorylation of an 18-19 kDa phosphoprotein (P18) [Imaoka, Lynham and Haslam (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 11404-11414]. We have now studied this protein in detail. The thrombin-induced dephosphorylation reaction did not begin until the phosphorylation of myosin P-light chains and the secretion of dense-granule 5-hydroxytryptamine were nearly complete, but did parallel the later stages of platelet aggregation. Experiments with ionophore A23187 and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate indicated that dephosphorylation of P18 was stimulated by Ca2+, but not by protein kinase C. Two-dimensional analysis of platelet proteins, using non-equilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis followed by SDS/PAGE, showed that thrombin decreased the amount of phosphorylated P18 in platelets by up to 70% and slightly increased the amount of a more basic unlabelled protein that was present in 3-fold excess of P18 in unstimulated platelets. These two proteins were identified as the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of the pH-sensitive actin-depolymerizing protein, cofilin, by sequencing of peptide fragments and immunoblotting with a monoclonal antibody specific for cofilin. The molar concentration of cofilin in platelets was approx. 10% that of actin. Platelet cofilin was phosphorylated exclusively on serine. Experiments with electropermeabilized platelets showed that dephosphorylation of cofilin could be stimulated by guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) in the absence of Ca2+ or by a free Ca2+ concentration of 10 microM. This GTP[S]-induced dephosphorylation reaction was inhibited by 1-naphthyl phosphate, but not by okadaic acid. Our results add cofilin to the actin-binding proteins that may regulate the platelet cytoskeleton, and suggest that platelet cofilin can be activated by dephosphorylation reactions initiated either by a GTP-binding protein or Ca2+.
Project description:Rho GTPases such as Rac, RhoA, and Cdc42 are vital for normal platelet function, but the role of RhoG in platelets has not been studied. In other cells, RhoG orchestrates processes integral to platelet function, including actin cytoskeletal rearrangement and membrane trafficking. We therefore hypothesized that RhoG would play a critical role in platelets. Here, we show that RhoG is expressed in human and mouse platelets and is activated by both collagen-related peptide (CRP) and thrombin stimulation. We used RhoG(-/-) mice to study the function of RhoG in platelets. Integrin activation and aggregation were reduced in RhoG(-/-) platelets stimulated by CRP, but responses to thrombin were normal. The central defect in RhoG(-/-) platelets was reduced secretion from ?-granules, dense granules, and lysosomes following CRP stimulation. The integrin activation and aggregation defects could be rescued by ADP co-stimulation, indicating that they are a consequence of diminished dense granule secretion. Defective dense granule secretion in RhoG(-/-) platelets limited recruitment of additional platelets to growing thrombi in flowing blood in vitro and translated into reduced thrombus formation in vivo. Interestingly, tail bleeding times were normal in RhoG(-/-) mice, suggesting that the functions of RhoG in platelets are particularly relevant to thrombotic disorders.
Project description:Granzyme A is a serine protease stored in cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic and helper T lymphocytes. This protease seems to elicit thrombin receptor-mediated responses in neural cells, thereby triggering neurite retraction and reversal of astrocyte stellation. Here we report that granzyme A does not cause platelet aggregation even at concentrations that are more than two orders of magnitude higher than the EC50 for granzyme A in causing morphological changes in neural cells. However, granzyme A blocks thrombin-induced platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner without affecting the response to either ADP or to the peptide agonist of the thrombin receptor SFLLRN that corresponds in sequence to the tethered ligand domain. The inability of granzyme A to cause aggregation and its inhibition of thrombin-induced aggregation were seen in platelets from man, rat and mouse. Granzyme A does not affect the catalytic activity of thrombin in cleaving a chromogenic substrate or the macromolecular substrate fibrinogen. However, granzyme A does seem to cleave the thrombin receptor on platelets to produce a weak Ca2+ signal and reduce the response to subsequent challenge with thrombin, but does not induce a signal in thrombin-stimulated platelets. It is proposed that granzyme A interacts with the thrombin receptor found on platelets in a manner that is insufficient to cause aggregation, but sufficient to compete with thrombin for the receptor. These results suggest that granzyme A cleaves the thrombin receptor at a rate that is insufficient to cause platelet aggregation but is sufficient to cause morphological changes in neural cells. Furthermore, these observations demonstrate that granzyme A release occurring during immune responses within blood vessels would not directly cause platelet aggregation.
Project description:Because of the role of thrombin and platelets in myocardial infarction and other pathological processes, identifying and blocking the receptors by which thrombin activates platelets has been an important goal. Three protease-activated receptors (PARs) for thrombin -- PAR1, PAR3, and PAR4 -- are now known. PAR1 functions in human platelets, and the recent observation that a PAR4-activating peptide activates human platelets suggests that PAR4 also acts in these cells. Whether PAR1 and PAR4 account for activation of human platelets by thrombin, or whether PAR3 or still other receptors contribute, is unknown. We have examined the roles of PAR1, PAR3, and PAR4 in platelets. PAR1 and PAR4 mRNA and protein were detected in human platelets. Activation of either receptor was sufficient to trigger platelet secretion and aggregation. Inhibition of PAR1 alone by antagonist, blocking antibody, or desensitization blocked platelet activation by 1 nM thrombin but only modestly attenuated platelet activation by 30 nM thrombin. Inhibition of PAR4 alone using a blocking antibody had little effect at either thrombin concentration. Strikingly, simultaneous inhibition of both PAR1 and PAR4 virtually ablated platelet secretion and aggregation, even at 30 nM thrombin. These observations suggest that PAR1 and PAR4 account for most, if not all, thrombin signaling in platelets and that antagonists that block these receptors might be useful antithrombotic agents.