DNA recognition by quinoxaline antibiotics: use of base-modified DNA molecules to investigate determinants of sequence-specific binding of triostin A and TANDEM.
ABSTRACT: The methodology of DNAase I footprinting has been adapted to investigate the sequence-specific binding of two quinoxaline drugs to DNA fragments containing natural and modified bases. In order to help comprehend the molecular origin of selectivity in the bis-intercalation of triostin A and TANDEM at CpG and TpA sites respectively, we have specifically examined the effect of the 2-amino group of guanine on their sequence specificity by using DNA in which that group has been either removed from guanine, added to adenine or both. Previous studies suggested that the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences by these drugs might be dependent upon the placement of the purine 2-amino group, serving as a positive or a negative effector for triostin A and TANDEM respectively. However, the footprinting data reported here indicate that this is not entirely correct, since they show that the 2-amino group of guanine is important for the binding of triostin A to DNA but has absolutely no influence on the interaction of TANDEM with TpA steps. Apparently the binding of triostin A to CpG sites is primarily due to hydrogen bonding interaction between the cyclic peptide of the antibiotic and the 2-amino group of guanine residues, whereas the selective binding of TANDEM to TpA sites is not hydrogen-bond driven and probably originates mainly from steric and/or hydrophobic interactions, perhaps involving indirect recognition of a suitable minor groove structure.
Project description:The major structural determinant of the preference to bind to CpG binding sites on DNA exhibited by the natural quinoxaline bis-intercalators echinomycin and triostin A, or the quinoline echinomycin derivative, 2QN, is the 2-amino group of guanine (G). However, relocation of this group by means of introduction into the DNA molecule of the 2-aminoadenine (=2,6-diaminopurine, D) base in place of adenine (A) has been shown to lead to a drastic redistribution of binding sites, together with ultratight binding of 2QN to the sequence DTDT. Also, the demethylated triostin analogs, TANDEM and CysMeTANDEM, which bind with high affinity to TpA steps in natural DNA, bind much less tightly to CpI steps, despite the fact that both adenosine and the hypoxanthine-containing nucleoside, inosine (I), provide the same hydrogen bonding possibilities in the minor groove. To study both the increased binding affinity of 2QN for DTDT relative to GCGC sites and the remarkable loss of binding energy between CysMeTANDEM and ICIC compared with ATAT, a series of thermodynamic integration free energy simulations involving conversions between DNA base pairs have been performed. Our results demonstrate that the electrostatic component of the stacking interactions between the heteroaromatic rings of these compounds and the bases that make up the intercalation sites plays a very important role in the modulation of their binding affinities.
Project description:The DNA bisintercalator triostin A is structurally based on a disulfide-bridged depsipeptide scaffold that provides preorganization of two quinoxaline units in 10.5 Å distance. Triostin A analogues are synthesized with nucleobase recognition units replacing the quinoxalines and containing two additional recognition units in between. Thus, four nucleobase recognition units are organized on a rigid template, well suited for DNA double strand interactions. The new tetra-nucleobase binders are synthesized as aza-TANDEM derivatives lacking the N-methylation of triostin A and based on a cyclopeptide backbone. Synthesis of two tetra-nucleobase aza-TANDEM derivatives is established, DNA interaction analyzed by microscale thermophoresis, cytotoxic activity studied and a nucleobase sequence dependent self-aggregation investigated by mass spectrometry.
Project description:The natural product triostin A is known as an antibiotic based on specific DNA recognition. Structurally, a bicyclic depsipeptide backbone provides a well-defined scaffold preorganizing the recognition motifs for bisintercalation. Replacing the intercalating quinoxaline moieties of triostin A by nucleobases results in a potential major groove binder. The functionalization of this DNA binding triostin A analog with a metal binding ligand system is reported, thereby generating a hybrid molecule with DNA binding and metal coordinating capability. Transition metal ions can be placed in close proximity to dsDNA by means of non-covalent interactions. The synthesis of the nucleobase-modified triostin A analog is described containing a propargylglycine for later attachment of the ligand by click-chemistry. As ligand, two [1,4,7]triazacyclononane rings were bridged by a phenol. Formation of the proposed binuclear zinc complex was confirmed for the ligand and the triostin A analog/ligand construct by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The complex as well as the respective hybrid led to stabilization of dsDNA, thus implying that metal complexation and DNA binding are independent processes.
Project description:Triostin antibiotics, which contain a cyclic peptide with a disulphide bridge, have been prepared by growing Streptomyces triostinicus in the presence of inorganic [35S]-sulphate. The labelled triostin A has been shown to behave in all respects similarly to the authentic natural product and to enable a much more sensitive radiochemical adaptation of the solvent-partition method for determining antibiotic binding to DNA. By this means, binding isotherms at low, biologically relevant levels (down to one antibiotic molecule per gene) have been measured. The results indicate the existence of some tight binding sites in natural DNA species that are preferentially occupied at low concentrations. No evidence has been found for any allosteric transitions provoked by interaction between these antibiotics and natural DNA species, though there is evidence for co-operativity in the binding of triostin A to poly(dA-dT). For the first time accurate isotherms have been determined for the binding of triostin C to DNA; its binding constants for a variety of polydeoxynucleotides are uniformly tighter than those of triostin A but fall into the same ranking order when different species of natural DNA are compared.
Project description:Quinomycin C, triostin A and triostin C are peptide antibiotics of the quinoxaline family, of which echinomycin (quinomycin A) is also a member. They all remove and reverse the supercoiling of closed circular duplex DNA from bacteriophage PM2 in the fashion characteristic of intercalating drugs, and the unwinding angle at I 0.01 is, in all cases, almost twice that of ethidium. Thus, as with echinomycin, they can be characterized as bifunctional intercalating agents. For the triostins this conclusion has been confirmed by measurements of changes in the viscosity of sonicated rod-like DNA fragments; the helix extension was found to be almost double that expected for a simple monofunctional intercalation process. For triostin A, further evidence for bifunctionality was derived from the cross-over point of binding isotherms to nicked circular and closed circular bacteriophage-PM2DNA. Binding curves for the interaction of quinomycin C and triostin A with a variety of synthetic and naturally occurring nucleic acids were determined by solvent-partition analysis, but triostin C was too insoluble in aqueous solution to make this method applicable. For quinomycin C the highest binding constant was found with Micrococcus lysodeikticus DNA, and its pattern of specificity among natural DNA species was broadly similar to that of echinomycin, although the binding constants were 2--6 times as large. For triostin A the highest binding constant was again found for M. lysodeikticus DNA, but the specificity pattern was quite different from that of the quinomycins. In particular, triostin A bound better to poly(dA-dT) than to the poly(dG-dC) whereas this order was reversed for quinomycin C. There was also evidence that the binding to poly(dA-dT) might be co-operative in nature. No significant interaction could be detected with poly(dA).poly(dT) or with RNA from Escherichia coli. Poly(dG).poly(dC) gave variable results, depending on the source of the polymer. The different patterns of specificity displayed by the quinomycins and triostins are tentatively ascribed to differences in their conformations in solution.
Project description:The sequence selective binding of [N-MeCys3,N-MeCys7]TANDEM to DNA has been studied by footprinting experiments on DNA fragments containing the self-complementary sequences CGCGATATCGCG, CGCGTATACGCG, CGCGTTAACGCG and CGCGAATTCGCG. DNAase I and micrococcal nuclease reveal drug-induced footprints with the central sequences ATAT, TATA and TTAA, but not AATT, suggesting that the ligand binds to the dinucleotide TpA. The ligand renders certain adenines hyper-reactive to diethyl pyrocarbonate. These are observed with ATAT, TATA and TTAA, but not AATT, and are located both within, and distal to, the TpA-binding sites.
Project description:The synthesis of a new bifunctional compound in which two aminoacridine chromophores are linked by the bicyclic depsipeptidic backbone of des-N-tetramethylTriostin A is described. The molecule, bis-[(9-acridinyl)-D-seryl-L-alanyl-L-cysteinyl-L-valine] dilactone disulphide, structurally analogous to the antibiotic anti-tumour drug Triostin A, is shown to possess a high affinity to DNA and to act as a bis-intercalator on the basis of spectroscopic, viscosimetric and thermal-denaturation studies. This model constitutes the first attempt of a synergic association between a peptidic moiety that mimics a naturally occurring drug and aminoacridine, the two parts themselves each exhibiting a high affinity for the DNA target.
Project description:We have examined the dissociation of [N-MeCys3,N-MeCys7]TANDEM, an AT-selective bifunctional intercalator, from TpA sites in mixed-sequence DNAs by a modification of the footprinting technique. Dissociation of complexes between the ligand and radiolabelled DNA fragments was initiated by adding a vast excess of unlabelled calf thymus DNA. Portions of this mixture were subjected to DNAse I footprinting at various times after adding the competitor DNA. Dissociation of the ligand from each site was seen by the time-dependent disappearance of the footprinting pattern. Within a natural DNA fragment (tyrT) the ligand dissociates from TTAT faster than from ATAT. We found that the stability of complexes with isolated TpA steps decreases in the order ATAT > TTAA > TATA. Dissociation from each of these sites is much faster than from longer regions of (AT)n. These results confirm the requirement for A and T base-pairs surrounding the TpA step and suggest that the interaction is strongest with regions of alternating AT, possibly as a result of its unusual structure. The ligand dissociates more slowly from the centre of (AT)n tracts than from the edges, suggesting that variations in dissociation rate arise from sequence-dependent variations in local DNA structure.
Project description:The structure of the complex formed between d(CGTACG)2 and 9-amino-N-[2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl]-4-acridinecarboxamide, an inactive derivative of the antitumour agents N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA) and 9-amino-DACA, has been solved to a resolution of 1.8 A using X-ray crystallography. The complex crystallises in the space group P6(4 )and the final structure has an overall R factor of 21.9%. A drug molecule intercalates between each of the CpG dinucleotide steps with its side chain lying in the major groove, and its protonated morpholino nitrogen partially occupying positions close to the N7 and O6 atoms of guanine G2. The morpholino group is disordered, the major conformer adopting a twisted boat conformation that makes van der Waals contact with the O4 oxygen of thymine T3. A water molecule forms bridging hydrogen bonds between the 4-carboxamide NH and the phosphate group of guanine G2. Sugar rings are found in alternating C3'-exo/C2'-endo conformations except for cytosine C1 which is C3'-endo. Intercalation perturbs helix winding throughout the hexanucleotide compared with B-DNA, steps 1 and 2 being unwound by 10 and 8 degrees, respectively, while the central TpA step is overwound by 11 degrees. An additional drug molecule lies at the end of each DNA helix linking it to the next duplex to form a continuously stacked structure. The protonated morpholino nitrogen of this 'end-stacked' drug hydrogen bonds to the N7 atom of guanine G6, and its conformationally disordered morpholino ring forms a C-H...O hydrogen bond with the guanine O6 oxygen. In both drug molecules the 4-carboxamide group is internally hydrogen bonded to the protonated N10 atom of the acridine ring. We discuss our findings with respect to the potential role played by the interaction of the drug side chain and the topoisomerase II protein in the poisoning of topoisomerase activity by the acridinecarboxamides.
Project description:It is well known that CpG dinucleotide steps in DNA, which are highly methylated at the 5-position of cytosine (meC) in human tissues, exhibit a disproportionate number of mutations within certain codons of the p53 gene. There is ample published evidence indicating that the reactivity of guanine with anti-B[a]PDE (a metabolite of the environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene) at CpG mutation hot spots is enhanced by the methylation of the cytosine residue flanking the target guanine residue on the 5'-side. In this work we demonstrate that such a methylation can also dramatically affect the conformational characteristics of an adduct derived from the reaction of one of the two enantiomers of anti-B[a]PDE with the exocyclic amino group of guanine ([BP]G adduct). A detailed NMR study indicates that the 10R (-)-trans-anti-[BP]G adduct undergoes a transition from a minor groove-binding alignment of the aromatic BP ring system in the unmethylated C-[BP]G sequence context, to an intercalative BP alignment with a concomitant displacement of the modified guanine residue into the minor groove in the methylated meC-[BP]G sequence context. By contrast, a minor groove-binding alignment was observed for the stereoisomeric 10S (+)-trans-anti-[BP]G adduct in both the C-[BP]G and meC-[BP]G sequence contexts. This remarkable conformational switch resulting from the presence of a single methyl group at the 5-position of the cytosine residue flanking the lesion on the 5'-side, is attributed to the hydrophobic effect of the methyl group that can stabilize intercalated adduct conformations in an adduct stereochemistry-dependent manner. Such conformational differences in methylated and unmethylated CpG sequences may be significant because of potential alterations in the cellular processing of the [BP]G adducts by DNA transcription, replication, and repair enzymes.