Energy requirements for two aspects of phospholipid metabolism in mammalian brain.
ABSTRACT: Previous estimates have placed the energy requirements of total phospholipid metabolism in mammalian brain at 2% or less of total ATP consumption. This low estimate was consistent with the very long half-lives (up to days) reported for fatty acids esterified within phospholipids. However, using an approach featuring analysis of brain acyl-CoA, which takes into account dilution of the precursor acyl-CoA pool by recycling of fatty acids, we reported that half-lives of fatty acids in phospholipids are some 100 times shorter (min-h) than previously thought. Based on these new estimates of short half-lives, palmitic acid and arachidonic acid were used as prototype fatty acids to calculate energy consumption by fatty acid recycling at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions of brain phospholipids. We calculated that the energy requirements for reacylation of fatty acids into lysophospholipids are 5% of net brain ATP consumption. We also calculated ATP requirements for maintaining asymmetry of the aminophospholipids, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine across brain membrane bilayers. This asymmetry is maintained by a translocase at a stoichiometry of 1 mol of ATP per mol of phospholipid transferred in either direction across the membrane. The energy cost of maintaining membrane bilayer asymmetry of aminophospholipids at steady-state was calculated to be 8% of total ATP consumed. Taken together, deacylation-reacylation and maintenance of membrane asymmetry of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine require about 13% of ATP consumed by brain as a whole. This is a lower limit for energy consumption by processes involving phospholipids, as other processes, including phosphorylation of polyphosphoinositides and de novo phospholipid biosynthesis, were not considered.
Project description:The importance of the deacylation-reacylation pathway for attaining the desired fatty acid composition in microsomal phospholipids has been well established. It is not clear, however, whether this mechanism is of equal importance in mitochondria. The absence of acyltransferase activity in mammalian heart mitochondria has been reported in a number of studies. In the present study we report the presence of acyltransferase activities for lysophosphoradylglycerocholines in guinea-pig heart mitochondria. This enzyme showed properties that were considerably different from those of the microsomal enzymes. Of all the acyl-CoAs tested (C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C20:4) the mitochondrial enzyme utilized only linoleoyl-CoA as fatty acyl donor and utilized both 1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1-alkenyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine as fatty acyl acceptors. The presence of significant quantities of fatty acids other than linoleate at the C-2 position of mitochondrial acylglycerophosphocholines, coupled with the specificity of the enzyme for linoleoyl-CoA, suggest that, in addition to reacylation, other mechanisms play a significant role in producing the molecular composition of these phospholipids found in the mitochondria.
Project description:An asymmetric distribution of phospholipids in the membrane bilayer is inseparable from physiological functions, including shape preservation and survival of erythrocytes, and by implication other cells. Aminophospholipids, notably phosphatidylserine (PS), are confined to the inner leaflet of the erythrocyte membrane lipid bilayer by the ATP-dependent flippase enzyme, ATP11C, counteracting the activity of an ATP-independent scramblase. Phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1), a single-transmembrane protein, was previously reported to possess scrambling activity in erythrocytes. However, its function was cast in doubt by the retention of scramblase activity in erythrocytes of knockout mice lacking this protein. We show that in the human erythrocyte PLSCR1 is the predominant scramblase and by reconstitution into liposomes that its activity resides in the transmembrane domain. At or below physiological intracellular calcium concentrations, total suppression of flippase activity nevertheless leaves the membrane asymmetry undisturbed. When liposomes or erythrocytes are depleted of cholesterol (a reversible process in the case of erythrocytes), PS quickly appears at the outer surface, implying that cholesterol acts in the cell as a powerful scramblase inhibitor. Thus, our results bring to light a previously unsuspected function of cholesterol in regulating phospholipid scrambling.
Project description:Resident mouse peritoneal macrophages synthesized and released prostaglandins (PGs) when challenged with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) or 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (DiC8). Both stimuli were found to activate Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C (PKC). 1-(5-Isoquinolinesulphonyl)-2-methylpiperazine ('H-7') and D-sphingosine, known to inhibit PKC by different mechanisms, were able to decrease the PKC activity of macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of either PKC inhibitor decreased PG synthesis and also the release of arachidonic acid (AA) from phospholipids induced by TPA or DiC8. Simultaneously TPA or DiC8 also decreased incorporation of free AA into membrane phospholipids of macrophages. AA incorporation could be restored, however, by pretreatment with the PKC inhibitors. Our results demonstrate an involvement of PKC in the regulation of PG synthesis in mouse peritoneal macrophages and provide further evidence that reacylation of released fatty acids may be an important regulatory step.
Project description:P(4)-ATPases comprise a relatively new subfamily of P-type ATPases implicated in the energy-dependent translocation of aminophospholipids across cell membranes. In this study, we report on the localization and functional properties of Atp8a2, a member of the P(4)-ATPase subfamily that has not been studied previously. Reverse transcription-PCR revealed high expression of atp8a2 mRNA in the retina and testis. Within the retina, immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation studies localized Atp8a2 to outer segment disc membranes of rod and cone photoreceptor cells. Atp8a2 purified from photoreceptor outer segments by immunoaffinity chromatography exhibited ATPase activity that was stimulated by phosphatidylserine and to a lesser degree phosphatidylethanolamine but not by phosphatidylcholine or other membrane lipids. Purified Atp8a2 was reconstituted into liposomes containing fluorescent-labeled phosphatidylserine to measure the ability of Atp8a2 to flip phosphatidylserine across the lipid bilayer. Fluorescence measurements showed that Atp8a2 flipped fluorescent-labeled phosphatidylserine from the inner leaflet of liposomes (equivalent to the exocytoplasmic leaflet of cell membranes) to the outer leaflet (equivalent to cytoplasmic leaflet) in an ATP-dependent manner. Our studies provide the first direct biochemical evidence that purified P(4)-ATPases can translocate aminophospholipids across membranes and further implicates Atp8a2 in the generation and maintenance of phosphatidylserine asymmetry in photoreceptor disc membranes.
Project description:It is commonly accepted that brain phospholipids are highly enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, the evidence for this remains unclear. We used HPLC-MS to analyze the content and composition of phospholipids in rat brain and compared it to the heart, kidney, and liver. Phospholipids typically contain one PUFA, such as 18:2, 20:4, or 22:6, and one saturated fatty acid, such as 16:0 or 18:0. However, we found that brain phospholipids containing monounsaturated fatty acids in the place of PUFAs are highly elevated compared to phospholipids in the heart, kidney, and liver. The relative content of phospholipid containing PUFAs is ~ 60% in the brain, whereas it is over 90% in other tissues. The most abundant species of phosphatidylcholine (PC) is PC(16:0/18:1) in the brain, whereas PC(18:0/20:4) and PC(16:0/20:4) are predominated in other tissues. Moreover, several major species of plasmanyl and plasmenyl phosphatidylethanolamine are found to contain monounsaturated fatty acid in the brain only. Overall, our data clearly show that brain phospholipids are the least enriched with PUFAs of the four major organs, challenging the common belief that the brain is highly enriched with PUFAs.
Project description:Fish and commercially available fish oil preparations are rich sources of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are the most important fatty acids in fish oil. Following dietary intake, these fatty acids get incorporated into the cell membrane phospholipids throughout the body, especially in the heart and brain. They play an important role in early brain development during infancy, and have also been shown to be of benefit in dementia, depression, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Early epidemiologic studies show an inverse relationship between fish consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease. This led to the identification of the cardioprotective role of these marine-derived fatty acids. Many experimental studies and some clinical trials have documented the benefits of fish oil supplementation in decreasing the incidence and progression of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, heart failure, arrhythmias, and stroke. Possible mechanisms include reduction in triglycerides, alteration in membrane fluidity, modulation of cardiac ion channels, and anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, and anti-arrhythmic effects. Fish oil supplements are generally safe, and the risk of toxicity with methylmercury, an environmental toxin found in fish, is minimal. Current guidelines recommend the consumption of either one to two servings of oily fish per week or daily fish oil supplements (around 1 g of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids per day) in adults. However, recent large-scale studies have failed to demonstrate any benefit of fish oil supplements on cardiovascular outcomes and mortality. Here, we review the different trials that evaluated the role of fish oil in cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:ATP8A2 is a P(4)-ATPase ("flippase") located in membranes of retinal photoreceptors, brain cells, and testis, where it mediates transport of aminophospholipids toward the cytoplasmic leaflet. It has long been an enigma whether the mechanism of P(4)-ATPases resembles that of the well-characterized cation-transporting P-type ATPases, and it is unknown whether the flippases interact directly with the lipid and with counterions. Our results demonstrate that ATP8A2 forms a phosphoenzyme intermediate at the conserved aspartate (Asp(416)) in the P-type ATPase signature sequence and exists in E(1)P and E(2)P forms similar to the archetypical P-type ATPases. Using the properties of the phosphoenzyme, the partial reaction steps of the transport cycle were examined, and the roles of conserved residues Asp(196), Glu(198), Lys(873), and Asn(874) in the transport mechanism were elucidated. The former two residues in the A-domain T/D-G-E-S/T motif are involved in catalysis of E(2)P dephosphorylation, the glutamate being essential. Transported aminophospholipids activate the dephosphorylation similar to K(+) activation of dephosphorylation in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Lys(873) mutants (particularly K873A and K873E) display a markedly reduced sensitivity to aminophospholipids. Hence, Lys(873), located in transmembrane segment M5 at a "hot spot" for cation binding in Ca(2+)-ATPase and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, appears to participate directly in aminophospholipid binding or to mediate a crucial interaction within the ATP8A2-CDC50 complex. By contrast, Lys(865) is unimportant for aminophospholipid sensitivity. Binding of Na(+), H(+), K(+), Cl(-), or Ca(2+) to the E(1) form as a counterion is not required for activation of phosphorylation from ATP. Therefore, phospholipids could be the only substrate transported by ATP8A2.
Project description:This article reviews the relationship between the energy status of plant cells under O(2) stress (e.g. waterlogging) and the maintenance of membrane intactness, using information largely derived from suspension cultures of anoxia-intolerant potato cells. Energy-related parameters measured were fermentation end-products (ethanol, lactate, alanine), respiratory rate, ATP, adenylate energy charge, nitrate reductase activity and biomass. ATP synthesis rates were calculated from the first four parameters. Reactive oxygen species were estimated from H(2)O(2) and superoxide levels, and the enzymatic detoxification potential from the activity levels of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Structure-related parameters were total fatty acids, free fatty acids (FFAs), lipid hydroperoxides, total phospholipids, N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) and cell viability. The following issues are addressed in this review: (1) what is the impact of anoxia on membrane lipids and how does this relate to energy status; (2) does O(2) per se play a role in these changes; (3) under which conditions and to what extent does lipid peroxidation occur upon re-aeration; and (4) can the effects of re-aeration be distinguished from those of anoxia? The emerging picture is a reappraisal of the relative contributions of anoxia and re-aeration. Two successive phases (pre-lytic and lytic) characterize potato cells under anoxia. They are connected by a threshold in ATP production rate, below which membrane lipids are hydrolysed to FFAs, and NAPE increases. Since lipid peroxidation occurs only when cells are reoxygenated during the lytic phase, its biological relevance in an already damaged system is questionable.
Project description:The main energy substrate of adult cardiomyocytes for their contractility are the fatty acids. Its metabolism generates high ATP levels at the expense of high oxygen consumption in the mitochondria. Under low oxygen supply, they can get energy from other substrates, mainly glucose, lactate, ketone bodies, etc., but the mitochondrial dysfunction, in pathological conditions, reduces the oxidative metabolism. In consequence, fatty acids are stored into epicardial fat and its accumulation provokes inflammation, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress, which enhance the myocardium dysfunction. Some therapies focused on improvement the fatty acids entry into mitochondria have failed to demonstrate benefits on cardiovascular disorders. Oppositely, those therapies with effects on epicardial fat volume and inflammation might improve the oxidative metabolism of myocardium and might reduce the cardiovascular disease progression. This review aims at explain (a) the energy substrate adaptation of myocardium in physiological conditions, (b) the reduction of oxidative metabolism in pathological conditions and consequences on epicardial fat accumulation and insulin resistance, and (c) the reduction of cardiovascular outcomes after regulation by some therapies.
Project description:In Gram-negative bacteria, lipid asymmetry is critical for the function of the outer membrane (OM) as a selective permeability barrier, but how it is established and maintained is poorly understood. Here, we characterize a non-canonical ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter in Escherichia coli that provides energy for maintaining OM lipid asymmetry via the transport of aberrantly localized phospholipids (PLs) from the OM to the inner membrane (IM). We establish that the transporter comprises canonical components, MlaF and MlaE, and auxiliary proteins, MlaD and MlaB, of previously unknown functions. We further demonstrate that MlaD forms extremely stable hexamers within the complex, functions in substrate binding with strong affinity for PLs, and modulates ATP hydrolytic activity. In addition, MlaB plays critical roles in both the assembly and activity of the transporter. Our work provides mechanistic insights into how the MlaFEDB complex participates in ensuring active retrograde PL transport to maintain OM lipid asymmetry.