Properties of a polyamine transporter regulated by antizyme.
ABSTRACT: The regulation of polyamine transport by antizyme, a protein that is involved in the rapid degradation of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), was studied in FM3A mouse cells overproducing ODC. Both artificial (Z1) and natural antizymes not only inhibited polyamine uptake but also stimulated polyamine excretion. The properties of the polyamine transporter regulated by antizyme were characterized. The uptake of radiolabelled polyamines was inhibited by excess acetylpolyamines and a protonophore, CCCP (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone), whereas the excretion of radiolabelled polyamines was stimulated by unlabelled polyamines, acetylpolyamines and CCCP in the medium. Furthermore, it is shown that polyamines and acetylpolyamines are excreted from cells. On the basis of the results, it is discussed how antizyme regulates polyamine transport negatively.
Project description:ODC (ornithine decarboxylase) is the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. Polyamines are essential for cellular growth and differentiation but enhanced ODC activity is associated with cell transformation. Post-translationally, ODC is negatively regulated through members of the antizyme family. Antizymes inhibit ODC activity, promote ODC degradation through the 26 S proteasome and regulate polyamine transport. Besides the ubiquitously expressed antizymes 1 and 2, there is the tissue-specific antizyme 3 and an yet uncharacterized antizyme 4. Antizyme 1 has been shown to be negatively regulated through the AZI (antizyme inhibitor) that binds antizyme 1 with higher affinity compared with ODC. In the present study, we show by yeast two- and three-hybrid protein-protein interaction studies that AZI interacts with all members of the antizyme family and is capable of disrupting the interaction between each antizyme and ODC. In a yeast-based ODC complementation assay, we show that human ODC is able to complement fully the function of the yeast homologue of ODC. Co-expression of antizymes resulted in ODC inhibition and cessation of yeast growth. The antizyme-induced growth inhibition could be reversed by addition of putrescine or by the co-expression of AZI. The protein interactions could be confirmed by immunoprecipitation of the human ODC-antizyme 2-AZI complexes. In summary, we conclude that human AZI is capable of acting as a general inhibitor for all members of the antizyme family and that the previously not yet characterized antizyme 4 is capable of binding ODC and inhibiting its enzymic activity similar to the other members of the antizyme family.
Project description:Cellular polyamines are regulated by a unique feedback mechanism involving ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) antizyme. The synthesis of mammalian antizyme requires a programmed translational frameshift event induced by polyamines. Antizyme represses ODC, a key enzyme for polyamine synthesis, through accelerating enzyme degradation by the 26 S proteasome. Antizyme also inhibits the cellular uptake of polyamines. In the present study we isolated two distinct zebrafish (Danio rerio) antizyme cDNA clones (AZS and AZL) from an embryonic library. Their sequences revealed that both clones required translational frameshifting for expression. Taking account of +1 frameshifting, AZS and AZL products were 214 and 218 residues long respectively and shared 51.8% amino acid identity. In rabbit reticulocyte lysates, both mRNA species were translated through spermidine-induced frameshifting. The presence of the two antizyme mRNA species in embryos, adult fish and a cultured cell line was confirmed by Northern blot analysis. The ratio of AZS mRNA to AZL mRNA in the adult fish was 1.8-fold higher than in the embryos. Whole-mount hybridization in situ demonstrated that both mRNA species are expressed in every tissue in embryo, but predominantly in the central nervous system and the eyes. Bacterial expression products of both cDNA species inhibited ODC activity, but only the AZS product accelerated ODC degradation in vitro. These results show that both zebrafish antizymes are induced by polyamines but their mRNA species are expressed differently during development. The difference in activities on ODC degradation suggests their functional divergence.
Project description:Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. It is a short-lived protein and negatively regulated by its products, polyamines. Its degradation is accelerated by the binding of antizyme, an ODC-inhibitory protein induced by polyamines. To evaluate the physiological importance of antizyme we examined the effect of forced expression of antizyme on cellular ODC and polyamine levels and cell growth. Antizyme almost completely abolished the induction of ODC by growth stimuli. This may have been caused by antizyme-induced rapid degradation of newly synthesized ODC, since the half-life of ODC complexes with antizyme was less than 5 min. Forced expression of antizyme caused reductions of cellular putrescine and spermidine levels, and inhibited cell growth, which was partially restored by the addition of putrescine. These observations suggested a critically important role of antizyme in polyamine metabolism.
Project description:Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the key enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway. ODC levels are controlled by polyamines through the induction of antizymes (AZs), small proteins that inhibit ODC and target it to proteasomal degradation without ubiquitination. Antizyme inhibitors (AZIN1 and AZIN2) are proteins homologous to ODC that bind to AZs and counteract their negative effect on ODC. Whereas ODC and AZIN1 are well-characterized proteins, little is known on the structure and stability of AZIN2, the lastly discovered member of this regulatory circuit. In this work we first analyzed structural aspects of AZIN2 by combining biochemical and computational approaches. We demonstrated that AZIN2, in contrast to ODC, does not form homodimers, although the predicted tertiary structure of the AZIN2 monomer was similar to that of ODC. Furthermore, we identified conserved residues in the antizyme-binding element, whose substitution drastically affected the capacity of AZIN2 to bind AZ1. On the other hand, we also found that AZIN2 is much more labile than ODC, but it is highly stabilized by its binding to AZs. Interestingly, the administration of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 caused differential effects on the three AZ-binding proteins, having no effect on ODC, preventing the degradation of AZIN1, but unexpectedly increasing the degradation of AZIN2. Inhibitors of the lysosomal function partially prevented the effect of MG132 on AZIN2. These results suggest that the degradation of AZIN2 could be also mediated by an alternative route to that of proteasome. These findings provide new relevant information on this unique regulatory mechanism of polyamine metabolism.
Project description:Polyamines are multivalent organic cations essential for many cellular functions, including cell growth, differentiation, and proliferation. However, elevated polyamine levels are associated with a slew of pathological conditions, including multiple cancers. Intracellular polyamine levels are primarily controlled by the autoregulatory circuit comprising two different protein types, Antizymes (OAZ) and Antizyme Inhibitors (AZIN), which regulate the activity of the polyamine biosynthetic enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). While OAZ functions to decrease the intracellular polyamine levels by inhibiting ODC activity and exerting a negative control of polyamine uptake, AZIN operates to increase intracellular polyamine levels by binding and sequestering OAZ to relieve ODC inhibition and to increase polyamine uptake. Interestingly, OAZ and AZIN exhibit autoregulatory functions on polyamine independent pathways as well. A growing body of evidence demonstrates the dysregulation of AZIN expression in multiple cancers. Additionally, RNA editing of the <i>Azin1</i> transcript results in a "gain-of-function" phenotype, which is shown to drive aggressive tumor types. This review will discuss the recent advances in AZIN's role in cancers via aberrant polyamine upregulation and its polyamine-independent protein regulation. This report will also highlight AZIN interaction with proteins outside the polyamine biosynthetic pathway and its potential implication to cancer pathogenesis. Finally, this review will reveal the protein interaction network of AZIN isoforms by analyzing three different interactome databases.
Project description:We have previously reported that cyclical phases of accumulation and depletion of polyamines occur during cell-cycle progression. Regulatory ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) catalyses the first step of polyamine biosynthesis. Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (OAZ), induced by high polyamine levels, inhibits ODC activity and prevents extracellular polyamine uptake. Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) regulates the polyamine degradation/excretion pathway. Here we show that 24 h transient transfection of immortalized human prostatic epithelial cells (PNT1A and PNT2) with antisense ODC RNA or OAZ cDNA, or both, while effectively causing marked decreases of ODC activity and polyamine (especially putrescine) concentrations, resulted in accumulation of cells in the S phase of the cell cycle. Transfection with SSAT cDNA led to more pronounced decreases in spermidine and spermine levels and resulted in accumulation of cells in the G2/M phases. Transfection with all three constructs together produced maximal depletion of all polyamines, accompanied by accumulation of PNT1A cells in the S phase and PNT2 cells in the G0/G1 and G2/M phases. Accumulation of PNT1A cells in the S phase progressively increased at 15, 18 and 24 h of transfection with antisense ODC and/or OAZ cDNA. At 24 h, the DNA content was always reduced, as a possible outcome of altered chromosome condensation. A direct link between polyamine metabolism, cell proliferation and chromatin structure is thus proposed.
Project description:Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the key regulatory enzyme for polyamine biosynthesis, is known to have a short intracellular half-life, and antizyme, an ODC-binding protein induced by polyamines, has been suggested to be involved in the process of ODC degradation. In the present study we demonstrated that antizyme markedly accelerated ATP-dependent degradation of ODC in vitro in an extract from ODC-overproducing Chinese-hamster ovary cells.
Project description:Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) catalyses the first step in the synthesis of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine. The polyamines are essential for cell growth, but at elevated levels they may be tumorigenic, toxic, or may induce apoptosis. Therefore, ODC activity is highly regulated. It is induced when cells are stimulated to grow, and it is subjected to feedback inhibition by the polyamines. By causing ribosomal frameshifting, polyamines induce the synthesis of antizyme, a 23-kDa protein, which binds to ODC, inhibits its activity and promotes its degradation by the 26 S proteasome. Antizyme, in turn, is inhibited by antizyme inhibitor (AZI). We describe the cloning of a mouse AZI cDNA, encoding a protein with high homology to mouse ODC. Using purified recombinant proteins, we show that AZI (which has no ODC activity) can release enzymically active ODC from antizyme suppression in vitro. We also show that ODC reactivation takes place in mouse fibroblasts upon transient transfection with an AZI-expressing plasmid construct. Finally we demonstrate that the AZI mRNA content of mouse fibroblasts increases significantly within an hour of growth stimulation, i.e. much earlier than ODC transcripts. Our results indicate that induction of AZI synthesis may represent a means of rescuing ODC molecules that have been inactivated and tagged for degradation by antizyme, when culture conditions improve and polyamine production is needed for cell growth and proliferation.
Project description:Polyamines are essential organic cations with multiple cellular functions. Their synthesis is controlled by a feedback regulation whose main target is ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. In mammals, ODC has been shown to be inhibited and targeted for ubiquitin-independent degradation by ODC antizyme (AZ). The synthesis of mammalian AZ was reported to involve a polyamine-induced ribosomal frameshifting mechanism. High levels of polyamine therefore inhibit new synthesis of polyamines by inducing ODC degradation. We identified a previously unrecognized sequence in the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encoding an orthologue of mammalian AZ. We show that synthesis of yeast AZ (Oaz1) involves polyamine-regulated frameshifting as well. Degradation of yeast ODC by the proteasome depends on Oaz1. Using this novel model system for polyamine regulation, we discovered another level of its control. Oaz1 itself is subject to ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis by the proteasome. Degradation of Oaz1, however, is inhibited by polyamines. We propose a model, in which polyamines inhibit their ODC-mediated biosynthesis by two mechanisms, the control of Oaz1 synthesis and inhibition of its degradation.
Project description:Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a ubiquitin-independent substrate of the proteasome, is a homodimeric protein with a rate-limiting function in polyamine biosynthesis. Polyamines regulate ODC levels by a feedback mechanism mediated by ODC antizyme (OAZ). Higher cellular polyamine levels trigger the synthesis of OAZ and also inhibit its ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation. OAZ binds ODC monomers and targets them to the proteasome. Here, we report that polyamines, aside from their role in the control of OAZ synthesis and stability, directly enhance OAZ-mediated ODC degradation by the proteasome. Using a stable mutant of OAZ, we show that polyamines promote ODC degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells even when OAZ levels are not changed. Furthermore, polyamines stimulated the in vitro degradation of ODC by the proteasome in a reconstituted system using purified components. In these assays, spermine shows a greater effect than spermidine. By contrast, polyamines do not have any stimulatory effect on the degradation of ubiquitin-dependent substrates.