Molecular interaction of dihydropyridine receptors with type-1 ryanodine receptors in rat brain.
ABSTRACT: In striated muscles, Ca2+ release from internal stores through ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels is triggered by functional coupling to voltage-activated Ca2+ channels known as dihydropyridine receptors (DHPRs) located in the plasma membrane. In skeletal muscle, this occurs by a direct conformational link between the tissue-specific DHPR (Ca(v)1.1) and RyR(1), whereas in the heart the signal is carried from the cardiac-type DHPR (Ca(v)1.2) to RyR(2) by calcium ions acting as an activator. Subtypes of both channels are expressed in the central nervous system, but their functions and mechanisms of coupling are still poorly understood. We show here that complexes immunoprecipitated from solubilized rat brain membranes with antibodies against DHPR of the Ca(v)1.2 or Ca(v)1.3 subtypes contain RyR. Only type-1 RyR is co-precipitated, although the major brain isoform is RyR(2). This suggests that, in neurons, DHPRs could communicate with RyRs by way of a strong molecular interaction and, more generally, that the physical link between DHPR and RyR shown to exist in skeletal muscle can be extended to other tissues.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to explore interactions between surface-membrane DHPR (dihydropyridine receptor) Ca2+ channels and RyR (ryanodine receptor) Ca2+ channels in skeletal-muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. The C region (725Phe-Pro742) of the linker between the 2nd and 3rd repeats (II-III loop) of the a1 subunit of skeletal DHPRs is essential for skeletal excitation-contraction coupling, which requires a physical interaction between the DHPR and RyR and is independent of external Ca2+. Little is known about the regulatory processes that might take place when the two Ca2+ channels interact. Indeed, interactions between C fragments of the DHPR (C peptides) and RyR have different reported effects on Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and on RyR channels in lipid bilayers. To gain insight into functional interactions between the proteins and to explore different reported effects, we examined the actions of C peptides on RyR1 channels in lipid bilayers with three key RyR regulators, Ca2+, Mg2+ and ATP. We identified four discrete actions: two novel, low-affinity (>10 microM), rapidly reversible effects (fast inhibition and decreased sensitivity to Mg2+ inhibition) and two slowly reversible effects (high-affinity activation and a slow-onset, low-affinity inhibition). Fast inhibition and high-affinity activation were decreased by ATP. Therefore peptide activation in the presence of ATP and Mg2+, used with Ca2+ release assays, depends on a mechanism different from that seen when Ca2+ is the sole agonist. The relief of Mg2+ inhibition was particularly important since RyR activation during excitation-contraction coupling depends on a similar decrease in Mg2+ inhibition.
Project description:Junctophilins (JPs) anchor the endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane, thus contributing to the assembly of junctional membrane complexes in striated muscles and neurons. Recent studies have shown that JPs may be also involved in regulating Ca2+ homeostasis. Here, we report that in skeletal muscle, JP1 and JP2 are part of a complex that, in addition to ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1), includes caveolin 3 and the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR). The interaction between JPs and DHPR was mediated by a region encompassing amino acids 230-369 and amino acids 216-399 in JP1 and JP2, respectively. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that the pattern of DHPR and RyR signals in C2C12 cells knocked down for JP1 and JP2 was rather diffused and characterized by smaller puncta in contrast to that observed in control cells. Functional experiments revealed that down-regulation of JPs in differentiated C2C12 cells resulted in a reduction of intramembrane charge movement and the L-type Ca2+ current accompanied by a reduced number of DHPRs at the plasma membrane, whereas there was no substantial alteration in Ca2+ release from the sterol regulatory element-binding protein. Altogether, these results suggest that JP1 and JP2 can facilitate the assembly of DHPR with other proteins of the excitation-contraction coupling machinery.
Project description:We have defined regions of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR1) essential for bidirectional signaling with dihydropyridine receptors (DHPRs) and for the organization of DHPR into tetrad arrays by expressing RyR1-RyR3 chimerae in dyspedic myotubes. RyR1-RyR3 constructs bearing RyR1 residues 1-1681 restored wild-type DHPR tetrad arrays and, in part, skeletal-type excitation-contraction (EC) coupling (orthograde signaling) but failed to enhance DHPR Ca(2+) currents (retrograde signaling) to WT RyR1 levels. Within this region, the D2 domain (amino acids 1272-1455), although ineffective on its own, dramatically enhanced the formation of tetrads and EC coupling rescue by constructs that otherwise are only partially effective. These findings suggest that the orthograde signal and DHPR tetrad formation require the contributions of numerous RyR regions. Surprisingly, we found that RyR3, although incapable of supporting EC coupling or tetrad formation, restored a significant level of Ca(2+) current, revealing a functional interaction with the skeletal muscle DHPR. Thus, our data support the hypotheses that (i) the structural/functional link between RyR1 and the skeletal muscle DHPR requires multiple interacting regions, (ii) the D2 domain of RyR1 plays a key role in stabilizing this interaction, and (iii) a form of retrograde signaling from RyR3 to the DHPR occurs in the absence of direct protein-protein interactions.
Project description:The plasmalemmal dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) is the voltage sensor in skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (e-c) coupling. It activates calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum via protein-protein interactions with the ryanodine receptor (RyR). To enable this interaction, DHPRs are arranged in arrays of tetrads opposite RyRs. In the DHPR alpha(1S) subunit, the cytoplasmic loop connecting repeats II and III is a major determinant of skeletal-type e-c coupling. Whether the essential II-III loop sequence (L720-L764) also determines the skeletal-specific arrangement of DHPRs was examined in dysgenic (alpha(1S)-null) myotubes reconstituted with distinct alpha(1) subunit isoforms and II-III loop chimeras. Parallel immunofluorescence and freeze-fracture analysis showed that alpha(1S) and chimeras containing L720-L764, all of which restored skeletal-type e-c coupling, displayed the skeletal arrangement of DHPRs in arrays of tetrads. Conversely, alpha(1C) and those chimeras with a cardiac II-III loop and cardiac e-c coupling properties were targeted into junctional membranes but failed to form tetrads. However, an alpha(1S)-based chimera with the heterologous Musca II-III loop produced tetrads but did not reconstitute skeletal muscle e-c coupling. These findings suggest an inhibitory role in tetrad formation of the cardiac II-III loop and that the organization of DHPRs in tetrads vis-a-vis the RyR is necessary but not sufficient for skeletal-type e-c coupling.
Project description:Developing skeletal myofibers in vertebrates are intrinsically 'pre-patterned' for motor nerve innervation. However, the intrinsic factors that regulate muscle pre-patterning remain unknown. We found that a functional skeletal muscle dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR, the L-type Ca(2+) channel in muscle) was required for muscle pre-patterning during the development of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Targeted deletion of the ?1 subunit of DHPR (Cacnb1) in mice led to muscle pre-patterning defects, aberrant innervation and precocious maturation of the NMJ. Reintroducing Cacnb1 into Cacnb1(-/-) muscles reversed the pre-patterning defects and restored normal development of the NMJ. The mechanism by which DHPRs govern muscle pre-patterning is independent of their role in excitation-contraction coupling, but requires Ca(2+) influx through the L-type Ca(2+) channel. Our findings indicate that the skeletal muscle DHPR retrogradely regulates the patterning and formation of the NMJ.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The cardiac myocyte t-tubular system ensures rapid, uniform cell activation and several experimental lines of evidence suggest changes in the t-tubular system and associated excitation-contraction coupling proteins may occur in heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: The organization of t-tubules, L-type calcium channels (DHPRs), ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and contractile machinery were examined in fixed ventricular tissue samples from both normal and failing hearts (idiopathic (non-ischemic) dilated cardiomyopathy) using high resolution fluorescent imaging. Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Na-Ca exchanger, DHPR and caveolin-3 labels revealed a shift from a predominantly transverse orientation to oblique and axial directions in failing myocytes. In failure, dilation of peripheral t-tubules occurred and a change in the extent of protein glycosylation was evident. There was no change in the fractional area occupied by myofilaments (labeled with phalloidin) but there was a small reduction in the number of RyR clusters per unit area. The general relationship between DHPRs and RyR was not changed and RyR labeling overlapped with 51±3% of DHPR labeling in normal hearts. In longitudinal (but not transverse) sections there was an ?30% reduction in the degree of colocalization between DHPRs and RyRs as measured by Pearson's correlation coefficient in failing hearts. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that extensive remodelling of the t-tubular network and associated excitation-contraction coupling proteins occurs in failing human heart. These changes may contribute to abnormal calcium handling in heart failure. The general organization of the t-system and changes observed in failure samples have subtle differences to some animal models although the general direction of changes are generally similar.
Project description:Contraction of skeletal muscle is initiated by excitation-contraction (EC) coupling during which membrane voltage is transduced to intracellular Ca2+ release. EC coupling requires L-type voltage gated Ca2+ channels (the dihydropyridine receptor or DHPR) located at triads, which are junctions between the transverse (T) tubule and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes, that sense membrane depolarization in the T tubule membrane. Reduced EC coupling is associated with ageing, and disruptions of EC coupling result in congenital myopathies for which there are few therapies. The precise localization of DHPRs to triads is critical for EC coupling, yet trafficking of the DHPR to triads is not well understood. Using dynamic imaging of zebrafish muscle fibers, we find that DHPR is transported along the longitudinal SR in a microtubule-independent mechanism. Furthermore, transport of DHPR in the SR membrane is differentially affected in null mutants of Stac3 or DHPR?, two essential components of EC coupling. These findings reveal previously unappreciated features of DHPR motility within the SR prior to assembly at triads.
Project description:While subtypes 1 and 2 of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) function as intracellular Ca2+ release channels, little is known about the function of the third subtype (RyR-3), first identified in brain. Myocytes from mice homozygous for a targeted mutation in the RyR-1 gene (dyspedic mice) can now be used for a study on the function of RyR-3, which is predominantly expressed in these cells according to our reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. We here demonstrate in these myocytes caffeine-, ryanodine- and adenine nucleotide-sensitive Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release with approximately 10 times lower sensitivity to Ca2+ than that of RyR-1. Although RyR-3 does not mediate excitation-contraction coupling of the skeletal muscle type, we propose that RyR-3 may induce intracellular Ca2+ release in response to a Ca2+ rise with a high threshold.
Project description:Mammalian brain possesses ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ channels, which in muscle cells mediate rapid Ca2+ release from intracellular stores during excitation-contraction coupling. Analysis of bovine brain ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels suggests specific expression of the cardiac-muscle RyR isoform in mammalian brain. Localization using cardiac-muscle RyR-specific antibodies and antisense RNA revealed that brain RyRs were present in dendrites, cell bodies and terminals of rat forebrain, and highly enriched in the hippocampus. Activity of skeletal-muscle RyR channels is coupled to sarcolemmal voltage sensors, in contrast with cardiac-muscle RyR channels, which are known to be Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+)-release channels. Thus Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release from intracellular stores mediated by brain RyR channels may be a major Ca(2+)-signalling pathway in specific regions of mammalian brain, and hence may play a fundamental role in neuronal Ca2+ homoeostasis.
Project description:A physical association between the II-III loop of the DHPR (dihydropryidine receptor) and the RyR (ryanodine receptor) is essential for excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal, but not cardiac, muscle. However, peptides corresponding to a part of the II-III loop interact with the cardiac RyR2 suggesting the possibility of a physical coupling between the proteins. Whether the full II-III loop and its functionally important 'C' region (cardiac DHPR residues 855-891 or skeletal 724-760) interact with cardiac RyR2 is not known and is examined in the present study. Both the cardiac DHPR II-III loop (CDCL) and cardiac peptide (C(c)) activated RyR2 channels at concentrations >10 nM. The skeletal DHPR II-III loop (SDCL) activated channels at < or =100 nM and weakly inhibited at > or =1 microM. In contrast, skeletal peptide (C(s)) inhibited channels at all concentrations when added alone, or was ineffective if added in the presence of C(c). Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release from cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum was enhanced by CDCL, SDCL and the C peptides. The results indicate that the interaction between the II-III loop and RyR2 depends critically on the 'A' region (skeletal DHPR residues 671-690 or cardiac 793-812) and also involves the C region. Structure analysis indicated that (i) both C(s) and C(c) are random coil at room temperature, but, at 5 degrees C, have partial helical regions in their N-terminal and central parts, and (ii) secondary-structure profiles for CDCL and SDCL are similar. The data provide novel evidence that the DHPR II-III loop and its C region interact with cardiac RyR2, and that the ability to interact is not isoform-specific.