Grb2 regulates Stat3 activation negatively in epidermal growth factor signalling.
ABSTRACT: EGF (epidermal growth factor) binding to its receptor (EGFR) induces dimerization and autophosphorylation of the receptor at multiple tyrosine residues, which serve as docking sites for recruitment of proteins with SH2 (Src homology 2) domains that activate multiple downstream signalling pathways. The adaptor protein Grb2 (growth factor receptor-binding protein 2) binds to EGFR, which leads to activation of Ras-MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascade. The latent transcription factors, STAT (signal transduction and activator of transcription), can also be activated by EGF in certain cell types. Since Ras-MAPK and STAT pathways are simultaneously stimulated by EGF, and Tyr-1086 and Tyr-1068 of EGFR are reported to be the binding sites for both Grb2 and Stat3, we investigated the possible regulatory role of Grb2 in STAT activation. In the present study, we report that transient expression of Grb2 specifically down-regulates EGF-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3, which leads to a repression of Stat3 transcriptional activity. In contrast, depletion of Grb2 by RNA interference substantially increases Stat3 tyrosine phosphorylation induced by EGF. The inhibition is neither mediated by a direct interaction between Grb2 and Stat3 nor via activation of tyrosine phosphatases. However, the repression was abolished by a mutation in the SH2 domain, but not the SH3 domains of Grb2, suggesting that inhibition involves binding of the receptor. Indeed, Grb2 inhibits the interaction between Stat3 and EGFR by competitive binding to the EGFR. On the other hand, Grb2 does not interact with the same sites as Stat3 on the interleukin-6 receptor and, therefore, has no effect on interleukin-6-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, in EGF signalling, Grb2 regulates Stat3 activation negatively at the receptor level.
Project description:The EGF receptor is a classic receptor tyrosine kinase. It contains nine tyrosines in its C-terminal tail, many of which are phosphorylated and bind proteins containing SH2 or phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domains. To determine how many and which tyrosines are required to enable EGF receptor-mediated signaling, we generated a series of EGF receptors that contained only one tyrosine in their C-terminal tail. Assays of the signaling capabilities of these single-Tyr EGF receptors indicated that they can activate a range of downstream signaling pathways, including MAP kinase and Akt. The ability of the single-Tyr receptors to signal correlated with their ability to bind Gab1 (Grb2-associated binding protein 1). However, Tyr-992 appeared to be almost uniquely required to observe activation of phospholipase C?. These results demonstrate that multiply phosphorylated receptors are not required to support most EGF-stimulated signaling but identify Tyr-992 and its binding partners as a unique node within the network. We also studied the binding of the isolated SH2 domain of Grb2 (growth factor receptor-bound protein 2) and the isolated PTB domain of Shc (SHC adaptor protein) to the EGF receptor. Although these adapter proteins bound readily to wild-type EGF receptor, they bound poorly to the single-Tyr EGF receptors, even those that bound full-length Grb2 and Shc well. This suggests that in addition to pTyr-directed associations, secondary interactions between the tail and regions of the adapter proteins outside of the SH2/PTB domains are important for stabilizing the binding of Grb2 and Shc to the single-Tyr EGF receptors.
Project description:The Src homology 2 (SH2) and collagen domain protein Shc plays a pivotal role in signaling via tyrosine kinase receptors, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Shc binding to phospho-tyrosine residues on activated receptors is mediated by the SH2 and phospho-tyrosine binding (PTB) domains. Subsequent phosphorylation on Tyr-317 within the Shc linker region induces Shc interactions with Grb2-Son of Sevenless that initiate Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. We use molecular dynamics simulations of full-length Shc to examine how Tyr-317 phosphorylation controls Shc conformation and interactions with EGFR. Our simulations reveal that Shc tyrosine phosphorylation results in a significant rearrangement of the relative position of its domains, suggesting a key conformational change. Importantly, computational estimations of binding affinities show that EGFR-derived phosphotyrosyl peptides bind with significantly more strength to unphosphorylated than to phosphorylated Shc. Our results unveil what we believe is a novel structural phenomenon, i.e., tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc within its linker region regulates the binding affinity of SH2 and PTB domains for phosphorylated Shc partners, with important implications for signaling dynamics.
Project description:Stimulation of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) signalling pathway occurs via the IL-6 receptor-glycoprotein 130 (IL-6R-gp130) receptor complex and results in the regulation of acute-phase protein genes in liver cells. Ligand binding to the receptor complex leads to tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of Janus kinases (Jak), phosphorylation of the signal transducing subunit gp130, followed by recruitment and phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription factors STAT3 and STAT1 and the src homology domain (SH2)-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP2). The tyrosine phosphorylated STAT factors dissociate from the receptor, dimerize and translocate to the nucleus where they bind to enhancer sequences of IL-6 target genes. Phosphorylated SHP2 is able to bind growth factor receptor bound protein (grb2) and thus might link the Jak/STAT pathway to the ras/raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Here we present data on the dose-dependence, kinetics and kinase requirements for SHP2 phosphorylation after the activation of the signal transducer, gp130, of the IL-6-type family receptor complex. When human fibrosarcoma cell lines deficient in Jak1, Jak2 or tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2) were stimulated with IL-6-soluble IL-6R complexes it was found that only in Jak1-, but not in Jak 2- or Tyk2-deficient cells, SHP2 activation was greatly impaired. It is concluded that Jak1 is required for the tyrosine phosphorylation of SHP2. This phosphorylation depends on Tyr-759 in the cytoplasmatic domain of gp130, since a Tyr-759-->Phe exchange abrogates SHP2 activation and in turn leads to elevated and prolonged STAT3 and STAT1 activation as well as enhanced acute-phase protein gene induction. Therefore, SHP2 plays an important role in acute-phase gene regulation.
Project description:Although many proteins have been shown to participate in ligand-stimulated endocytosis of EGF receptor (EGFR), the adaptor protein responsible for interaction of activated EGFR with endocytic machinery remains elusive. We show here that EGF stimulates transient tyrosine phosphorylation of Tom1L1 by the Src family kinases, resulting in transient interaction of Tom1L1 with the activated EGFR bridged by Grb2 and Shc. Cytosolic Tom1L1 is recruited onto the plasma membrane and subsequently redistributes into the early endosome. Mutant forms of Tom1L1 defective in Tyr-phosphorylation or interaction with Grb2 are incapable of interaction with EGFR. These mutants behave as dominant-negative mutants to inhibit endocytosis of EGFR. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Tom1L1 inhibits endocytosis of EGFR. The C-terminal tail of Tom1L1 contains a novel clathrin-interacting motif responsible for interaction with the C-terminal region of clathrin heavy chain, which is important for exogenous Tom1L1 to rescue endocytosis of EGFR in Tom1L1 knocked-down cells. These results suggest that EGF triggers a transient Grb2/Shc-mediated association of EGFR with Tyr-phosphorylated Tom1L1 to engage the endocytic machinery for endocytosis of the ligand-receptor complex.
Project description:We used a substrate-trapping technique to search for substrates of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) 1B. A catalytically inactive form of this enzyme forms a stable, phosphotyrosine-dependent complex with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) both in vitro and in cells. PTP1B also interacts with activated platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) but not with colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R). After binding to EGFR, PTP1B becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated at Tyr-66, a site that conforms to the consensus binding sequence for the Src homology 2 (SH2) domains of the adapter protein Grb2. This tyrosine phosphorylation is correlated with a 3-fold increase in PTP catalytic activity. These findings suggest that PTP1B selectively regulates specific activated receptor protein tyrosine kinases (RPTKs) in vivo and might itself be regulated by such receptors.
Project description:Tyrosine kinases drive the proliferation and survival of many human cancers. Thus profiling the global state of tyrosine phosphorylation of a tumor is likely to provide a wealth of information that can be used to classify tumors for prognosis and prediction. However, the comprehensive analysis of tyrosine phosphorylation of large numbers of human cancer specimens is technically challenging using current methods.We used a phosphoproteomic method termed SH2 profiling to characterize the global state of phosphotyrosine (pTyr) signaling in human lung cancer cell lines. This method quantifies the phosphorylated binding sites for SH2 domains, which are used by cells to respond to changes in pTyr during signaling. Cells could be grouped based on SH2 binding patterns, with some clusters correlated with EGF receptor (EGFR) or K-RAS mutation status. Binding of specific SH2 domains, most prominently RAS pathway activators Grb2 and ShcA, correlated with EGFR mutation and sensitivity to the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib. SH2 binding patterns also reflected MET activation and could identify cells driven by multiple kinases. The pTyr responses of cells treated with kinase inhibitors provided evidence of distinct mechanisms of inhibition.This study illustrates the potential of modular protein domains and their proteomic binding profiles as powerful molecular diagnostic tools for tumor classification and biomarker identification.
Project description:Signaling of interleukin 23 (IL-23) via the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) and the shared IL-12 receptor ?1 (IL-12R?1) controls innate and adaptive immune responses and is involved in the differentiation and expansion of IL-17-producing CD4(+) T helper (TH17) cells. Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) appears to be the major signaling pathway of IL-23, and STAT binding sites were predicted in the IL-23R but not in the IL-12R?1 chain. Using site-directed mutagenesis and deletion variants of the murine and human IL-23R, we showed that the predicted STAT binding sites (pYXXQ; including Tyr-504 and Tyr-626 in murine IL-23R and Tyr-484 and Tyr-611 in human IL-23R) mediated STAT3 activation. Furthermore, we identified two uncommon STAT3 binding/activation sites within the murine IL-23R. First, the murine IL-23R carried the Y(542)PNFQ sequence, which acts as an unusual Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-binding protein activation site of STAT3. Second, we identified a non-canonical, phosphotyrosine-independent STAT3 activation motif within the IL-23R. A third predicted site, Tyr-416 in murine and Tyr-397 in human IL-23R, is involved in the activation of PI3K/Akt and the MAPK pathway leading to STAT3-independent proliferation of Ba/F3 cells upon stimulation with IL-23. In contrast to IL-6-induced short term STAT3 phosphorylation, cellular activation by IL-23 resulted in a slower but long term STAT3 phosphorylation, indicating that the IL-23R might not be a major target of negative feedback inhibition by suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins. In summary, we characterized IL-23-dependent signal transduction with a focus on STAT3 phosphorylation and identified canonical tyrosine-dependent and non-canonical tyrosine-independent STAT3 activation sites in the IL-23R.
Project description:Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a key regulator of cell survival and proliferation involved in the pathogenesis and progression of different types of cancer. The EGF receptor (EGFR) is activated by binding of the specific ligand but also by transactivation triggered by different growth factors including GH. Chronically, elevated GH levels have been associated with the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. Considering EGF and GH involvement in cell proliferation and their signaling crosstalk, the objective of the present study was to analyze GH modulatory effects on EGF signaling in liver. For this purpose, GH receptor-knockout (GHR-KO) and GH-overexpressing transgenic mice were used. EGFR content was significantly decreased in GHR-KO mice. Consequently, EGF-induced phosphorylation of EGFR, AKT, ERK1/2, STAT3, and STAT5 was significantly decreased in these mice. In contrast, EGFR content as well as its basal tyrosine phosphorylation was increased in transgenic mice overexpressing GH. However, EGF stimulation caused similar levels of EGFR, AKT, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in normal and transgenic mice, while EGF induction of STAT3 and STAT5 phosphorylation was inhibited in the transgenic mice. Desensitization of the STATs was related to decreased association of these proteins to the EGFR and increased association between STAT5 and the tyrosine phosphatase SH2-containing phosphatase-2. While GHR knockout is associated with diminished expression of the EGFR and a concomitant decrease in EGF signaling, GH overexpression results in EGFR overexpression with different effects depending on the signaling pathway analyzed: AKT and ERK1/2 pathways are induced by EGF, while STAT3 and STAT5 activation is heterologously desensitized.
Project description:The binding of STAT3 and STAT5 to growth factor and cytokine receptors such as EGFR and IL-6 receptor gp130 is critical to their activation and ability to contribute to malignant transformation. Therefore, interfering with these biochemical processes could lead to the discovery of novel anticancer agents.Co-immunoprecipitation, western blotting, microscopy, DNA binding, invasion, and soft agar assays as well as a mouse model were used to investigate the mechanism by which the natural product Withacnistin (Wit) inhibits STAT 3/5 tyrosine phosphoryaltion and activation.Wit blocks EGF- and IL-6-stimulated binding of STAT3 and STAT5 to EGFR and gp130. Wit inhibits EGF-, PDGF-, IL-6-, IFN?-, and GM-CSF-stimulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT5 but not of EGFR or PDGFR. The inhibition of P-STAT3 and P-STAT5 occurred rapidly, within minutes of Wit treatment and growth factor stimulation. Wit also inhibits STAT3 nuclear translocation, DNA binding, promoter transcriptional activation, and it suppresses the expression levels of STAT3 target genes such as Bcl-xL and Mcl-1. Finally, Wit induces apoptosis, inhibits anchorage-dependent and -independent growth and invasion, and causes breast tumour regression in an ErbB2-driven transgenic mouse model.These data warrant further development of Wit as a novel anticancer drug for targeting tumours that harbour hyperactivated STAT3 and STAT5.
Project description:Phosphotyrosine (pTyr)-dependent signaling is critical for many cellular processes. It is highly dynamic, as signal output depends not only on phosphorylation and dephosphorylation rates but also on the rates of binding and dissociation of effectors containing phosphotyrosine-dependent binding modules such as Src homology 2 (SH2) and phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domains. Previous in vitro studies suggested that binding of SH2 and PTB domains can enhance protein phosphorylation by protecting the sites bound by these domains from phosphatase-mediated dephosphorylation. To test whether this occurs in vivo, we used the binding of growth factor receptor bound 2 (GRB2) to phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as a model system. We analyzed the effects of SH2 domain overexpression on protein tyrosine phosphorylation by quantitative Western and far-Western blotting, mass spectrometry, and computational modeling. We found that SH2 overexpression results in a significant, dose-dependent increase in EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, particularly of sites corresponding to the binding specificity of the overexpressed SH2 domain. Computational models using experimentally determined EGFR phosphorylation and dephosphorylation rates, and pTyr-EGFR and GRB2 concentrations, recapitulated the experimental findings. Surprisingly, both modeling and biochemical analyses suggested that SH2 domain overexpression does not result in a major decrease in the number of unbound phosphorylated SH2 domain-binding sites. Our results suggest that signaling via SH2 domain binding is buffered over a relatively wide range of effector concentrations and that SH2 domain proteins with overlapping binding specificities are unlikely to compete with one another for phosphosites in vivo.