Functional characterization of alpha-glucan,water dikinase, the starch phosphorylating enzyme.
ABSTRACT: GWD (alpha-glucan,water dikinase) is the enzyme that catalyses the phosphorylation of starch by a dikinase-type reaction in which the beta-phosphate of ATP is transferred to either the C-6 or the C-3 position of the glycosyl residue of amylopectin. GWD shows similarity in both sequence and reaction mechanism to bacterial PPS (pyruvate,water dikinase) and PPDK (pyruvate,phosphate dikinase). Amino acid sequence alignments identified a conserved histidine residue located in the putative phosphohistidine domain of potato GWD. Site-directed mutagenesis of this histidine residue resulted in an inactive enzyme and loss of autophosphorylation. Native GWD is a homodimer and shows a strict requirement for the presence of alpha-1,6 branch points in its polyglucan substrate, and exhibits a sharp 20-fold increase in activity when the degree of polymerization is increased from 27.8 to 29.5. In spite of the high variability in the degree of starch phosphorylation, GWD proteins are ubiquitous in plants. The overall reaction mechanism of GWD is similar to that of PPS and PPDK, but the GWD family appears to have arisen after divergence of the plant kingdom. The nucleotide-binding domain of GWD exhibits a closer phylogenetic relationship to prokaryotic PPSs than to PPDKs.
Project description:The potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum) GWD (alpha-glucan, water dikinase) catalyses the phosphorylation of starch by a dikinase-type reaction mechanism in which the beta-phosphate of ATP is transferred to the glucosyl residue of amylopectin. GWD shows sequence similarity to bacterial pyruvate, water dikinase and PPDK (pyruvate, phosphate dikinase). In the present study, we examine the structure-function relationship of GWD. Analysis of proteolytic fragments of GWD, in conjunction with peptide microsequencing and the generation of deletion mutants, indicates that GWD is comprised of five discrete domains of 37, 24, 21, 36 and 38 kDa. The catalytic histidine, which mediates the phosphoryl group transfer from ATP to starch, is located on the 36 kDa fragment, whereas the 38 kDa C-terminal fragment contains the ATP-binding site. Binding of the glucan molecule appears to be confined to regions containing the three N-terminal domains. Deletion mutants were generated to investigate the functional interdependency of the putative ATP- and glucan-binding domains. A truncated form of GWD expressing the 36 and 38 kDa C-terminal domains was found to catalyse the E+ATP-->E-P+AMP+P(i) (where P(i) stands for orthophosphate) partial reaction, but not the E-P+glucan-->E+glucan-P partial reaction. CD experiments provided evidence for large structural changes on autophosphorylation of GWD, indicating that GWD employs a swivelling-domain mechanism for enzymic phosphotransfer similar to that seen for PPDK.
Project description:Trypanosomatids are parasitic protists that have an ATP-dependent glycolysis with no indication of PPi-dependent metabolism. Most of the glycolysis takes place in peroxisome-like organelles, the glycosomes. We characterized in Trypanosoma brucei a single-copy gene encoding a PPi-dependent enzyme, pyruvate, phosphate dikinase (PPDK), which was expressed functionally in Escherichia coli. Specific antibodies detected a 100-kDa protein in procyclic forms but not in mammalian forms of T. brucei, indicating a differential expression. Glycosomal localization of PPDK was determined by immunofluorescence analysis and was confirmed by Western blot analysis on glycosomal fractions by using anti-PPDK antibodies. Expression and localization of recombinant PPDKs in procyclic forms of T. brucei showed that the AKL motif at the C-terminal extremity of PPDK is necessary for glycosomal targeting. PPDK was detected in every trypanosomatid tested-Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma cruzi, Phytomonas, Crithidia and Leishmania-with a good correlation between amount of protein and enzymatic activity. The precise role of PPDK in trypanosomatid carbohydrate metabolism remains to be clarified.
Project description:The recently discovered potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum) alpha-glucan, water dikinase (GWD) (formerly known as R1) catalyzes the phosphorylation of starch by a dikinase-type reaction mechanism in which the beta-phosphate of ATP is transferred to either the C-6 or the C-3 position of the glucosyl residue of starch. In the present study, we found that the GWD enzyme is inactive in the oxidized form, which is accompanied by the formation of a specific intramolecular disulfide bond as determined by disulfide-linked peptide mapping. The regulatory properties of this disulfide linkage were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis studies. Both reduced thioredoxin (Trx) f and Trx m from spinach leaves reduced and activated oxidized GWD at very low concentrations, with Trx f being the more efficient, yielding an S0.5 value of 0.4 microM. Interestingly, GWD displays a reversible and selective binding to starch granules depending on the illumination state of the plant. Here we show that starch granule-bound GWD isolated from dark-adapted plants exists in the inactive, oxidized form, which is capable of reactivation upon treatment with reduced Trx. Furthermore, the soluble form of GWD was found in its fully reduced state, providing evidence of a Trx-controlled regulation mechanism linking enzymatic activity and specific binding affinities of a protein to an intracellular surface. The regulatory site sequence, CFATC, of potato GWD is conserved in chloroplast-targeted GWDs from other species, suggesting an overall redox regulation of the GWD enzyme.
Project description:Pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) is a vital enzyme in cellular energy metabolism catalyzing the ATP- and Pi-dependent formation of phosphoenolpyruvate from pyruvate in C4 -plants, but the reverse reaction forming ATP in bacteria and protozoa. The multi-domain enzyme is considered an efficient molecular machine that performs one of the largest single domain movements in proteins. However, a comprehensive understanding of the proposed swiveling domain motion has been limited by not knowing structural intermediates or molecular dynamics of the catalytic process. Here, we present crystal structures of PPDKs from Flaveria, a model genus for studying the evolution of C4 -enzymes from phylogenetic ancestors. These structures resolve yet unknown conformational intermediates and provide the first detailed view on the large conformational transitions of the protein in the catalytic cycle. Independently performed unrestrained MD simulations and configurational free energy calculations also identified these intermediates. In all, our experimental and computational data reveal strict coupling of the CD swiveling motion to the conformational state of the NBD. Moreover, structural asymmetries and nucleotide binding states in the PPDK dimer support an alternate binding change mechanism for this intriguing bioenergetic enzyme.
Project description:Starch, as a main energy storage substance, plays an important role in plant growth and human life. Despite the fact that several enzymes and regulators involved in starch biosynthesis have been identified, the regulating mechanism of starch synthesis is still unclear. In this study, we isolated a rice floury endosperm mutant M14 from a mutant pool induced by 60Co. Both total starch content and amylose content in M14 seeds significantly decreased, and starch thermal and pasting properties changed. Compound starch granules were defected in the floury endosperm of M14 seeds. Map-based cloning and a complementation test showed that the floury endosperm phenotype was determined by a gene of OsPPDKB, which encodes pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK, EC 188.8.131.52). Subcellular localization analysis demonstrated that PPDK was localized in chloroplast and cytoplasm, the chOsPPDKB highly expressed in leaf and leaf sheath, and the cyOsPPDKB constitutively expressed with a high expression in developing endosperm. Moreover, the expression of starch synthesis-related genes was also obviously altered in M14 developing endosperm. The above results indicated that PPDK played an important role in starch metabolism and structure in rice endosperm.
Project description:Maize opaque2 (o2) mutations are beneficial for endosperm nutritional quality but cause negative pleiotropic effects for reasons that are not fully understood. Direct targets of the bZIP transcriptional regulator encoded by o2 include pdk1 and pdk2 that specify pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK). This enzyme reversibly converts AMP, pyrophosphate, and phosphoenolpyruvate to ATP, orthophosphate, and pyruvate and provides diverse functions in plants. This study addressed PPDK function in maize starchy endosperm where it is highly abundant during grain fill. pdk1 and pdk2 were inactivated individually by transposon insertions, and both genes were simultaneously targeted by endosperm-specific RNAi. pdk2 accounts for the large majority of endosperm PPDK, whereas pdk1 specifies the abundant mesophyll form. The pdk1- mutation is seedling-lethal, indicating that C4 photosynthesis is essential in maize. RNAi expression in transgenic endosperm eliminated detectable PPDK protein and enzyme activity. Transgenic kernels weighed the same on average as nontransgenic siblings, with normal endosperm starch and total N contents, indicating that PPDK is not required for net storage compound synthesis. An opaque phenotype resulted from complete PPDK knockout, including loss of vitreous endosperm character similar to the phenotype conditioned by o2-. Concentrations of multiple glycolytic intermediates were elevated in transgenic endosperm, energy charge was altered, and starch granules were more numerous but smaller on average than normal. The data indicate that PPDK modulates endosperm metabolism, potentially through reversible adjustments to energy charge, and reveal that o2- mutations can affect the opaque phenotype through regulation of PPDK in addition to their previously demonstrated effects on storage protein gene expression.
Project description:The alpha-glucan water dikinase (GWD) enzyme catalyzes starch phosphorylation, an integral step in transitory starch degradation. The high phosphate content in stored starch has great industrial value, due to its physio-chemical properties making it more versatile, although the phosphate content of stored starch varies depending on the botanical source. In this study, we used various computational approaches to gain insights into the evolution of the GWD protein in 48 plant species with possible roles in enzyme function and alteration of phosphate content in their stored starch. Our analyses identified deleterious mutations, particularly in the highly conserved 5 aromatic amino acid residues in the dual tandem carbohydrate binding modules (CBM-45) of GWD protein in C. zofingiensis, G. hirsutum, A. protothecoides, P. miliaceum, and C. reinhardtii. These findings will inform experimental designs for simultaneous repression of genes coding for GWD and the predicted interacting proteins to elucidate the role this enzyme plays in starch degradation. Our results reveal significant diversity in the evolution of GWD enzyme across plant species, which may be evolutionarily advantageous according to the varying needs for phosphorylated stored starch between plants and environments.
Project description:A total of 2,245 extracts, derived from 449 marine fungi cultivated in five types of media, were screened against the C(4) plant enzyme pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK), a potential herbicide target. Extracts from several fungal isolates selectively inhibited PPDK. Bioassay-guided fractionation of one isolate led to the isolation of the known compound unguinol, which inhibited PPDK with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 42.3 +/- 0.8 muM. Further kinetic analysis revealed that unguinol was a mixed noncompetitive inhibitor of PPDK with respect to the substrates pyruvate and ATP and an uncompetitive inhibitor of PPDK with respect to phosphate. Unguinol had deleterious effects on a model C(4) plant but no effect on a model C(3) plant. These results indicate that unguinol inhibits PPDK via a novel mechanism of action which also translates to an herbicidal effect on whole plants.
Project description:Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum is an anaerobic thermophile that can ferment hemicellulose to produce biofuels, such as ethanol. It has been engineered to produce ethanol at high yield and titer. T. saccharolyticum uses the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway for glycolysis. However, the genes and enzymes used in each step of the EMP pathway in T. saccharolyticum are not completely known. In T. saccharolyticum, both pyruvate kinase (PYK) and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) are highly expressed based on transcriptomic and proteomic data. Both enzymes catalyze the formation of pyruvate from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). PYK is typically the last step of EMP glycolysis pathway while PPDK is reversible and is found mostly in C4 plants and some microorganisms. It is not clear what role PYK and PPDK play in T. saccharolyticum metabolism and fermentation pathways and whether both are necessary. In this study we deleted the ppdk gene in wild type and homoethanologen strains of T. saccharolyticum and showed that it is not essential for growth or ethanol production.
Project description:Gluconeogenesis is a fundamental metabolic process that allows organisms to make sugars from non-carbohydrate stores such as lipids and protein. In eukaryotes only one gluconeogenic route has been described from organic acid intermediates and this relies on the enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK). Here we show that two routes exist in Arabidopsis, and that the second uses pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK). Gluconeogenesis is critical to fuel the transition from seed to seedling. Arabidopsis pck1 and ppdk mutants are compromised in seed-storage reserve mobilization and seedling establishment. Radiolabelling studies show that PCK predominantly allows sugars to be made from dicarboxylic acids, which are products of lipid breakdown. However, PPDK also allows sugars to be made from pyruvate, which is a major product of protein breakdown. We propose that both routes have been evolutionarily conserved in plants because, while PCK expends less energy, PPDK is twice as efficient at recovering carbon from pyruvate.